Earth itself becomes the Old Country
, backwards, repressive, ossified in its ways, or simply a place where individualism is cramped by too much crowding. Objects in space (other planets, moons, asteroids, or artificial space habitats) become the refuge for misfits, "rugged individualists", visionary entrepreneurs, transhumanists, etc. Often results in The War Of Earthly Aggression
and her military forces (and/or corrupt multinational corporations) become a threat to these new islands of freedom in some way, and our heroes must overcome great odds in defending their newfound freeholds.
This trope can cover capital-L Libertarianism (personal and civil liberties plus laissez-faire capitalism), as Heinlein's works often did, but the general idea is more lower-case-l libertarianism, open to broader conceptions of liberty that needn't be (and indeed may challenge) the hyper-capitalist variety. The off-Earth colonies can be places where an individual is less restricted by either government or powerful private interests (or both) which hamper the individual on Earth.
Can be related to Privately Owned Society
if we're talking the big-L type of Libertarianism (and this society is presented as an ideal, rather than a form of dystopia as it perhaps just as often is).
Anime and Manga
- a recurring theme on the Gundam Franchise, with (usually) the Earth or one of the most powerful colonies around wanting absolute control and the rest of the colonies wanting independence.
Live Action TV
- Paul Mc Auley's novels The Quiet War and Gardens of the Sun pit an eclectic variety of small colonies in the Solar System against the growing aggressions of reactionary and "Gaian", ecologically templaresque Earth superstates Greater Brazil and the European Union--whose main objections are to the wild transhumanist genetic engineering freely allowed in the colonies.
- Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars Trilogy sees Earth multinational corporations trying to muscle in on the emerging Martian society, whose people want to be left alone to build their new world their own way.
- Robert Heinlein novels that fit this mold
- Red Planet: The Earth-controlled Mars Company administration vs. the Mars colonists
- Between Planets: The Federation (all Earth governments) vs. Venus colonists
- The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress: The Earth-controlled Lunar Authority vs. the lunar colonists
- The future history arc of novels involving Lazarus Long, beginning with Methuselah's Children, depict an Earth that persecutes certain families for their hereditary longevity. These families end up fleeing the planet and setting up the free-love Libertarian utopias that would become a Heinlein trademark.
- Time Enough For Love presented Lazarus Long's opinion that a planet became "too crowded" when they started using ID cards, and the Chairman of Secundus somewhat agreed with him.
- In CJ Cherryh's Alliance Union series features the loosely tied Alliance of independent merchants and traders which split off from the technocratic Union that declared independence from Earth.
- John Varley's Steel Beach features a Heinlein-inspired Libertarian group trying to build a Generation Ship. The ship is even named The Robert A Heinlein.
- Eric Frank Russell's The Great Explosion features two unusual versions. The first, a former Penal Colony, has developed a ruthless, dog-eat-dog society based on a mixture of laissez faire and might-makes right. The second is a quasi-socialist libertarian utopia based on passive resistance, civil disobedience and the teachings of Ghandi. Their motto is "Freedom--I Won't!"
- David Weber has used this as backstory a couple of times, especially in the Honor Harrington universe, where whole planets have been settled by, respectively, artists, American ranchers, gangsters, genetically engineered humans, and a group who believed technology was Evil. The Solarian League is the giant, sprawling nation who looks down on other star nations, OFS is the grasping military arm of the League, and there's a lot of corrupt planetary corporations doing things behind the scenes.
- Michael Z. Williamson's Freehold duology is about the Freehold of Grainne, a libertarian's paradise in comparison to the corrupt and dying United Nations-controlled Earth.
- The Dorsai of the Childe Cycle, a planet with the greatest mercenaries among the Fourteen Worlds. It's people are fiercely independent, free as long they do nothing to harm and respect their freedoms. Interestingly, the Dorsai has problems from this - their government have almost little power compared to the other Worlds.
- In Gradisil, many of Earth's rich have migrated to space habitats, collectively known as "Upland".
- Babylon 5 touches on this idea somewhat, in that Earth slowly (and then more quickly) becomes an oppressive place, and also more heavy-handed toward its offworld colonies. Mars probably takes the brunt of this, but it is implied that even pre-coup, most colonies are at least taxed very heavily by Earth, and labor strikes are banned. Earth Gov's intrusions affected the Babylon 5 station adversely as well--until Sheridan decisively declares the station's independence.
- Firefly and Serenity give us Browncoats. Earth is not present anymore in this Verse, so the Core Worlds fill the repressive role, and the Browncoats are heroic separatists who want to preserve their freedom.
- GURPS: Transhuman Space: the Duncanites, derived from the Ares Conspiracy that initiated the terraforming of Mars and were chased off by the colonizing powers for eco-terrorism, which turned them off the idea of "statism". Divided into the "Green Duncanites" who are attempting the same thing on Europa, and the "Red Duncanites" also known as the "Trojan Mafia".
- Eclipse Phase has the Autonomist Alliance throughout the Belt and Outer System (except Jupiter). The Extropians are anarcho-capitalists, the Anarchists are anarcho-collectivists, the Scum are space gypsies, and the Titanian Commonwealth is a state with a gift economy similar to the Anarchists'. While the different sub-factions disagree on many things they formed The Alliance to fight off the Jovian Junta and Planetary Consortium.