Prior to the development of ironclads, ships were extremely flammable. However, since they also had ready access to water, exploiting this required something special. Enter the Byzantine Empire, who developed the Trope Namer
. Ever since, many works involving pre-gunpowder navies involve some form of it.
Numerous naval incendiaries exist, but to properly qualify as Greek Fire they must possess certain characteristics.
- It must manifest as a burning liquid or putty
- It must be sticky, so it cannot be scraped off skin.
- It frequently burns sickly green or another nonstandard color
- Optionally, the method of manufacture may be a closely guarded secret.
- Most critically, it must be impossible to extinguish with water. Smothering it with sand or similar may or may not work.
Greek Fire is usually also universally feared for obvious reasons.
Note that it is not exclusively used at sea, but a combination of relative ease of employment due to era boarding tactics and the ability to destroy ships entirely through secondary wood fires, leaving nowhere to escape, make it far more effective and terrifying at sea.
- Wildfire from A Song of Ice and Fire was made by Pyromancers, unquenchable by water, lit anything used to smother it on fire, and burned brilliant green. It was used in the battle of the Blackwater and was essentially the only reason Tyrion won.
- Leviathan has Phosphorus rounds, which display all of the characteristics, though they're used against hydrogen filled fliers
- The Recluse saga includes Chaos fire, which is magically generated. It is especially feared because, in addition to the standard characteristics, it can be created inside steam engines and loaded cannons.
- The Council Wars series fills this role with Napalm, although after the first couple uses they get extinguisher foam on all ships, somewhat reducing both effectiveness and the terror factor
- Eldest: green fire is used on an arrow fired at Roran's ship, forcing the crew to hack away ignited portions.
- The honeyfire demonstraited by the Herders in the Obernewtyn Chronicles appears to be this.
- The blazebalm used in the Tortall Universe fits most of the requirements. It is a flamable jelly-like substance that is often used as an explosive weapon; it is particularly useful against spidrens and other immortals.
- Used literally in the "Percy Jackson and the Olympians" series, in which Percy is attacked with Greek Fire in a chariot race.
[[folder: Real Life
- The Byzantine Empire developed the Trope Namer, which proved instrumental in major naval victories, including two seiges of Constantinople.
- White Phosphorus is a modern example, although it is used for smokescreens as well as incindiaries.
[[folder: Tabletop Games
- Fluff occasionally mentions the High Elves of Warhammer having a substance called "Alchemist's Fire" designed for use against other ships (though it can be utilised for other purposes) which burns white and whose recipe is a closely-guarded secret.
[[folder: Video Games
- Age of Empires 1 and 2 had fire-ships that used the historical Greek Fire, projected from hoses. Although short-ranged, they did deal substantial damage to enemy ships
- Assassin's Creed Revelations: Ezio burns down a good part of the Ottoman navy because it was blocking the port.
- Medieval 2 Total War has fire ships for the Byzantine Empire. The Crusades campaign in the expansion also has Greek Firethrower units that use it in handheld flamethrowers.