History UsefulNotes / TheRomanRepublic

22nd Sep '17 11:48:27 AM fgenzo159
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!!TropeNamer for:

* TheRepublic (from ''res publica'', "[government is a] public affair")
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15th Sep '17 7:15:35 AM Byzantine
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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocrat family, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocrat family, aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].
9th Sep '17 9:11:23 PM JulianLapostat
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Added DiffLines:

* MissionCreep: Modern historical takes on the Republic (namely Coleen [=McCullough=]'s works) usually invoke this as the true cause for the downfall of the Republic and the dawn of the Empire, rather than the more older (and still commonly found) theories (i.e. decline in political virtue, rise of ambitious men, and flouting of norms) that are more symptoms than causes:
** Rome's Republican institutions and civic culture was simply not up to the mark in governing a large swathe of land, and the sudden transformation of Rome, from regional power to Mediterranean superpower in the UsefulNotes/PunicWars, created a series of problems that Rome's political elite and institutions were unprepared, unwilling, and incapable of dealing with. For example, the wars led to a huge number of land, and a great number of slaves to enter into the property of a few wealthy patricians who bought up land that was intended to be sorted to and tended by Roman freedmen. The debate on how to deal with this land, and the failure to resolve it led to the Gracchian crisis which led to a polarization in Rome's patrician elite.
** The failure to effectively reward and honour Rome's fighting men, meant that many of them were dependent on generals to pay for them and look after their interests. The senate's refusal to heed their complaints led to greater weight to fall on the office of the tribunes creating a major crisis. This problem began in the Punic Wars itself, where Scipio Africanus had to go under the Senate to pay some of his men, and built a large clientele of soldiers who were dependent on him rather than the Roman patrician class. This fear of the power of the generals led the Senate to jealously guard important commands in Rome's various theaters, since each command, and potential victory, meant a rise in favour and glory of the generals. The failure to extend Roman citizenship to other Italic cities as suggested by the Gracchi and even some optimates led to the Socii Wars, and the Socii Wars in turn led to the Marius and Sulla wars, where two generals out of personal grudges and bitterness resented the fact that either one of them, and their respective faction, would get the prestigious command against King Mithradates.
27th Aug '17 4:29:35 PM JulianLapostat
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* UsefulNotes/MarcusLicinusCrassus

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* UsefulNotes/MarcusLicinusCrassusUsefulNotes/MarcusLiciniusCrassus
27th Aug '17 4:28:51 PM JulianLapostat
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[[index]]



* UsefulNotes/MarcusLicinusCrassus




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[[/index]]
8th Jul '17 1:39:21 PM nombretomado
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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocrat family, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

to:

The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocrat family, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at TheOtherWiki.Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].
22nd Apr '17 9:14:51 PM JulianLapostat
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** Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was a famous and celebrated socialite in her era, and so popular in her own right, that a Ptolemaic King proposed to her, which she refused. She had a loving marriage with Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and gave birth to 12 Children (which was such a huge deal that her own son Gaius, as per Plutarch, proudly boasted it as her accomplishment, which is fitting since childbirth was the number one killer of most women in the ancient world). Her children invoked Cornelia's chastity and virtue when appealing to people. When she died, long after her famous sons were killed, a statue was erected in her honour.

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** Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was a famous and celebrated socialite in her era, and so popular in her own right, that a Ptolemaic King proposed to her, which she refused. She had a loving marriage with Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and gave birth to 12 Children (which was such a huge deal that her own son Gaius, as per Plutarch, proudly boasted it as her accomplishment, which is fitting since childbirth was the number one killer of most women in the ancient world). Her children invoked Cornelia's chastity and virtue when appealing to people. When she died, long after her famous sons were killed, a statue was erected in her honour. Cicero's letters discuss her long afterwards which mentions her surviving letters that were apparently published and studied for its rhetorical qualities. The only things that survive is a disputed fragment by Cornelius Nepos' Latin biographers which is not seen as entirely authentic but it's indicative of how popular she was.
22nd Apr '17 7:20:40 PM JulianLapostat
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Added DiffLines:

* MommasBoy: Motherhood was a big part of Roman culture and many famous mothers of Romans were celebrated for their loving and nurturing nature, and many stories of mothers defending and protecting their children. It was considered right for Roman men to love and honor their mothers. Later authors, have noted startling similarities between this and the Virgin Mary motif in Christianity, seeing the latter as a HijackedByJesus take on this pre-existing mentality. Other historians note that the drastic contrast between the Republican cult of motherhood with that of the Empire (where Livia and Aggrippina are described as VicariouslyAmbitious evil matriarchs):
** Shakespeare's ''Theatre/{{Coriolanus}}'' actually depicts this quite accurately. Volumnia encourages Coriolanus' ambitions and is prized and celebrated for her virtue even as her son becomes a renegade. In the end, Volumnia tells her son to stand now and give up his rebellion against the Republic, which he obeys and the mother is celebrated as a hero of the city and an embodiment of its virtues. Volumnia wasn't there in Plutarch's account of Coriolanus (which is what Shakespeare used as a source) but the way he framed her is quite similar to other narratives in Plutarch and other Latin works available in Elizabethan chapbooks that [[CompositeCharacter might have inspired her characterization]].
** Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was a famous and celebrated socialite in her era, and so popular in her own right, that a Ptolemaic King proposed to her, which she refused. She had a loving marriage with Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and gave birth to 12 Children (which was such a huge deal that her own son Gaius, as per Plutarch, proudly boasted it as her accomplishment, which is fitting since childbirth was the number one killer of most women in the ancient world). Her children invoked Cornelia's chastity and virtue when appealing to people. When she died, long after her famous sons were killed, a statue was erected in her honour.
** Roman authors also saw Aurelia Cotta as TheMentor to her son UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar, since his father was mostly absent in his childhood, and the former spiritedly defended her headstrong son from the proscriptions of Sulla Felix.
22nd Apr '17 6:26:29 PM JulianLapostat
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* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Caesar, Cato, Cicero, Pompey, Spartacus, Mark Antony, Octavian, Sulla, Marius, Catilina, Scipio Africanus and the enemies of Rome, Hannibal Barca and Spartacus, appear in literature and works of art centuries after they walked the earth.

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* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Caesar, Cato, Cicero, Pompey, Spartacus, Mark Antony, Octavian, Sulla, Marius, Catilina, Scipio Africanus and the enemies of Rome, Hannibal Barca and Spartacus, appear in literature and works of art centuries after they walked the earth.



** Spartacus has received this almost unanimously since UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment. Creator/KarlMarx called him the greatest hero of the Ancient World, and he's celebrated for being a remarkably prodigious general leading a SlaveLiberation, a cause most people today wholeheartedly support. Of course, the only sources we have are Romans, who naturally won't be too keen on taking his side, but there's no evidence that Spartacus had goals for general abolition, or that he was seeking a revolution, which in any case doesn't mean his actions aren't SlaveLiberation or can't be seen as revolutionary (the many crucifixions overseen by Crassus certainly proves how the Romans saw it). It's also pointed out that Spartacus' servile army was largely composed of rural slaves and when they sacked towns, they tended to kill urban slaves and attracted little support from them, which while taking nothing from his exceptional story, does complicate the picture a little bit, and accounts for his overall failure.

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** Spartacus has received this almost unanimously since UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment. Creator/KarlMarx called him the greatest hero of the Ancient World, and he's celebrated for being a remarkably prodigious general leading a SlaveLiberation, a cause most people today wholeheartedly support. Of course, the only sources we have are Romans, who naturally won't be too keen on taking his side, but there's no evidence that Spartacus had goals for general abolition, or that he was seeking a revolution, which in any case doesn't mean his actions aren't SlaveLiberation or can't be seen as revolutionary (the many crucifixions overseen by Crassus certainly proves how the Romans saw it). It's also pointed out that Spartacus' servile army was largely composed of rural slaves and when they sacked towns, they tended to kill urban slaves and attracted little support from them, which while taking nothing away from his exceptional story, does complicate the picture a little bit, and accounts for his overall failure.failure.
* HistoricalVillainUpgrade: Catilina got this thanks to Cicero. He was a corrupt patrician who participated in Sulla's purges, and his involvement in some populare causes seems to have almost certainly been opportunistic. However there is serious debate if Catilina really was planning to overthrow the state in the manner Cicero framed it, or if the threat was serious enough to justify EmergencyAuthority and summary execution without trial. Sallust, who was a populare, criticized Catilina but he noted that he did have some good virtues and genuine grievances, and some see Cicero, Cato and other optimates making a scapegoat of Catilina to [[MakeAnExampleOfThem intimidate reformists]] and tarnish the populares by association.
22nd Apr '17 6:13:42 PM JulianLapostat
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** Spartacus has received this almost unanimously since UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment. Creator/KarlMarx cited him as the greatest hero of the Ancient World, and he's celebrated for being a remarkably prodigious general leading a SlaveLiberation, a cause most people today wholeheartedly support. Of course, the only sources we have are Romans, who naturally won't be too keen on taking his side, but there's no evidence that Spartacus had goals for general abolition, or that he was seeking a revolution, which in any case doesn't mean his actions aren't SlaveLiberation or can't be seen as revolutionary (the many crucifixions overseen by Crassus certainly proves how the Romans saw it). It's also pointed out that Spartacus' servile army was largely composed of rural slaves and when they sacked towns, they tended to kill urban slaves and attracted little support from them, which while taking nothing from his exceptional story, does complicate the picture a little bit, and accounts for his overall failure.

to:

** Spartacus has received this almost unanimously since UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment. Creator/KarlMarx cited called him as the greatest hero of the Ancient World, and he's celebrated for being a remarkably prodigious general leading a SlaveLiberation, a cause most people today wholeheartedly support. Of course, the only sources we have are Romans, who naturally won't be too keen on taking his side, but there's no evidence that Spartacus had goals for general abolition, or that he was seeking a revolution, which in any case doesn't mean his actions aren't SlaveLiberation or can't be seen as revolutionary (the many crucifixions overseen by Crassus certainly proves how the Romans saw it). It's also pointed out that Spartacus' servile army was largely composed of rural slaves and when they sacked towns, they tended to kill urban slaves and attracted little support from them, which while taking nothing from his exceptional story, does complicate the picture a little bit, and accounts for his overall failure.
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