History UsefulNotes / TheRomanRepublic

18th Jan '16 12:23:11 PM Quag15
Is there an issue? Send a Message


The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BC. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence (see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info).

to:

The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BC. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence (see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info).
influence.
20th Dec '15 4:15:28 AM JulianLapostat
Is there an issue? Send a Message


After a time the Romans lost patience with living in TheKingdom and threw out Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), and formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with TheAristocracy, called patricians, controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was not democratic by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

to:

After a time the Romans lost patience with living in TheKingdom and threw out Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), and formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with TheAristocracy, [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians, patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was not democratic by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].



* GoodRepublicEvilEmpire: Many Roman-era fiction, especially those set in the Empire, regard the Empire as GloryDays and works like ''Film/{{Gladiator}}, Series/{{IClaudius}}'' cultivate sympathy for its characters by having them talk about "restoring the Republic". The wholesale corruption of the later Republic, the brutal crackdown of slave uprisings, the series of consquests (which began during the Republic) and the opposition of the Optimates to any reforms goes unmentioned in this NostalgiaFilter

to:

* GoodRepublicEvilEmpire: Many Roman-era fiction, especially those set in the Empire, regard the Empire Republic as GloryDays and works like ''Film/{{Gladiator}}, Series/{{IClaudius}}'' cultivate sympathy for its characters by having them talk about "restoring the Republic". The wholesale corruption of the later Republic, the brutal crackdown of slave uprisings, the series of consquests (which began during the Republic) and the opposition of the Optimates to any reforms goes unmentioned in this NostalgiaFilter
8th Dec '15 1:10:38 AM JulianLapostat
Is there an issue? Send a Message



to:

* GoodRepublicEvilEmpire: Many Roman-era fiction, especially those set in the Empire, regard the Empire as GloryDays and works like ''Film/{{Gladiator}}, Series/{{IClaudius}}'' cultivate sympathy for its characters by having them talk about "restoring the Republic". The wholesale corruption of the later Republic, the brutal crackdown of slave uprisings, the series of consquests (which began during the Republic) and the opposition of the Optimates to any reforms goes unmentioned in this NostalgiaFilter
* HistoricalHeroUpgrade: With the exception of Film/{{Spartacus}}, most works tend to lament the self-destruction and downfall of the Republic. Works like ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar'' by Creator/WilliamShakespeare are often staged this way.
19th Sep '15 6:15:33 AM Morgenthaler
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Steven Saylor's ''RomaSubRosa'' series.

to:

* Steven Saylor's ''RomaSubRosa'' ''Literature/RomaSubRosa'' series.



* Colleen [=McCullough's=] ''MastersOfRome'' series.

to:

* Colleen [=McCullough's=] ''MastersOfRome'' ''Literature/MastersOfRome'' series.
4th Aug '15 2:29:32 PM phoenix
Is there an issue? Send a Message


!! Tropes associated with the Roman Republic are:

* BadassArmy
* BadassBureaucrat: The Romans practically wrote the book about effective bureaucracy. Every magistrate was expected to have military experience, and consuls and praetors were field commanders in addition to being civil officials.
* BerserkButton: The rape of the noblewoman Lucretia (and her consequent suicide) drove the Romans into an absolute rage. You can guess [[ThisMeansWar the result.]]
* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans who killed themselves in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.
* BookEnds: A rebellion against a supposed tyrant led by a man named Brutus played a crucial role both in the creation as well as in the end of the Roman Republic.
* BootCampEpisode: The drill grounds on Mars Field.
* BreakTheHaughty: According to tales Romans had a slave ride in a triumph (victory parade) beside the victorious general whispering in his ear that all glory is fleeting. It was hoped that this way they would not be filled with enough {{pride}} to offend the gods or otherwise do harm to TheRepublic . Unfortunately not every haughty person was that easily broken. Even Rome [[YouCantFightFate couldn't fight fate]].
* BureaucraticallyArrangedMarriage: Marriage was first and foremost a business arrangement between two families, and divorcing one's spouse to get a better deal from a different family happened often. Romans were also not particularly accepting of open affection, so HappilyMarried couples who openly acted this way were often found to be scandalous.
* TheClan: Many of the aristocratic families of Rome.
* {{Cincinnatus}}: Rome actually managed to create a number of these in RealLife. Including the TropeNamer.
* {{Conscription}}: Rome had an elaborate system for enrolling citizens in its army.
* CoolSword: The Gladius
* CorruptCorporateExecutive: While the idea of business corporations was still over a thousand years in the future, traces of the trope can be found in Marcus Licinius Crassus. Famously, the man owned his own private firefighting service; whenever a building caught fire, he would offer to buy the properties from the owner and its neighbors at a scandalous discount, putting a literal spin on the term "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_sale fire sale]]." If the owners refused to pay up? [[ShameIfSomethingHappened He'd let the building continue burning]].
** Crassus was seemingly so single-mindedly focused on the accumulation of wealth that when someone caught him seemingly flirting with a Vestal Virgin and accused him of having an improper relationship with her--a crime for which the penalty was death for both parties--Crassus said that he was simply trying to win her trust in order to buy her villa at below market value; carnal desire didn't figure in at all. The court--and everyone else--believed him.
* CourtroomAntic: Romans almost regarded the courtroom as a spectator sport. Considering the sizes of the juries involved, it might as well have been. Rome's most famous orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero, left behind a huge number of extremely long speeches, the most famous being his orations against Traitor Lucius Sergius Catalina. Antics Cicero got away with in court:
** Calling the prosecution's witness, who was an attempted murder victim, a shameless slut, whore, and murderess, and then saying he wasn't going to call her a shameless slut, whore, and murderess, and then [[RefugeInAudacity calling her a shameless slut, whore, and murderess repeatedly throughout the rest of his speech.]]
** Accusing a political rival of incest in a completely unrelated case.
** Pretending to be Rome personified (it's complicated).
** Pretending to be a long dead Roman Consul (again, it's complicated). Incidentally, he was pretending to be the Consul so he could call the attempted murder victim above a shameless slut, whore, and murderess. And being quite graphic about it.
** Telling the judge he was going to ignore all courtroom procedure for the citizenship application he was arguing and [[ItMakesSenseInContext spend the next hour or so discussing Greek literature]].
** Giving speaking tips to opposing counsel.
** Complimenting opposing counsel on his skill -- because the counsel was once one of his students.
** Accusing an opposing counsel of being gay.[[note]]Well, not precisely. Roman sexuality did not have the concepts straight/gay. Cicero accused said counsel of being the passive one in a sexual relationship, which was meant to imply that said counsel was weak (this was quite an insult among Romans-a man having sex with another was fine, if he was the "top". The "bottom" was considered disgraceful and fit for slaves or women only).[[/note]].
** Accusing the jury of being corrupt (although this ''was'' often the case).
** Discussing fashion in the middle of a murder trial.
** Discussing town planning in the middle of a murder trial.
** Discussing highway maintenance [[RunningGag in the middle of a murder trial]].
** Discussing the inconvenient placement of public holidays [[OverlyLongGag in the middle of a murder trial.]]
** It is worth noting, after reading the above, that Cicero lost only one case. He lost that case because the court was filled with heavily armed, menacing-looking men wanting a conviction and staring meaningfully at the jury throughout the proceedings.
* {{Determinator}}: The Romans did not give up, no matter how many armies or fleets they lost.
* DeterminedHomesteader: What Romans of the Republic thought the ideal Roman should be.
* DisproportionateRetribution: The entire Third Punic War. After utterly humiliating Carthage years before and effectively forcing it to become a PuppetState, the Romans burned the city to the ground for ''daring'' to defy Rome and set its own policy ... by fighting back against desert raiders.
* DrillSergeantNasty: And Roman centurions were distinguished for this.
* TheEvilPrince: Monarchy was so discredited by experiences of this that even Caesar had to pretend to be JustTheFirstCitizen. Additionally, one of the proposed titles for Octavian after he attained sole power over the [[strike:Republic]] Empire was "Romulus," after the mythical founder of Rome. This was rejected because Romulus had been both a king and kin-slayer.
** The Republic apparently began due to an Evil Prince. Sextus, son of the last King Tarquinius, raped a Roman noblewoman Lucretia, leading to her suicide. This caused the royal family to be thrown out.
* FairForItsDay: Whether it was actually more than average even for its day is debatable. But the Romans did have a useful system of law and organization that was able to win admiration from many historians.
* FeudingFamilies: Temporarily subverted. Roman [[TheClan Clans]] would competitively try to draw attention to how useful they were to TheRepublic, rather than simply fighting against each other. This made for a state with a remarkable cohesion. However though reduced and controlled FeudingFamilies were not unknown and may have been an element in the civil strife toward the end of TheRepublic.

to:


!! Tropes associated with the Roman Republic are:

* BadassArmy
* BadassBureaucrat: The Romans practically wrote the book about effective bureaucracy. Every magistrate was expected to have military experience, and consuls and praetors were field commanders
as portrayed in addition to being civil officials.
* BerserkButton: The rape of the noblewoman Lucretia (and her consequent suicide) drove the Romans into an absolute rage. You can guess [[ThisMeansWar the result.]]
* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans who killed themselves in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.
* BookEnds: A rebellion against a supposed tyrant led by a man named Brutus played a crucial role both in the creation as well as in the end of the Roman Republic.
* BootCampEpisode: The drill grounds on Mars Field.
* BreakTheHaughty: According to tales Romans had a slave ride in a triumph (victory parade) beside the victorious general whispering in his ear that all glory is fleeting. It was hoped that this way they would not be filled with enough {{pride}} to offend the gods or otherwise do harm to TheRepublic . Unfortunately not every haughty person was that easily broken. Even Rome [[YouCantFightFate couldn't fight fate]].
* BureaucraticallyArrangedMarriage: Marriage was first and foremost a business arrangement between two families, and divorcing one's spouse to get a better deal from a different family happened often. Romans were also not particularly accepting of open affection, so HappilyMarried couples who openly acted this way were often found to be scandalous.
* TheClan: Many of the aristocratic families of Rome.
* {{Cincinnatus}}: Rome actually managed to create a number of these in RealLife. Including the TropeNamer.
* {{Conscription}}: Rome had an elaborate system for enrolling citizens in its army.
* CoolSword: The Gladius
* CorruptCorporateExecutive: While the idea of business corporations was still over a thousand years in the future, traces of the trope can be found in Marcus Licinius Crassus. Famously, the man owned his own private firefighting service; whenever a building caught fire, he would offer to buy the properties from the owner and its neighbors at a scandalous discount, putting a literal spin on the term "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_sale fire sale]]." If the owners refused to pay up? [[ShameIfSomethingHappened He'd let the building continue burning]].
** Crassus was seemingly so single-mindedly focused on the accumulation of wealth that when someone caught him seemingly flirting with a Vestal Virgin and accused him of having an improper relationship with her--a crime for which the penalty was death for both parties--Crassus said that he was simply trying to win her trust in order to buy her villa at below market value; carnal desire didn't figure in at all. The court--and everyone else--believed him.
* CourtroomAntic: Romans almost regarded the courtroom as a spectator sport. Considering the sizes of the juries involved, it might as well have been. Rome's most famous orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero, left behind a huge number of extremely long speeches, the most famous being his orations against Traitor Lucius Sergius Catalina. Antics Cicero got away with in court:
** Calling the prosecution's witness, who was an attempted murder victim, a shameless slut, whore, and murderess, and then saying he wasn't going to call her a shameless slut, whore, and murderess, and then [[RefugeInAudacity calling her a shameless slut, whore, and murderess repeatedly throughout the rest of his speech.]]
** Accusing a political rival of incest in a completely unrelated case.
** Pretending to be Rome personified (it's complicated).
** Pretending to be a long dead Roman Consul (again, it's complicated). Incidentally, he was pretending to be the Consul so he could call the attempted murder victim above a shameless slut, whore, and murderess. And being quite graphic about it.
** Telling the judge he was going to ignore all courtroom procedure for the citizenship application he was arguing and [[ItMakesSenseInContext spend the next hour or so discussing Greek literature]].
** Giving speaking tips to opposing counsel.
** Complimenting opposing counsel on his skill -- because the counsel was once one of his students.
** Accusing an opposing counsel of being gay.[[note]]Well, not precisely. Roman sexuality did not have the concepts straight/gay. Cicero accused said counsel of being the passive one in a sexual relationship, which was meant to imply that said counsel was weak (this was quite an insult among Romans-a man having sex with another was fine, if he was the "top". The "bottom" was considered disgraceful and fit for slaves or women only).[[/note]].
** Accusing the jury of being corrupt (although this ''was'' often the case).
** Discussing fashion in the middle of a murder trial.
** Discussing town planning in the middle of a murder trial.
** Discussing highway maintenance [[RunningGag in the middle of a murder trial]].
** Discussing the inconvenient placement of public holidays [[OverlyLongGag in the middle of a murder trial.]]
** It is worth noting, after reading the above, that Cicero lost only one case. He lost that case because the court was filled with heavily armed, menacing-looking men wanting a conviction and staring meaningfully at the jury throughout the proceedings.
* {{Determinator}}: The Romans did not give up, no matter how many armies or fleets they lost.
* DeterminedHomesteader: What Romans of the Republic thought the ideal Roman should be.
* DisproportionateRetribution: The entire Third Punic War. After utterly humiliating Carthage years before and effectively forcing it to become a PuppetState, the Romans burned the city to the ground for ''daring'' to defy Rome and set its own policy ... by fighting back against desert raiders.
* DrillSergeantNasty: And Roman centurions were distinguished for this.
* TheEvilPrince: Monarchy was so discredited by experiences of this that even Caesar had to pretend to be JustTheFirstCitizen. Additionally, one of the proposed titles for Octavian after he attained sole power over the [[strike:Republic]] Empire was "Romulus," after the mythical founder of Rome. This was rejected because Romulus had been both a king and kin-slayer.
** The Republic apparently began due to an Evil Prince. Sextus, son of the last King Tarquinius, raped a Roman noblewoman Lucretia, leading to her suicide. This caused the royal family to be thrown out.
* FairForItsDay: Whether it was actually more than average even for its day is debatable. But the Romans did have a useful system of law and organization that was able to win admiration from many historians.
* FeudingFamilies: Temporarily subverted. Roman [[TheClan Clans]] would competitively try to draw attention to how useful they were to TheRepublic, rather than simply fighting against each other. This made for a state with a remarkable cohesion. However though reduced and controlled FeudingFamilies were not unknown and may have been an element in the civil strife toward the end of TheRepublic.
fiction:



* GladiatorGames: TropeNamer (literally, ''gladiator'' means "sword-user," from ''gladius'', "sword"). Romans were addicted to these.
* [[GoodRepublicEvilEmpire Good Republic Evil Kingdom]]: After overthrowing their own monarchy, the Romans regarded the idea in much the same way we do [[GodwinsLaw Nazism]].
* TheGovernment: One of the first examples of an abstract bureaucratized state that is not simply a monarchy's FamilyBusiness.
* HeroicSacrifice: Most famously, [[YouShallNotPass Horatius]] at the bridge, though there were many others. Sacrificing one's own life for Rome and one's fellow soldiers was considered a virtue in Roman society.
* HonorBeforeReason: Both subverted and played straight. The Roman code of honor emphasized such rational concepts as discipline and team loyalty rather then being a GloryHound. If [[AchillesInHisTent Achilles]] had been a Roman the [[DrillSergeantNasty centurion]] would have beaten him black and blue with his swagger stick. Nonetheless the Roman Code though not completely irrational was very exacting.
* IAmSpartacus: For the TropeNamer, see above.
* InsaneTrollLogic: Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Censor) ended every single speech he made in the Senate, whether it was on grain prices, the setting of public holidays, or treaties with Gauls, with "Carthago delenda est" or, "Carthage ought to be destroyed". Eventually the Senate fulfilled his wish.
* InTheBlood: Romans had a superstition that this was literally true and thus would sometimes give votes based on which [[TheClan Clan someone was from]] in the hope that he would have the qualities of a noted [[TheHero hero]]. This added to the normal {{Nepotism}} of political life. Oddly enough the results provided a number of bureaucrats that were competent to no-worse-than-average. Sometimes luck wins out.
* IThoughtItMeant: The Social War was a war against the ''Socii,'' or "Allies" (basically Italians who got drafted to make the army bigger), not a civil war.
* LuckilyMyShieldWillProtectMe: The big shield is a distinctive feature of Roman armies in all periods.
* MachoMasochism: When the Etruscan king Lars Porsena took sides in an early Roman civil war, a Roman youth tried to kill him and was captured. The youth (one Gaius Mucius) told Porsena that 300 Romans had sworn to kill him or die trying. Mucius then thrust his hand in a sacrificial flame to make the point. Porsena released him and sued for peace.
* MadeASlave: The fate of those who would presume to resist the might of Rome.
* MyDefenseNeedNotProtectMeForever: The Roman General Fabius Maximus Cunctator (Fabius the Great Delayer), preserved Rome by carefully retreating from Hannibal until Hannibal grew tired of pursuing. Meanwhile the rest of the Roman Legions carved up those areas of Carthage's empire where Hannibal wasn't.
* NonIdleRich: Marcus Licinius Crassus, famous for becoming the richest man in Rome--and one of the richest in history, with an estimated personal fortune of anywhere from 170 million-200 million sesterces (amounts that easily translate into the ''billions'' of dollars today)--through shrewd but unscrupulous business dealings. Among other ventures, he had his privately-owned firefighter extortion scheme.
** Especially in the late Republic, one of the best ways to get rich was to be awarded command of an army. Once someone had that, they could use it to extract wealth from any neighboring countries they could get away with. Politicians would often bankrupt themselves to get offices with military commands, since the wealth they gained would more than pay for the extravagant campaign costs. Notably, Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar and UsefulNotes/{{PompeyTheGreat}} were two Romans that became wealthy in this manner. (Crassus himself, though, was an inversion: in later life he used his vast wealth to get command of an expedition against the Parthian Empire, to increase his prestige. [[TotalPartyKill It did not end at all well.]])
*** Crassus played it straight too: the start of his wealth came from contributing to Sulla's victory in a civil war and plundering the properties of the losing side, and ''then'' increased it through his business dealings. He was a good general too: Spartacus' rebellion was actually succeeding until Crassus single-handedly defeated him (Pompey ended up accidentally stealing his credit, as Crassus had asked for reinforcements before realizing he didn't need them and Pompey, returning from a successful campaign, destroyed the only rebel unit that had escaped their crushing defeat).
* NothingIsScarier: Unlike many of their opponents, Roman legions (at least towards the late Republic) were trained to advance silently, only raising a warcry when within charging distance.
* ObfuscatingStupidity: Lucius Junius Brutus, possibly the best example in Classical history. The man's obfuscation was so well-played, his very name means "dullard." He went on to overthrow the last King of Rome and found the Roman Republic, before dying in battle. Counts as a CrouchingMoronHiddenBadass, too.
* ObstructiveBureaucrat: The Romans developed much of the western worlds tradition of bureaucracy. You know who to blame.
* ThePatriarch: An ideal Roman ''pater familias'' or family head is this.
* PatrioticFervor: TheRepublic was famous for this. In legend it went to the level of a whole nation of [[KnightTemplar KnightsTemplar]]. After the disastrous Battle of Cannae, the Romans instead of making peace fielded a whole new army next year even when it included old, young and slaves purchased by TheRepublic. The Romans apparently accepted it as their civic duty to be [[WeHaveReserves reserves]].
* PuppetState: Especially during the Republic, the Romans preferred to deal with problem neighbors by exterminating their old leadership and installing new, friendly leaders who paid annual tithes to Rome. They reserved outright conquest for the more stubborn cases.
* PyrrhicVictory: [[TropeNamer Pyrrhus of Epirus]] won two against the Romans. This caused him to leave Italy and abandon his allies.
* [[RainOfArrows Rain Of Spears]]: The Romans used the ''pilum'', a purpose-built javelin, in a volley before going toe-to-toe with the enemy with a ''gladius''. (The biggest problem with throwing a sharp pointy thing at a bad guy is that they can throw it back. The pilum handled this by having a deliberate weak spot halfway down the shaft, which caused it to deform on impact.)
* RapePillageAndBurn: The Roman Army was known for its ruthlessness as well as its prowess. Being a professional army, however, they tended to have pretty clear rules when it was ''not'' okay to RapePillageAndBurn. Generally, if a besieged city surrendered before the ram reached the gates, [[PragmaticVillainy the army would enter the city with much less fuss.]]
* TheRepublic: TropeNamer, from ''res publicae'', "public matters."
* ScrewTheRulesIHaveMoney: What quite a few people seemed to think towards the end.
* SleazyPolitician: A number, most noticeable toward the end. Crassus was famous along this line.
* TheSpartanWay: The Romans didn't take it quite as far as the Spartans, but Roman centurions were infamously harsh on their men. While it doesn't quite fit this period, one Roman commander got the nickname "Give-Me-Another" for beating his men so hard and so frequently that he was constantly having to ask for a new baton. (It bears noting that he was one of many [[UnfriendlyFire killed by his own men]] during a general mutiny of the legions in Germany.)
* TheStoic: The Greeks were the actual formulators of this philosophy, but it suited the Roman code of honor well enough to become fashionable and almost stereotypically Roman. Cicero actually wrote a pamphlet ("On The Nature Of the Gods") contrasting the virtue of Epicureanism, Stoicism, and traditional Peripatetic (i.e. Creator/{{Plato}}nic-[[Creator/{{Aristotle}} Aristotelian]]) philosophy. While he comes down on the side of the Peripatetics, he expresses a great deal of sympathy for the Stoics. Meanwhile, his contemporary, Cato the Younger, was a huge Stoic.
* WalkingArmory: After Gaius Marius commanded every soldier in the army to carry his own weapons rather than use pack animals, soldiers could charitably be described as this... or uncharitably described as "Marius' Mules."
* WeHaveReserves: One of the main advantages Rome had over Carthage.
* WhatHeSaid: When administering the military oath, the usual practice was for one soldier in a unit to repeat the whole thing while everyone else said "''Idem in me'' (And the same goes for me)." Convenient when [[WeHaveReserves several thousand]] need to be sworn in at once.

to:

* GladiatorGames: TropeNamer (literally, ''gladiator'' means "sword-user," from ''gladius'', "sword"). Romans were addicted to these.
* [[GoodRepublicEvilEmpire Good Republic Evil Kingdom]]: After overthrowing their own monarchy, the Romans regarded the idea in much the same way we do [[GodwinsLaw Nazism]].
* TheGovernment: One of the first examples of an abstract bureaucratized state that is not simply a monarchy's FamilyBusiness.
* HeroicSacrifice: Most famously, [[YouShallNotPass Horatius]] at the bridge, though there were many others. Sacrificing one's own life for Rome and one's fellow soldiers was considered a virtue in Roman society.
* HonorBeforeReason: Both subverted and played straight. The Roman code of honor emphasized such rational concepts as discipline and team loyalty rather then being a GloryHound. If [[AchillesInHisTent Achilles]] had been a Roman the [[DrillSergeantNasty centurion]] would have beaten him black and blue with his swagger stick. Nonetheless the Roman Code though not completely irrational was very exacting.
* IAmSpartacus: For the TropeNamer, see above.
* InsaneTrollLogic: Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Censor) ended every single speech he made in the Senate, whether it was on grain prices, the setting of public holidays, or treaties with Gauls, with "Carthago delenda est" or, "Carthage ought to be destroyed". Eventually the Senate fulfilled his wish.
* InTheBlood: Romans had a superstition that this was literally true and thus would sometimes give votes based on which [[TheClan Clan someone was from]] in the hope that he would have the qualities of a noted [[TheHero hero]]. This added to the normal {{Nepotism}} of political life. Oddly enough the results provided a number of bureaucrats that were competent to no-worse-than-average. Sometimes luck wins out.
* IThoughtItMeant: The Social War was a war against the ''Socii,'' or "Allies" (basically Italians who got drafted to make the army bigger), not a civil war.
* LuckilyMyShieldWillProtectMe: The big shield is a distinctive feature of Roman armies in all periods.
* MachoMasochism: When the Etruscan king Lars Porsena took sides in an early Roman civil war, a Roman youth tried to kill him and was captured. The youth (one Gaius Mucius) told Porsena that 300 Romans had sworn to kill him or die trying. Mucius then thrust his hand in a sacrificial flame to make the point. Porsena released him and sued for peace.
* MadeASlave: The fate of those who would presume to resist the might of Rome.
* MyDefenseNeedNotProtectMeForever: The Roman General Fabius Maximus Cunctator (Fabius the Great Delayer), preserved Rome by carefully retreating from Hannibal until Hannibal grew tired of pursuing. Meanwhile the rest of the Roman Legions carved up those areas of Carthage's empire where Hannibal wasn't.
* NonIdleRich: Marcus Licinius Crassus, famous for becoming the richest man in Rome--and one of the richest in history, with an estimated personal fortune of anywhere from 170 million-200 million sesterces (amounts that easily translate into the ''billions'' of dollars today)--through shrewd but unscrupulous business dealings. Among other ventures, he had his privately-owned firefighter extortion scheme.
** Especially in the late Republic, one of the best ways to get rich was to be awarded command of an army. Once someone had that, they could use it to extract wealth from any neighboring countries they could get away with. Politicians would often bankrupt themselves to get offices with military commands, since the wealth they gained would more than pay for the extravagant campaign costs. Notably, Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar and UsefulNotes/{{PompeyTheGreat}} were two Romans that became wealthy in this manner. (Crassus himself, though, was an inversion: in later life he used his vast wealth to get command of an expedition against the Parthian Empire, to increase his prestige. [[TotalPartyKill It did not end at all well.]])
*** Crassus played it straight too: the start of his wealth came from contributing to Sulla's victory in a civil war and plundering the properties of the losing side, and ''then'' increased it through his business dealings. He was a good general too: Spartacus' rebellion was actually succeeding until Crassus single-handedly defeated him (Pompey ended up accidentally stealing his credit, as Crassus had asked for reinforcements before realizing he didn't need them and Pompey, returning from a successful campaign, destroyed the only rebel unit that had escaped their crushing defeat).
* NothingIsScarier: Unlike many of their opponents, Roman legions (at least towards the late Republic) were trained to advance silently, only raising a warcry when within charging distance.
* ObfuscatingStupidity: Lucius Junius Brutus, possibly the best example in Classical history. The man's obfuscation was so well-played, his very name means "dullard." He went on to overthrow the last King of Rome and found the Roman Republic, before dying in battle. Counts as a CrouchingMoronHiddenBadass, too.
* ObstructiveBureaucrat: The Romans developed much of the western worlds tradition of bureaucracy. You know who to blame.
* ThePatriarch: An ideal Roman ''pater familias'' or family head is this.
* PatrioticFervor: TheRepublic was famous for this. In legend it went to the level of a whole nation of [[KnightTemplar KnightsTemplar]]. After the disastrous Battle of Cannae, the Romans instead of making peace fielded a whole new army next year even when it included old, young and slaves purchased by TheRepublic. The Romans apparently accepted it as their civic duty to be [[WeHaveReserves reserves]].
* PuppetState: Especially during the Republic, the Romans preferred to deal with problem neighbors by exterminating their old leadership and installing new, friendly leaders who paid annual tithes to Rome. They reserved outright conquest for the more stubborn cases.
* PyrrhicVictory: [[TropeNamer Pyrrhus of Epirus]] won two against the Romans. This caused him to leave Italy and abandon his allies.
* [[RainOfArrows Rain Of Spears]]: The Romans used the ''pilum'', a purpose-built javelin, in a volley before going toe-to-toe with the enemy with a ''gladius''. (The biggest problem with throwing a sharp pointy thing at a bad guy is that they can throw it back. The pilum handled this by having a deliberate weak spot halfway down the shaft, which caused it to deform on impact.)
* RapePillageAndBurn: The Roman Army was known for its ruthlessness as well as its prowess. Being a professional army, however, they tended to have pretty clear rules when it was ''not'' okay to RapePillageAndBurn. Generally, if a besieged city surrendered before the ram reached the gates, [[PragmaticVillainy the army would enter the city with much less fuss.]]
* TheRepublic: TropeNamer, from ''res publicae'', "public matters."
* ScrewTheRulesIHaveMoney: What quite a few people seemed to think towards the end.
* SleazyPolitician: A number, most noticeable toward the end. Crassus was famous along this line.
* TheSpartanWay: The Romans didn't take it quite as far as the Spartans, but Roman centurions were infamously harsh on their men. While it doesn't quite fit this period, one Roman commander got the nickname "Give-Me-Another" for beating his men so hard and so frequently that he was constantly having to ask for a new baton. (It bears noting that he was one of many [[UnfriendlyFire killed by his own men]] during a general mutiny of the legions in Germany.)
* TheStoic: The Greeks were the actual formulators of this philosophy, but it suited the Roman code of honor well enough to become fashionable and almost stereotypically Roman. Cicero actually wrote a pamphlet ("On The Nature Of the Gods") contrasting the virtue of Epicureanism, Stoicism, and traditional Peripatetic (i.e. Creator/{{Plato}}nic-[[Creator/{{Aristotle}} Aristotelian]]) philosophy. While he comes down on the side of the Peripatetics, he expresses a great deal of sympathy for the Stoics. Meanwhile, his contemporary, Cato the Younger, was a huge Stoic.
* WalkingArmory: After Gaius Marius commanded every soldier in the army to carry his own weapons rather than use pack animals, soldiers could charitably be described as this... or uncharitably described as "Marius' Mules."
* WeHaveReserves: One of the main advantages Rome had over Carthage.
* WhatHeSaid: When administering the military oath, the usual practice was for one soldier in a unit to repeat the whole thing while everyone else said "''Idem in me'' (And the same goes for me)." Convenient when [[WeHaveReserves several thousand]] need to be sworn in at once.


Added DiffLines:

11th Jul '15 1:45:03 PM Troper9
Is there an issue? Send a Message


The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BCE. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence (see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info).

to:

The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BCE.BC. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence (see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info).
29th Apr '15 5:22:43 PM karstovich2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]]. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Grachii) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]"-Augustus was leery of putting on airs. "Emperor" came from "Imperator" or "commander" in Latin, i.e. commander-in-chief of the armed forces, another of his titles. Obviously having the military backing him was essential for his regime). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus can be considered the death of the Republic.

to:

At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]]. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Grachii) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]"-Augustus citizen]]," originally a title awarded to the person entitled to speak first in the Senate--Augustus was leery of putting on airs. "Emperor" came from "Imperator" or "commander" in Latin, i.e. commander-in-chief of the armed forces, another of his titles. Obviously having the military backing him was essential for his regime). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus can be considered the death of the Republic.
9th Nov '14 4:15:35 PM Fireblood
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans who killed themselves in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.

to:

* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans who killed themselves themselves in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.



** Accusing an opposing counsel of being gay[[note]]Roman sexuality didn't used the terms straight/gay. Cicero accused said counsel of being the passive one in a sexual relationship, which was meant to imply that said counsel was weak[[/note]].

to:

** Accusing an opposing counsel of being gay[[note]]Roman gay.[[note]]Well, not precisely. Roman sexuality didn't used did not have the terms concepts straight/gay. Cicero accused said counsel of being the passive one in a sexual relationship, which was meant to imply that said counsel was weak[[/note]].weak (this was quite an insult among Romans-a man having sex with another was fine, if he was the "top". The "bottom" was considered disgraceful and fit for slaves or women only).[[/note]].



** Discussing the inconvenient placement of Public Holidays [[OverlyLongGag in the middle of a murder trial.]]
** It is worth noting, after reading the above, that Cicero lost only one case. He lost that case because the court was filled with heavily armed, menacing looking men wanting a conviction and staring meaningfully at the jury throughout proceedings.

to:

** Discussing the inconvenient placement of Public Holidays public holidays [[OverlyLongGag in the middle of a murder trial.]]
** It is worth noting, after reading the above, that Cicero lost only one case. He lost that case because the court was filled with heavily armed, menacing looking menacing-looking men wanting a conviction and staring meaningfully at the jury throughout the proceedings.



* FairForItsDay: Whether it was actually more than average even for its day is debatable. But the Romans did have useful system of law and organization that was able to win admiration from many historians.

to:

* FairForItsDay: Whether it was actually more than average even for its day is debatable. But the Romans did have a useful system of law and organization that was able to win admiration from many historians.
9th Nov '14 4:09:12 PM Fireblood
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* BerserkButton: the Rape of the noblewoman Lucretia(and her consequent suicide) drove the Romans into an absolute rage. You can guess [[ThisMeansWar the result.]]
* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans that committed suicide in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.

to:

* BerserkButton: the Rape The rape of the noblewoman Lucretia(and Lucretia (and her consequent suicide) drove the Romans into an absolute rage. You can guess [[ThisMeansWar the result.]]
* BetterToDieThanBeKilled: Romans considered that this ''was'' a way to FaceDeathWithDignity. Famous Romans that committed suicide who killed themselves in the face of defeat or sure death include the pro-Republic figurehead of the Civil War Cato the Younger, Marcus Antonius, the governor and general Quinctilius Varus, and the philosopher Seneca.



* BreakTheHaughty: According to tales Romans had a slave ride in a triumph (victory parade) beside the victorious general whispering in his ear that all glory is fleeting. It was hoped that this way they would not be filled with enough {{Pride}} to offend the gods or otherwise do harm to TheRepublic . Unfortunately not every haughty person was that easily broken. Even Rome [[YouCantFightFate Couldn't Fight Fate]].

to:

* BreakTheHaughty: According to tales Romans had a slave ride in a triumph (victory parade) beside the victorious general whispering in his ear that all glory is fleeting. It was hoped that this way they would not be filled with enough {{Pride}} {{pride}} to offend the gods or otherwise do harm to TheRepublic . Unfortunately not every haughty person was that easily broken. Even Rome [[YouCantFightFate Couldn't Fight Fate]].couldn't fight fate]].
9th Nov '14 4:03:28 PM Fireblood
Is there an issue? Send a Message


The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BCE. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence.

(see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info.)

After a time the Romans lost patience with living in TheKingdom and threw out Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), and formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with TheAristocracy, called patricians, controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People, had veto power), as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was not democratic by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

to:

The Eternal City, UsefulNotes/{{Rome}}, has several origin tales. ''Literature/TheAeneid'' recounts the wanderings of refugees from [[RapePillageAndBurn the sack]] of Troy who founded the Latin people.[[note]][[TheMoreYouKnow That's where the name of the language comes from]].[[/note]] ''The Aeneid'' also says the Trojans are founders of the Roman people, though the city [[{{Foreshadowing}} hasn't been founded yet.]] Later, Romulus and Remus, the [[UrExample Ur Examples]] of RaisedByWolves, founded the city itself on the curiously precise date April 21st, 753 BCE. Certain aspects about the founding myths have a curious plausibility and the idea that the original Romans were an [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits outlaw band]] or fleeing refugees does seem believable. Rome, founded on the seven hills, was ruled by a succession of seven kings, the last few showing heavy Etruscan influence.

influence (see [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPTIGLj2LCE here]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqRBdC3JTY here]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bg2MT_FhGYs here]] for more info.)

info).

After a time the Romans lost patience with living in TheKingdom and threw out Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), and formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with TheAristocracy, called patricians, controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People, People) who had veto power), power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family oriented family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was not democratic by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].



At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]]. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of the Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Grachii) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]," Augustus was leery of putting on airs). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus can be considered the death of the Republic.

TheRomanRepublic left a lot of imprints in Western culture in fields ranging from military tactics to engineering to philosophy (when they weren't plagiarizing the Greeks) to rhetoric ([[Creator/{{Cicero}} Marcus Tullius Cicero]] especially) to politics and the nice big one, Law. The legal systems of most of Europe are wholesale stealings of Roman Law with adjustments, and even English speaking nations will find a lot of old Roman Law in their own (The first rule of codified Roman Law is otherwise known as the ''subpoena''.)

to:

At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]]. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of the Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Grachii) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]," Augustus citizen]]"-Augustus was leery of putting on airs).airs. "Emperor" came from "Imperator" or "commander" in Latin, i.e. commander-in-chief of the armed forces, another of his titles. Obviously having the military backing him was essential for his regime). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus can be considered the death of the Republic.

TheRomanRepublic left a lot of imprints in Western culture in fields ranging from military tactics to engineering to philosophy (when they weren't plagiarizing the Greeks) to rhetoric ([[Creator/{{Cicero}} Marcus Tullius Cicero]] especially) to politics and the nice big one, Law. law. The legal systems of most of Europe are wholesale stealings borrowings of Roman Law with some adjustments, and even English speaking English-speaking nations will find a lot of old Roman Law in their own (The (the first rule of codified Roman Law is otherwise known as the ''subpoena''.)
''subpoena'').
This list shows the last 10 events of 48. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.TheRomanRepublic