Burning The Ships
A wilful action that makes retreat impossible, to enforce the commitment of the affected.
[A selection of quotes. Only one will become the page quote]
"When he reached the New World, Cortez burned his ships. As a result, his men were well-motivated."
—Captain Marko Ramius, The Hunt for Red October
"What I have left behind I count now no loss; needless baggage on the road it has proved. Let those that cursed my name, curse me still, and whine their way back to the cages of the Valar! Let the ships burn!""Burning your ships/your boats" means doing something that makes it impossible for yourself to turn back, especially if it is done wilfully and without necessity. The idiom derives from legends about conquerors who supposedly, upon landing their army in enemy country, ordered the invasion fleet to be burnt. Most people today have heard this tale about Hernán Cortés, but it is in fact centuries older than Cortez. The assumed benefit of such an act is that everyone on the team-whether it be an actual army intent on conquest, or any party pursuing a risky undertaking–will show maximum commitment if they know that retreat is impossible. There isn't any use in holding back or playing it safe when there is no exit option to fall back on. Desertion or mutiny is futile if there is no hope of escape. Dissenters are silenced when there are no choices left to argue over, and everyone's best hope of survival lies in cooperating for the common success. Once the Ships are Burnt, it's do or die for everyone-succeed, or face death or captivity. Or that is the theory. While tales of this type are a favorite of motivational trainers, who always focus on how "cutting off your retreat" will set free unknown potentials, there are only few historical examples of things like this actually happening, and then usually not for the exact same reasons. Also contrary to what motivational trainers like to suggest, it is not actually a guarantee of success. Depending on the situation and the kind of enterprise at hand, there are many ways of Burning the Ships:
—Feanor, The Silmarillion
- Throwing away vital supplies, like food or fuel.
- Destroying irreplacable equipment needed for the return journey.
- Intentionally leading your troops into a tight spot from which there is no way of escape without fighting.
- Giving your position or your plans away to the enemy, so they will block your exits.
- A group of people that intends to commit treason of some sort may send a message confessing their defection to the betrayed faction, making it impossible for anyone who gets cold feet to turn back to their old master and evade punishment.
Examples:Anime and Manga
- Fist of the North Star: While in the process of mourning the fallen Hyui, Shuren, one of the Five Chariot Stars, incinerates his army's fortress as a memorial to his fallen comrade and as a means to force his men to attack the killer, Raoh. Shame that it did very little to help him survive his fight with Raoh.
- Berserk: In the Battle of Doldrey, Griffith positions himself and the portion of his army that he expects to face the largest part of the enemy force with their backs to a river and no way to retreat. He does this not only to motivate his own men, but also as part of a Batman Gambit: Cornered and outnumbered, his force presents a tempting target that succeeds in drawing the enemy forces out of their castle, which is promptly captured in a sneak attack by a small flanking force.
- At the end of The Bounty Fletcher Christian has the Bounty burned, to make sure that everyone understands the mutineers are committed to living on Pitcairn Island and to prevent anyone from trying to get back to Tahiti or England. (Real Life demonstrated how this tactic can backfire. When an American whaling ship stumbled on the island 19 years later and solved the mystery of the lost HMS Bounty, only one mutineer was left alive, along with several women and children. The other mutineers and the Tahitian men that went with them had all killed each other off.)
- In the first Jaws, Quint destroys the radio when Brodie tries to call for help, and later appears to deliberately burn out his engine so they can't escape their final confrontation with the shark.
- In the film of The Hunt for Red October, Marko Ramius, captain of a submarine carrying nuclear missiles, sends a letter to the CO of the Soviet Navy stating that he and his command staff are defecting. When his staff officers ask him why he did it, he cites the example of Cortes' destruction of his ships.
- Invoked in Gattaca: The movie features two brothers, Anton (born with genetic enhancements) and Vincent (without). Vincent has had a crappy life but secretly trains to become an astronaut, including swimming across a channel with no visibility. When Anton does so with him, he panics in the middle as he sees no way back. Vincent tells him that's how he got to where he is in life: by never considering a way back.
- In The Shining, Jack Torrance, who is slowly being possessed by the evil spirits in the snowed-in Overlook Hotel, disables the ham radio (the family's only means of calling for help) and disables their snowmobile (their only means for escape).
- The Silmarillion: After the Noldorin Elves led by Fëanor have crossed over from Aman to Middle-earth on the ships they stole from the Telerin Elves, Fëanor orders them to burn all the ships. He does this to prevent any of his followers from saying Screw This, I'm Outta Here!, and especially to make sure they can't help rest of the Noldor get to Middle-earth.
- In Cursor's Fury book three of the Codex Alera, Sarl, the Canim commander, burns the Canim fleet to order to prevent the warriors under his command who are there under duress from fleeing back home. Invasion was commanded by priests, and two castes disliked each other passionately
- In Belgarath the Sorceror, Riva orders the ships that carried the settlers to the Isle of the Winds burned. He knows it will take a lot of hard work to build the fortress-city, and he doesn't want anyone deciding it's too much work and leaving.
- The Hunt for Red October: Marko Ramius, captain of a submarine carrying nuclear missiles, sends a letter to the CO of the Soviet Navy stating that he and his command staff are defecting. When his staff officers ask him why he did it, he cites this trope.
- In Honor Harrington, the original colonists to Grayson wrecked their starship's cryonics equipment, ensuring that it would be impossible to return to the "sinful" Earth. They didn't wreck the whole thing, though, which is fortunate because it turned out that the planet was basically one huge Superfund site and there's no way they would have survived without the ship's resources.
- In Redwall, when Cluny the Scourge arrives in Mossflower, he press gangs all of the local vermin into his cause. He orders his rats to smash the new conscript's houses, so that they'll have nothing to return to if they desert him.
- This is a Discussed Trope in the last season of The Office (US). Andy Bernard talks about the legend of Cortes sinking all his ships to destroy the means of retreat. He then insults David Wallace and defecates on his car so that he won't have the option of returning to Dunder-Mifflin if his show business hopes don't work out.
- In an episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Sisko and Bashir come across a group of space Luddites who crash-landed on a planet ten years ago, which destroyed their only means of escape, and have forsaken all modern technology. It turns out the leader of the group and her son had secretly sabotaged the ship so it would crash and are keeping a technology-blocking device going so that nobody on the planet can use any technology.
- In The Twilight Zone episode "On Thursday We Leave For Home", Captain Benteen tries in vain to destroy the rescue ships from Earth because he wants to remain in control of the people on the asteroid.
- In Halt and Catch Fire Joe deliberately informs IBM that Joe and Gordon, as Cardiff Electric employees, have reverse engineered the IBM PC BIOS code. IBM sends in an army of lawyers and Nathan Cardiff is left with two choices: fully commit his company to the PC clone project Joe is advocating or get sued into bankruptcy by IBM. Everyone is furious at Joe but in the end he gets his way. This is then subverted when we realize that the project's failure will ruin everyone except Joe. He committed everyone else to the project but due to his father's connections he can walk away at any time and resume his old life.
- Manowar's "Heart of Steel" features a few lines about just this trope.
Burn the bridge behind you
Leave no retreat
There's only one way home
Those who laugh and crowd the path
And cut each other's throats
Will fall like melting snow
- Christian music artist Stephen Curtis Chapman has a song titled "Burn the Ships", which references the Cortez tale. It's a metaphor for not going back to your old life once you've made a change.
- After crossing the Huang He into hostile Quin territory in 208 BC, Xiang Yu of Chu supposedly ordered his army to sink the boats, as well as to pack only supplies for three days and to destroy the rest, along with the cooking utensils. This meant that they could neither go back, nor avoid starvation except by conquering the supplies of the enemy. The traditional wording of the order, "Break the kettles and sink the boats!" (破釜沉舟), are a Chinese idiom.
- A legend about Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Berber general who conquered the Visigothic kingdom of Spain, says that he had his fleet burned after landing his army at Gibraltar in 711. This version is first mentioned only in the 12th century by the geographer al-Idrisi.
- In Nibelungenlied (adventure 25) Hagen ferries the entire Burgundian army across the Danube into the realm of the Huns, then hacks the boat to pieces and cast it into the river. Asked why he did that, he replies he wishes that any deserters who might turn back should drown in the river. A little later he reveals that three river-women have already predicted that they will all die in Hunland.
- In the "Greenlandic Lay of Atli" of the Poetic Edda, the Niflungs do not fasten the boat in which they have rowed to Hunland, a hint that they already know that they will not return.
- According to The Battle of Magh Tuireadh, the Tuatha Dé Danann burnt their ships upon landing in Ireland to challenge the Fir Bolg for one half of the island.
- Styrbjorn in "The Tale of Styrbjörn" has his fleet burnt after sailing up the Fyris River to Uppsala to challenge his uncle Erik for the kingship.
- In the history of the Tuala Morn setting of Fantasy Hero, the ancestors of the Tualans were refugees hunting for a new homeland. Once they decided to settle in Tuala Morn, their leader scuttled their ships as a sacrifice to the sea gods, thanking them for their aid.
- In Warcraft III Arthas Menethil led his troops to Northrend to capture Mal'Ganis. While Arthas was out of the basecamp, a messenger from Arthas' father King Terenas arrived with orders for the men to retreat. When Arthas returned to find his men preparing to leave, he had their boats burnt to force them to go on, then blamed it on the mercenaries he hired for the job.
- In one episode of Spongebob Squarepants, Mr. Krabs throws away the entire fridge on the boat he, Spongebob and Squidward are on trying to get Mr. Krabs' millionth dollar back from the clam that ate it, with the words: "Now understand each other. Nobody eats until we get my millionth dollar back."
- After sailing from Cuba to Mexico in 1519, Hernán Cortés had eight of his eleven ships beached and disassembled. Cortés, who acted in defiance of the orders of his superior, governor Diego Velázquez of Cuba, had just before put down a mutiny of soldiers loyal to Velázquez and feared that the same might happen again as long as the ships allowed a fast return to Cuba; furthermore he could reinforce his march inland with the crew and the equipment of the dismantled ships. The details of the decision process are murky: While Cortés himself wrote to Emperor Charles V that he alone gave the orders under the pretense that the ships were no longer seaworthy, sparing only the ships the crews of which he considered reliable, the eyewitnesses Bernal Díaz and Andres de Tapia later claimed that the destruction of the ships was decided after a general discussion. Francisco de Montejo and Alonso Portocarrero, messengers of Cortés that were sent to Spain immediately after the event, claimed that the ships really had been unseaworthy. The misconception that Cortés burned (all of) his ships is old, being first mentioned in 1546.
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