!!Frodo and Sam: ho or no?

The [[HoYay somewhat ambiguous nature]] of Sam and Frodo's relationship has long been a topic of discussion among scholars and fans alike. Most people agree that the bond between them is very close, whether they consider it platonic or not; the two spend most of the story in each other's company, share many thoughtful conversations, trust each other with their lives, and end up living together even after Sam's marriage. Sam also sleeps with Frodo's head in his lap several times during their journey, kisses his hand or cheek on numerous occasions, and feels torn between his master and his wife.

Interestingly enough, Sam is the only one of the five prominently featured hobbits to show any attraction towards a female during the course of the novel. Frodo and Bilbo are never in any openly romantic relationships whatsoever; Merry and Pippin get hitched later in life to two hobbits we know nothing about. Sam's love for Rosie, rather than being subtext, is plainly obvious to himself and to everyone around him, to the point where even Rosie's father has caught on. He thinks about Rosie wistfully as his strength wanes on the slopes of Mount Doom, and later blushes mightily when Frodo talks about how brave and famous he is in front of her. Eventually she bears him a grand total of thirteen children, and only after her death does he leave Middle-earth to see Frodo.

Nevertheless, many have commented that the term "friendship" isn't quite strong enough to describe Sam and Frodo's bond. Some have called it brotherly; others speculate that Sam is a [[UsefulNotes/ForTheLoveOfMany polyamorous]] [[{{UsefulNotes/Bisexual}} bisexual]], or believe that Frodo is [[SingleTargetSexuality Sam-sexual]], or ship [[{{OT3}} Sam/Frodo/Rosie]]. An example of a purely platonic relationship is that of Frodo and Merry or Pippin, who are described as Frodo's "closest friends" in FOTR, ch. 2. Note that this quote is from before the Quest kicks off. Frodo has undoubtedly been fond of Sam for some time, as shown at the end of this chapter, but at this point Sam is still his slightly dim-witted gardener. Later, as the journey grows more arduous and the two of them are forced to go on alone, the already unusual master-servant relationship (Frodo is never shown giving Sam orders, and calls him a friend, which implies equal status) will shift into something more, well, [[AmbiguouslyGay ambiguous]] as the two of them become more dependent on each other alone.

Although any HoYay was certainly unintentional on Tolkien's part - being a devout Catholic writing in the 40s and 50s, he would most likely have disapproved of queer relationships - there are two relevant quotes from the books that liken their relationship both to a marriage and to an animal partnership. One appears in ''The Two Towers'', during the passage where Sam battles [[EldritchAbomination Shelob]] to save Frodo. There Sam is described as "''a small creature [...] that stands above its fallen mate.''"

The second is written in the epilogue ([[AllThereInTheManual published posthumously]]), where Sam tells his daughter that Celeborn and his wife, Galadriel, were separated when she sailed west. Elanor responds by likening Sam and Frodo's relationship to theirs, noting that Frodo also left Sam behind when he departed for Valinor. She tells Sam, "''He knew that [...] Galadriel would leave him. I think it was very sad for him. And for you, dear Sam-dad.''" Sam does not correct her comments as a childish misunderstanding. Neither does he explain to Elanor that he is in fact married to Rose Cotton, or that the two relationships are of a different nature; instead he says that his sadness has lessened and confides that he hopes to see Frodo again, thereby implicitly validating his daughter's insights.

Finally, it must be mentioned that neither Rose nor any of her family appear in ''Fellowship'' at all, which renders Sam's first thoughts of her and her brothers in the middle of R.o.t.K.[[note]]Early in Book VI, when he resigns himself to [[SuicideMission practically certain death at Mount Doom]][[/note]] as a RememberTheNewGuy moment. It is likely that Tolkien was aware of the [[RelationshipWritingFumble fumble]] he had committed at the end of ''The Two Towers'' (the first quote above) and created Rosie [[HaveIMentionedIAmHeterosexualToday to counteract it]]. It should also be noted that Tolkien is considered to have fumbled with Eowyn in regards to Aragorn, but [[PairTheSpares the remedy for that case]] involved a character first mentioned in ''Fellowship'' and having a significant role in [[SimultaneousArcs Frodo & Sam's half of]] ''Towers''. The movies, to their credit, [[EarlyBirdCameo set up Rose]] by including a moment between her and Sam at Bilbo's party.[[note]]Which was required for the [[WeddingDay Wedding Scene]] due to the PostClimaxConfrontation, which had the first actual appearance of the Cottons, being AdaptedOut.[[/note]]


[[WordofGod The Lord of the Rings is no allegory of any kind]], but rather fanfiction of a sort inspired by Nordic mythology, as well as various other sources. There are too many references to ignore: The One Ring is from Literature/{{Nibelungenlied}} and Plato's Ring of Gyges; Gandalf is Myth/{{Merlin}} ''and'' Odin who were powerful sorcerers and made sacrifices to be reborn; when the elves travel across the ocean they go to Tir Na Nog, which lies to the west and to which you can only go with the elves.

!!The nature of evil in Middle-earth

Ownership is the root of evil in Middle-Earth. Melkor's fall was not based on his desire to create life, but his desire to control the life he created. Compare his experience with that of Aule, who also sought to create life, but since he did it without selfish intent, he was forgiven and his creations, the Dwarves, were give true life of their own. Evil intent is defined by the attempt to bend life to your own individual will.

Note that both Sauron and Saruman were originally servants of Aule before they turned to evil. They were both craftsmen, skilled at making things. The temptation to enslave others, to take a creature with a will of its own and bend it into a mere ''thing'' to be controlled, is particularly strong in those who are builders. Aule himself is able to resist this temptation, because as a pure Artist he takes joy in the act of creation, and has no desire to impose his will over anything or anyone. It's not evil to create, even to create life. But it is evil to assume that once you create something, it belongs to you forever.

!!Tropes in LOTR

The majority of tropes used in ''The Lord of the Rings'' are well-explained, unlike in the majority of its [[TheThemeParkVersion imitators]]. For instance, Mordor has large fertile areas offstage where food is grown, thus explaining how Sauron's armies survive in the volcanic hellscape around Barad-dr. The [[ArtifactOfDoom Ring]] is also more than just a convenient MacGuffin -- its effects matter too much for that. This is largely due to the immensely elaborated BackStory and Tolkien's life-defining experiences in [[http://www.greatwar.nl/frames/default-tolkiene.html The Great War.]]

There were, though, some tropes Creator/JRRTolkien couldn't justify to his satisfaction, not helped by the fact that he updated his mythos constantly over a period of decades, creating a minor ContinuitySnarl at times but never quite reaching the ShrugOfGod. He spent years trying to decide how orcs could be AlwaysChaoticEvil without being born evil or soulless -- since Eru would not give creatures inherently evil souls, on moral grounds, Morgoth was unable to create souls, and Tolkien believed anything without a soul would be a mere animal -- but he never found any answer he liked. It was philosophical niggles like this that stopped him from publishing ''Literature/TheSilmarillion'' in his lifetime. His son Christopher did it posthumously, to the delight of all Tolkien scholars, and most of his readers.