History UsefulNotes / UNIX

17th Feb '17 4:47:02 AM LB7979
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Now, in 2013, UNIX and its clones and derivatives are more popular than ever. Apple decided to open-source the kernel and user tools for Darwin (the basis of macOS 10 and [=iOS=]), and even Solaris (one of the last bastions of old-school commercial UNIX) has since been opened up- just to close again after Sun was bought up by Oracle, which caused much of the community to fork the last open release into the ''illumos'' project (and the official distro ''[=OpenIndiana=]'').

to:

Now, in 2013, UNIX and its clones and derivatives are more popular than ever. Apple decided to open-source the kernel and user tools for Darwin (the basis of macOS 10 (formerly OS X) and [=iOS=]), and even Solaris (one of the last bastions of old-school commercial UNIX) has since been opened up- just to close again after Sun was bought up by Oracle, which caused much of the community to fork the last open release into the ''illumos'' project (and the official distro ''[=OpenIndiana=]'').



There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{macOS}} 10. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.

to:

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{macOS}} 10.(formerly OS X). Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.
17th Feb '17 4:42:29 AM LB7979
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Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and macOS 10 for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.

to:

Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and macOS 10 (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.
13th Feb '17 3:00:45 PM HarJIT-EGS
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As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon "Linux" as the name of the kernel and "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system.

to:

As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon "Linux" as the name of the kernel and using "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system.
system and "Linux" as the name of the kernel.
13th Feb '17 9:42:03 AM HarJIT-EGS
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As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], with Linux being called "a free kernel", and the distros being called "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon "Linux" as the name of the kernel and "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system.

to:

As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], with calling Linux being called "a free kernel", and the distros being called "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon "Linux" as the name of the kernel and "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system.
13th Feb '17 9:38:00 AM HarJIT-EGS
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Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros of GNU and Linux plus desktop environments[[/note]] and macOS 10 for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.

to:

Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros of GNU and with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and macOS 10 for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.
13th Feb '17 9:13:06 AM HarJIT-EGS
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In 1991, a programmer in Helsinki, Finland, named Linus Torvalds, who was inspired by MINIX [[note]]and would later have a [[http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/opensources/book/appa.html famous debate]] on {{Usenet}} with its creator, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, on the merits of microkernels vs. Linux's older "monolithic" design[[/note]] posted his intent to build a "little" UNIX clone ([[HilariousInHindsight which he intended to be "just a hobby" and "nothing big like GNU"]]) to Usenet, with some of the work already done. Others agreed to help, and by 1992 ''Linux'', as it was dubbed by one of Linus's helpers,[[note]]Linus had suggested "Freax", pronounced "freaks", but it didn't catch on[[/note]] was maturing quickly. Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] based around Linus's kernel and GNU at that time.[[note]]These distros are typically called "Linux operating systems" (and not altogether ''inaccurately'', being operating systems that incorporate the Linux kernel), much to the dismay of GNU partisans who tend to insist upon the term "GNU/Linux" - which, while being accurate for the distros which incorporate GNU, hasn't really caught on, and is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel component of the OS.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into Fedora and the commercial RHEL), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.

to:

In 1991, a programmer in Helsinki, Finland, named Linus Torvalds, who was inspired by MINIX [[note]]and would later have a [[http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/opensources/book/appa.html famous debate]] on {{Usenet}} with its creator, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, on the merits of microkernels vs. Linux's older "monolithic" design[[/note]] posted his intent to build a "little" UNIX clone ([[HilariousInHindsight which he intended to be "just a hobby" and "nothing big like GNU"]]) to Usenet, with some of the work already done. Others agreed to help, and by 1992 ''Linux'', as it was dubbed by one of Linus's helpers,[[note]]Linus had suggested "Freax", pronounced "freaks", but it didn't catch on[[/note]] was maturing quickly. quickly.

As the complete system itself incorporated GNU software, with Linus's kernel being the main original contribution,
Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] based around Linus's incorporating the Linux kernel and GNU software at that time.[[note]]These [[note]]There is some controversy over the definition of "Linux". Prior to Linux-based systems becoming the primary form of GNU, the term "Linux" was used for the whole system, with even [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull17.html some early GNU bulletins]] calling Linux "a free Unix system" in which "many of the utilities and libraries are GNU Project software".

As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], with Linux being called "a free kernel", and the
distros being called "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), both for due credit (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components) and in an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon "Linux" as the name of the kernel and "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system.

Hence, while operating systems which incorporate the Linux kernel
are typically called "Linux operating systems" (and not altogether ''inaccurately'', being operating systems that incorporate the Linux kernel), much to the dismay of systems", GNU partisans who tend maintain that usage to insist upon the term "GNU/Linux" - which, while being accurate be incorrect for the distros which incorporate GNU, hasn't really caught on, and GNU. This is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel component of the OS.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into Fedora and the commercial RHEL), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.
2nd Feb '17 4:31:59 PM HarJIT-EGS
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Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros of GNU and Linux plus desktop environments[[/note]] and Mac OS X for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.

to:

Quirky, often counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros of GNU and Linux plus desktop environments[[/note]] and Mac OS X macOS 10 for desktop computers, to Linux, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.



Now, in 2013, UNIX and its clones and derivatives are more popular than ever. Apple decided to open-source the kernel and user tools for Darwin (the basis of Mac OS X and [=iOS=]), and even Solaris (one of the last bastions of old-school commercial UNIX) has since been opened up- just to close again after Sun was bought up by Oracle, which caused much of the community to fork the last open release into the ''illumos'' project (and the official distro ''[=OpenIndiana=]'').

to:

Now, in 2013, UNIX and its clones and derivatives are more popular than ever. Apple decided to open-source the kernel and user tools for Darwin (the basis of Mac OS X macOS 10 and [=iOS=]), and even Solaris (one of the last bastions of old-school commercial UNIX) has since been opened up- just to close again after Sun was bought up by Oracle, which caused much of the community to fork the last open release into the ''illumos'' project (and the official distro ''[=OpenIndiana=]'').



There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/MacOS X. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.

to:

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/MacOS X.UsefulNotes/{{macOS}} 10. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.
1st Feb '17 2:43:40 AM HarJIT-EGS
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This was a controversial move. GNU partisans have said that it draws attention away from the ideological purpose, "missing the point" as it were, whereas others have argued that the English word "free" is too often used to mean "free-of-charge" to be understood correctly, and that said misunderstanding would give the impression that the software is worthless from a business perspective.[[note]]The loanword "libre" (LEE-bruh or LEE-bray), or sometimes "free/libre", is sometimes used to avoid this, and most notably appears in the name of [=LibreOffice=]. The terms "FOSS" and "FLOSS" (Free/Libre and Open Source Software) are sometimes used as a compromise between the movements, but discouraged by some Open Source partisans on grounds of being a PR disaster. Stallman, on the other hand, doesn't mind the term FLOSS, although he discourages FOSS. (Unsurprisingly, nobody seems to be advocating LOSS.)[[/note]]

to:

This was a controversial move. GNU partisans have said that it draws attention away from the ideological purpose, "missing the point" as it were, whereas others have argued that the English word "free" is too often used to mean "free-of-charge" to be understood correctly, and that said misunderstanding would give the impression that the software is worthless from a business perspective.[[note]]The loanword "libre" (LEE-bruh or LEE-bray), or sometimes "free/libre", is sometimes used to avoid this, and most notably appears in the name of [=LibreOffice=]. The terms "FOSS" and "FLOSS" (Free/Libre and Open Source Software) are sometimes used as a compromise between the movements, but discouraged by some Open Source partisans on grounds of being a PR disaster. (on the basis that "floss" doesn't sound like something to be taken seriously by businesses). Stallman, on the other hand, doesn't mind the term FLOSS, although he prefers "free software" and discourages FOSS. (Unsurprisingly, nobody seems to be advocating LOSS.)[[/note]]



As for Netscape, most of the company migrated to Mozilla Foundation (originally known as the Mozilla Organization),[[note]]"Mozilla" being originally a nickname for Navigator, used by the developers and in user-agent strings: accordingly, the "Mozilla" version in user-agent strings is actually (supposed to be) the equivalent Navigator version, confusingly[[/note]] a non-profit founded to handle the development of a new browser based on the Communicator code. After a few false starts (including a decision to rewrite most of the client from scratch, a move that rankled some of the Netscape veterans), the new browser was in usable shape by 2003. A slimmed-down version corresponding to Navigator only (without the built-in mail/news reader or the Web page editor) was developed alongside it, and eventually became Mozilla Firefox. [[note]]Earlier names "Phoenix" and "Firebird" were dropped due to trademark issues.[[/note]] A slimmed-down version consisting of only the email/news reader eventually became Mozilla Thunderbird. [[note]]A third-party (Linspire) fork of Composer (the HTML editor) became Nvu, which was discontinued and in turn forked as [=KompoZer=], and later rewritten from scratch as [=BlueGriffon=].[[/note]] The full-blown internet suite was originally planned to be left for dead, but said group of Netscape veterans saved it by bringing it under their wing, rechristened it ''Seamonkey'', and brought it back in shape. And yes, it has a cult following to this day, again mostly by Netscape veterans who prefer the idea of heaving everything under one roof instead of in separate applications.

to:

As for Netscape, most of the company migrated to Mozilla Foundation (originally known as the Mozilla Organization),[[note]]"Mozilla" being originally a nickname for Navigator, used by the developers and in user-agent strings: accordingly, the "Mozilla" version in user-agent strings is actually (supposed to be) the equivalent Navigator version, confusingly[[/note]] a non-profit founded to handle the development of a new browser based on the Communicator code. After a few false starts (including a decision to rewrite most of the client from scratch, a move that rankled some of the Netscape veterans), the new browser was in usable shape by 2003. A slimmed-down version corresponding to Navigator only (without the built-in mail/news reader or the Web page editor) was developed alongside it, and eventually became Mozilla Firefox. [[note]]Earlier names "Phoenix" and "Firebird" were dropped due to trademark issues.[[/note]] A slimmed-down version consisting of only the email/news reader eventually became Mozilla Thunderbird. [[note]]A third-party (Linspire) fork of Composer (the HTML editor) became Nvu, which was discontinued and in turn forked as [=KompoZer=], and later rewritten from scratch as [=BlueGriffon=].[[/note]] The full-blown internet suite was originally planned to be left for dead, but said group of Netscape veterans saved it by bringing it under their wing, rechristened it ''Seamonkey'', and brought it back in shape. And yes, it has a cult following to this day, again mostly by Netscape veterans who prefer the idea of heaving everything under one roof instead of in separate applications.
23rd Jul '16 3:38:04 PM Jayam
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In 1991, a programmer in Helsinki, Finland, named Linus Torvalds, who was inspired by MINIX [[note]]and would later have a famous debate on {{Usenet}} with its creator, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, on the merits of microkernels vs. Linux's older "monolithic" design[[/note]] posted his intent to build a "little" UNIX clone ([[HilariousInHindsight which he intended to be "just a hobby" and "nothing big like GNU"]]) to Usenet, with some of the work already done. Others agreed to help, and by 1992 ''Linux'', as it was dubbed by one of Linus's helpers,[[note]]Linus had suggested "Freax", pronounced "freaks", but it didn't catch on[[/note]] was maturing quickly. Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] based around Linus's kernel and GNU at that time.[[note]]These distros are typically called "Linux operating systems" (and not altogether ''inaccurately'', being operating systems that incorporate the Linux kernel), much to the dismay of GNU partisans who tend to insist upon the term "GNU/Linux" - which, while being accurate for the distros which incorporate GNU, hasn't really caught on, and is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel component of the OS.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into Fedora and the commercial RHEL), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.

to:

In 1991, a programmer in Helsinki, Finland, named Linus Torvalds, who was inspired by MINIX [[note]]and would later have a [[http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/opensources/book/appa.html famous debate debate]] on {{Usenet}} with its creator, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, on the merits of microkernels vs. Linux's older "monolithic" design[[/note]] posted his intent to build a "little" UNIX clone ([[HilariousInHindsight which he intended to be "just a hobby" and "nothing big like GNU"]]) to Usenet, with some of the work already done. Others agreed to help, and by 1992 ''Linux'', as it was dubbed by one of Linus's helpers,[[note]]Linus had suggested "Freax", pronounced "freaks", but it didn't catch on[[/note]] was maturing quickly. Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] based around Linus's kernel and GNU at that time.[[note]]These distros are typically called "Linux operating systems" (and not altogether ''inaccurately'', being operating systems that incorporate the Linux kernel), much to the dismay of GNU partisans who tend to insist upon the term "GNU/Linux" - which, while being accurate for the distros which incorporate GNU, hasn't really caught on, and is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable userspace/non-kernel component of the OS.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into Fedora and the commercial RHEL), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.
15th May '16 11:28:02 AM TheOneWhoTropes
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There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/MacOS X. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.

to:

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/MacOS X. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the PlayStation4's UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=]. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/NamcoBandai with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.
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