History UsefulNotes / UNIX

16th Nov '17 3:22:17 PM oknazevad
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As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon using "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system and "Linux" as the name of the kernel.

Hence, while operating systems which incorporate the Linux kernel are typically called "Linux operating systems", GNU partisans maintain that usage to be incorrect for the distros which incorporate GNU. This is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel component of the OS.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into Fedora and the commercial RHEL), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.

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As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit saying it is "due credit" (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) components, comprising more of the actual full system than the Linux kernel) and in as an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon using "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system and "Linux" as the name of the kernel.

Hence, while Despite that, operating systems which incorporate the Linux kernel are continue to be typically called "Linux operating systems", which GNU partisans maintain that usage to be incorrect for the distros which incorporate GNU. object to. This is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel non-kernel component of the OS.OS, and that the GNU position is based more on sour grapes that the project has never delivered a stable, fully usable system, as a UNIX-like system cannot operate without a kernel.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into the free Fedora and the commercial RHEL), Red Hat Enterprise Linux), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.
16th Nov '17 1:50:32 PM oknazevad
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Unlike the licensing of the first two, the GPL prohibits use in proprietary software, as opposed to how BSD does not require derivatives to use the same license (merely requiring preservation of copyright notices and attribution) and [=OpenSolaris=] allows combining with code with another license.[[/labelnote]] and UNIX derivatives can be found on things as small as a smart phone [[note]]the two most major smart phone [=OSes=] -- Apple iOS and Google Android -- are UNIX variants (Android is based on Linux (but not GNU), whereas iOS is based on Apple's Darwin which is based on BSD and on [=NeXT=]'s XNU), and there are oddball phones and tablets that run more-or-less straight Linux[[/note]], or as large as an IBM mainframe. It's also probably the only OS that came into existence specifically because a bored programmer wanted to play a game.

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Unlike the licensing of the first two, the GPL prohibits use in proprietary software, as opposed to how BSD does not require derivatives to use the same license (merely requiring preservation of copyright notices and attribution) and [=OpenSolaris=] allows combining with code with another license.[[/labelnote]] and UNIX derivatives can be found on things as small as a smart phone [[note]]the two most major widely used smart phone [=OSes=] -- Apple iOS and Google Android -- are UNIX variants (Android is based on Linux (but not GNU), whereas iOS is based on Apple's Darwin which is based on BSD and on [=NeXT=]'s XNU), and there are oddball phones and tablets that run more-or-less straight Linux[[/note]], or as large as an IBM mainframe. It's also probably the only OS that came into existence specifically because a bored programmer wanted to play a game.
15th Sep '17 2:33:40 PM nombretomado
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In the meantime, the UsefulNotes/IBMPersonalComputer and its clones were taking the commercial market by storm, and the {{Mac}} was introducing people to a new way of working that many felt no one could touch. UNIX was in a state of disarray; most vendors had proprietary changes to their UNIX builds, none of which were compatible with the others, and porting software was becoming more difficult. This inspired some of the first standards for UNIX, promulgated by the POSIX working groups and by X/Open. Getting everyone to agree would be difficult, but as the PC became more and more powerful and Microsoft began talking about making a version of Windows to compete with UNIX, the impetus to cooperate grew. By the mid-1990s, UNIX International had been disbanded, and OSF stopped development on OSF/1 (leaving DEC to maintain their own branch, renamed "Tru64", for their Alpha machines); OSF merged with X/Open to form the aforementioned Open Group.

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In the meantime, the UsefulNotes/IBMPersonalComputer and its clones were taking the commercial market by storm, and the {{Mac}} UsefulNotes/{{Mac}} was introducing people to a new way of working that many felt no one could touch. UNIX was in a state of disarray; most vendors had proprietary changes to their UNIX builds, none of which were compatible with the others, and porting software was becoming more difficult. This inspired some of the first standards for UNIX, promulgated by the POSIX working groups and by X/Open. Getting everyone to agree would be difficult, but as the PC became more and more powerful and Microsoft began talking about making a version of Windows to compete with UNIX, the impetus to cooperate grew. By the mid-1990s, UNIX International had been disbanded, and OSF stopped development on OSF/1 (leaving DEC to maintain their own branch, renamed "Tru64", for their Alpha machines); OSF merged with X/Open to form the aforementioned Open Group.
11th Sep '17 10:06:47 AM RAMChYLD
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The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced RISC Machine[[note]]formally Acorn RISC Machines, originally developed by a British firm Called Acorn Computers for the Archimedes desktop computer[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.

to:

The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced RISC Machine[[note]]formally Machine[[note]]formerly Acorn RISC Machines, originally developed by a British firm Called Acorn Computers for the Archimedes desktop computer[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.
11th Sep '17 10:06:34 AM RAMChYLD
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The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Acorn RISC Machine[[note]]originally developed by a British firm Called Acorn Computers for the Archimedes desktop computer[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.

to:

The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Acorn (Advanced RISC Machine[[note]]originally Machine[[note]]formally Acorn RISC Machines, originally developed by a British firm Called Acorn Computers for the Archimedes desktop computer[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.
11th Sep '17 10:02:33 AM RAMChYLD
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The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced RISC Machine[[note]]formerly Acorn RISC Machine[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.

to:

The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced (Acorn RISC Machine[[note]]formerly Machine[[note]]originally developed by a British firm Called Acorn RISC Machine[[/note]]) Computers for the Archimedes desktop computer[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.
11th Sep '17 10:00:39 AM RAMChYLD
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The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.

to:

The development of "netbooks"--small, simple, low-cost, low-power laptop computers geared towards Internet functionality at the expense of gaming and multimedia--also worked in UNIX's favor. Many discarded the traditional x86 architecture, due to power consumption and cost concerns, in favor of the ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) Machine[[note]]formerly Acorn RISC Machine[[/note]]) architecture used by the vast majority of embedded devices such as cell phones. The only current version of Microsoft Windows for ARM processors is the largely incompatible "Windows RT" (a modified version of Windows 8), and the vast majority of ARM netbooks run UNIX-style [=OSs=], usually Linux [=OSs=]. For example, Chromebooks run Chrome OS, a specialized Gentoo Linux variant.
11th Sep '17 9:58:58 AM RAMChYLD
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There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{MacOS}} (formerly OS X), which itself contains code forked from [=FreeBSD=] and [=NeXTSTEP=], which the latter itself is based on [=4.3BSD=]. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] while its predecessor, UsefulNotes/PlayStation3, used a customized [=FreeBSD=] kernel alongside various proprietary libraries. Meanwhile Nintendo coily admits that the UsefulNotes/NintendoSwitch's kernel is a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] as well, while it's API consists of a mishmash of proprietary and Android libraries. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/BandaiNamcoEntertainment with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.

to:

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{MacOS}} (formerly OS X), which itself contains code forked from [=FreeBSD=] and [=NeXTSTEP=], which the latter itself is based on [=4.3BSD=]. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] while its predecessor, UsefulNotes/PlayStation3, used a customized [=FreeBSD=] kernel alongside various proprietary libraries. Meanwhile Nintendo coily admits that the UsefulNotes/NintendoSwitch's kernel is a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] as well, while it's API consists of a mishmash of proprietary and Android libraries. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/BandaiNamcoEntertainment with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.
10th Sep '17 7:10:18 AM NightShade96
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On the other hand, those users offended by Ubuntu's "overcommercialization" remained loyal to Linux, with most moving on to Linux Mint (which is based on Ubuntu), or on to other distros at worst. As of 2013, Mint is the most popular distro.

Yet another spin on the Ubuntu/Debian architecture is [[http://lxle.net LXLE]]. It is currently lesser-known than the aforementioned Ubuntu, but is gaining fame for its light-weight system requirements, and therefore gaining position on '''distrowatch'''. At the same time, it is intended to be highly functional right out of the box, designed to surpass even Lubuntu (another light-weight variant Ubuntu). LXLE is developed with dusty-old PC machines in mind.

to:

On the other hand, those users offended by Ubuntu's "overcommercialization" remained loyal to Linux, with most moving on to Linux Mint (which is based on Ubuntu), or on to other distros at worst. As of 2013, Mint is the most popular distro.

distro, at least on Distrowatch[[note]]Distrowatch's page hit count rankings are not a very reliable means of judging a particular Linux distro's adoption, as the large majority of Linux users are either unaware of Distrowatch's existence or simply don't visit Distrowatch[[/note]].

Yet another spin on the Ubuntu/Debian architecture is [[http://lxle.net LXLE]]. It is currently lesser-known than the aforementioned Ubuntu, but is gaining fame for its light-weight system requirements, and therefore gaining position on '''distrowatch'''.'''Distrowatch'''. At the same time, it is intended to be highly functional right out of the box, designed to surpass even Lubuntu (another light-weight variant Ubuntu). LXLE is developed with dusty-old PC machines in mind.
11th Jul '17 1:21:06 PM arbiter099
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Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.

to:

Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.
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