History UsefulNotes / TheRomanEmpire

20th Jul '17 1:00:47 PM Jerry
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* TheSouthpaw
10th Jul '17 1:47:30 PM JulianLapostat
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The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting date is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservator restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of TheRepublic, with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled. One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve.

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The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting date is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservator conservative restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of TheRepublic, with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled. One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve.
10th Jul '17 1:46:30 PM JulianLapostat
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The Empire differed from the much later feudal notion of sucession, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. Under Augustus, the Emperor's reign was primarily civilian and judicial rather than military, and indeed Augustus actually reduced the size of the army and devalued many of its honors and substituted it with other institutions, including the PraetorianGuard. But this arrangement decayed under his successors and the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in time would be toppled by commanders in the army, and later Roman dynasties were likewise built from the successes of military strongmen, and by the time of Septimus Severus, the pretense that the office of the Empire was independent of the Army was dispensed with, marking the final decay of TheRemnant of the republican norms that had survived until then.

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The Empire differed from the much later feudal notion of sucession, succession, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. Under Augustus, the Emperor's reign was primarily civilian and judicial rather than military, and indeed Augustus actually reduced the size of the army and devalued many of its honors and substituted it with other institutions, including the PraetorianGuard. But this arrangement decayed under his successors and the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in time would be toppled by commanders in the army, and later Roman dynasties were likewise built from the successes of military strongmen, and by the time of Septimus Severus, the pretense that the office of the Empire was independent of the Army was dispensed with, marking the final decay of TheRemnant of the republican norms that had survived until then.



On the far side of the client states were so-called (by the Romans, borrowing a word from the Greeks) "barbarian" tribes who, being nomadic (the horsemen of the desert) or seminomadic (the Germans to the North moved between different permanent sites depending on the season) and lacking such features of civilization as money and stone monuments, were indifferent to Romanization. They liked Rome's wealth but wanted nothing of its culture. The client states surrounding Rome absorbed the repeated incursions of barbarian raiders so that Rome wouldn't have to. This is why Augustus, after expanding the empire, told his successor to stop doing that: eliminate the clients and Rome has to deal with the barbarians herself.

Barbarians weren't the only problem. In the East, Rome had a potent enemy in the Iranian empires of Arsacid Parthia (247 BC - AD 224) and Sassanid Persia (224 - 651). The client states to the east were essentially shuffled back and forth between Rome and Parthia/Persia in a kind of hegemonic great game, with each side more or less understanding that direct conflict between the two would be disastrous for both. Hence, the Kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}} became a buffer kingdom in which the Persians chose who'd be king of Armenia, and that king would travel to Rome to gain the Emperor's approval and be crowned. This kept conflict at a minimum between the two empires for some time.

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On the far side of the client states were so-called (by the Romans, borrowing a word from the Greeks) "barbarian" tribes who, being nomadic (the horsemen of the desert) or seminomadic (the Germans to the North moved between different permanent sites depending on the season) and lacking such features of civilization as money and stone monuments, were indifferent to Romanization. They liked Rome's wealth but wanted nothing of its culture. The client states surrounding Rome absorbed the repeated incursions of barbarian raiders so that Rome wouldn't have to. This is why Augustus, after expanding the empire, told his successor to stop doing that: eliminate the clients and Rome has to deal with the barbarians herself.

herself. Barbarians weren't the only problem. In the East, Rome had a potent enemy in the Iranian empires of Arsacid Parthia (247 BC - AD 224) and Sassanid Persia (224 - 651). The client states to the east were essentially shuffled back and forth between Rome and Parthia/Persia in a kind of hegemonic great game, with each side more or less understanding that direct conflict between the two would be disastrous for both. Hence, the Kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}} became a buffer kingdom in which the Persians chose who'd be king of Armenia, and that king would travel to Rome to gain the Emperor's approval and be crowned. This kept conflict at a minimum between the two empires for some time.
10th Jul '17 1:41:43 PM JulianLapostat
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The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting date is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservator restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of TheRepublic, with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled. One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve. The Empire differed from the feudal idea of rule, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. In time, the office of the Empire became dependent on the Army, especially in the reign of Septimus Severus.

to:

The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting date is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservator restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of TheRepublic, with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled. One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve. The Empire differed from the feudal idea of rule, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. In time, the office of the Empire became dependent on the Army, especially in the reign of Septimus Severus.


Added DiffLines:

The Empire differed from the much later feudal notion of sucession, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. Under Augustus, the Emperor's reign was primarily civilian and judicial rather than military, and indeed Augustus actually reduced the size of the army and devalued many of its honors and substituted it with other institutions, including the PraetorianGuard. But this arrangement decayed under his successors and the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in time would be toppled by commanders in the army, and later Roman dynasties were likewise built from the successes of military strongmen, and by the time of Septimus Severus, the pretense that the office of the Empire was independent of the Army was dispensed with, marking the final decay of TheRemnant of the republican norms that had survived until then.
4th Jul '17 12:20:04 PM JulianLapostat
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The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting debate is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating his last serious rival for control of Rome, Mark Antony, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". The pretense of a HereditaryRepublic lasted rather longer, but withered away.

to:

The Roman Empire succeeded UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic in the first century BC. The precise starting debate date is a subject for debate. It is generally thought to coincide with Octavian Caesar defeating his last serious rival for control of Rome, Mark Antony, Antony at the Battle of Actium, in 31 BC, or otherwise when he declared himself ''[[JustTheFirstCitizen Princeps]]'' in 27 B.C and was granted the honorific cognomen "Augustus". The Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservator restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of a TheRepublic, with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled. One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve. The Empire differed from the feudal idea of rule, in that it did not really have primogeniture, but carried the idea of HereditaryRepublic lasted rather longer, but withered away.
by means of [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily client-patronage relations]], and the concept of titles passing to the blood descendant came much later, with Marcus Aurelius, and became much more of a constant in the still later Eastern Roman Empire. In time, the office of the Empire became dependent on the Army, especially in the reign of Septimus Severus.
2nd Jul '17 4:08:58 AM Jormungar
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The afterlife of Rome is such that periodically many Kings and Emperors invoked it to see glory, fame and prestige. This often came at the expense of the land, property and lives of the people residing in Italy and Rome. Justinian and Belisarius' famed campaigns against the succeeding Ostragoths, as well as sacks by Arabs and other Kings, led to Rome becoming a shell of itself, significantly depopulating the city, at one point being reduced to less than 10,000 inhabitants, such that it would not revive until UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance. The end of Rome, led to the rise of competing city-states across the Peninsula, some of which such as Florence and Venice, became major European powers in their own right. But Italy itself for the next thousand years or more would remain without unification, vulnerable to the machinations of rival powers and periodically subject to sacks, looting and conquest until the Risorgimento. But even after that, Italy would [[DemotedToExtra never regain the political and military muscle of its ancient forbears]], with its biggest influence being in the realm of [[MasterOfAll science, commerce, art, literature, music and culture]]. The only time it would become a major political force in Europe again, was the era of UsefulNotes/FascistItaly which grounded itself on much Roman glory and nostalgia, proving once and for all, as Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico would put it, the divide and changes in values between the ancient and the modern era, and that there is such a thing as too much nostalgia for the days of imperial unity.

to:

The afterlife of Rome is such that periodically many Kings and Emperors invoked it to see glory, fame and prestige. This often came at the expense of the land, property and lives of the people residing in Italy and Rome. Justinian and Belisarius' famed campaigns against the succeeding Ostragoths, as well as sacks by Arabs and other Kings, led to Rome becoming a shell of itself, significantly depopulating the city, at one point being reduced to less than 10,000 inhabitants, such that it would not revive until UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance.UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance, at one point being reduced to more or less a collection of villages interspersed with ruins and vegetation with less than 10,000 inhabitants. The end of Rome, led to the rise of competing city-states across the Peninsula, some of which such as Florence and Venice, became major European powers in their own right. But Italy itself for the next thousand years or more would remain without unification, vulnerable to the machinations of rival powers and periodically subject to sacks, looting and conquest until the Risorgimento. But even after that, Italy would [[DemotedToExtra never regain the political and military muscle of its ancient forbears]], with its biggest influence being in the realm of [[MasterOfAll science, commerce, art, literature, music and culture]]. The only time it would become a major political force in Europe again, was the era of UsefulNotes/FascistItaly which grounded itself on much Roman glory and nostalgia, proving once and for all, as Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico would put it, the divide and changes in values between the ancient and the modern era, and that there is such a thing as too much nostalgia for the days of imperial unity.
2nd Jul '17 4:03:04 AM Jormungar
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The afterlife of Rome is such that periodically many Kings and Emperors invoked it to see glory, fame and prestige. This often came at the expense of the land, property and lives of the people residing in Italy and Rome. Justinian and Belisarius' famed campaigns against the succeeding Ostragoths, as well as sacks by Arabs and other Kings, led to Rome becoming a shell of itself, significantly depopulating the city to an extent that it would not revive until UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance. The end of Rome, led to the rise of competing city-states across the Peninsula, some of which such as Florence and Venice, became major European powers in their own right. But Italy itself for the next thousand years or more would remain without unification, vulnerable to the machinations of rival powers and periodically subject to sacks, looting and conquest until the Risorgimento. But even after that, Italy would [[DemotedToExtra never regain the political and military muscle of its ancient forbears]], with its biggest influence being in the realm of [[MasterOfAll science, commerce, art, literature, music and culture]]. The only time it would become a major political force in Europe again, was the era of UsefulNotes/FascistItaly which grounded itself on much Roman glory and nostalgia, proving once and for all, as Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico would put it, the divide and changes in values between the ancient and the modern era, and that there is such a thing as too much nostalgia for the days of imperial unity.

to:

The afterlife of Rome is such that periodically many Kings and Emperors invoked it to see glory, fame and prestige. This often came at the expense of the land, property and lives of the people residing in Italy and Rome. Justinian and Belisarius' famed campaigns against the succeeding Ostragoths, as well as sacks by Arabs and other Kings, led to Rome becoming a shell of itself, significantly depopulating the city city, at one point being reduced to an extent less than 10,000 inhabitants, such that it would not revive until UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance. The end of Rome, led to the rise of competing city-states across the Peninsula, some of which such as Florence and Venice, became major European powers in their own right. But Italy itself for the next thousand years or more would remain without unification, vulnerable to the machinations of rival powers and periodically subject to sacks, looting and conquest until the Risorgimento. But even after that, Italy would [[DemotedToExtra never regain the political and military muscle of its ancient forbears]], with its biggest influence being in the realm of [[MasterOfAll science, commerce, art, literature, music and culture]]. The only time it would become a major political force in Europe again, was the era of UsefulNotes/FascistItaly which grounded itself on much Roman glory and nostalgia, proving once and for all, as Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico would put it, the divide and changes in values between the ancient and the modern era, and that there is such a thing as too much nostalgia for the days of imperial unity.
26th Jun '17 6:22:06 AM Jhonny
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A peacemaker who pulled back from several areas conquered by Trajan. Traveled around the empire, and built the eponymous wall in Britain. Known for vehemently supporting Greek culture, almost to a bizarre degree. He is also remembered by Jews for being the Emperor who brutally crushed the Bar Kochba revolt, renaming Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and generally making things harder for them. His reign was obscure with relatively few historical depictions. One exception is Marguerite Yourcenar's classic ''Memoirs of Hadrian''.

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A peacemaker who pulled back from several areas conquered by Trajan. Traveled around the empire, and built the eponymous wall in Britain. Known for vehemently supporting Greek culture, almost to a bizarre degree. He is also remembered by Jews for being the Emperor who brutally crushed the Bar Kochba revolt, renaming Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and generally making things harder for them. His reign was obscure with relatively few historical depictions. One exception is Marguerite Yourcenar's classic ''Memoirs of Hadrian''.
Hadrian''. Had a male favorite deified after said favorite died young (sources disagree as to whether it was an accident, illness, murder, human sacrifice or some combination thereof). One of the emperors called gay most often by modern commenters
26th Jun '17 6:19:47 AM Jhonny
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Vespasian's eldest son, who waged a successful war against the Jews early in his life, which would have long-lasting consequences for Christianity and Judaism. He also organized relief efforts after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius which devastated the surrounding area. Died of a sudden illness two years into his reign.

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Vespasian's eldest son, who waged a successful war against the Jews early in his life, which would have long-lasting consequences for Christianity and Judaism. He also organized relief efforts after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius which devastated the surrounding area. Died of a sudden illness two years into his reign.
reign. Often seen as (one of) the best emperors by Roman authors, mostly by virtue of him reigning too shortly to piss any important group off too much.
23rd Jun '17 7:47:02 PM RogueLeader
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[[AC:'''Constantinian Dynasty''']]



[[AC:'''The Elected Non-Dynast''']]



[[AC:'''Valentinian Dynasty''']]



Last emperor to rule over east and west. Banned all religions except Christianity. Split the Empire after his death, the west going to Honorius and the east going to Arcadius.

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Last emperor to rule over east and west. Banned all religions except Christianity. Split the Empire after his death, death for the final time, the west going to Honorius and the east going to Arcadius.


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[[AC:'''The Last Emperors in the West''']]
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