History UsefulNotes / TheRomanEmpire

23rd Mar '17 2:05:44 PM DarkPhoenix94
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Toward the end of the empire's existence, Rome gradually gave up on more and more territory as undefendable. Repeated incursions by hostile forces destroyed the population, the buildings, and the land. By the time the city of Rome was sacked, the Empire`s territory in the West had shrunk to more or less that of modern Italy. Rome itself was sacked multiple times during the fifth century and is seen as the final coda on the death of the empire. The Eastern, or Byzantine, empire continued for another thousand years, having much more secure natural borders and making better use of natural resources. Further, the density of hostile barbarians was much less in Western Asia than in Northern Europe, at least until the rise of, variously, the Mongols and Islam. It was Muslim Turks who finally conquered Constantinople, destroying the last remnant of the empire. For a time, Byzantium reached out, claimed, and held onto a significant portion of the Western empire (including modern Italy) in the sixth century, but it, too, had to retreat from those claims.

The ultimate end of the Empire was really due more to its internal struggles than to outside threats like the Germans or Persians. In truth, those groups merely capitalized on the failure of the Roman state. They were an effect -not a cause- of the Fall of Rome.

The reasons for the crumbling of the Western half of the Empire[[note]]as mentioned above, the East stayed strong for roughly a millennium after the West fell[[/note]] are still hotly debated to this day, but a few common things are agreed upon. First and foremost, the Roman economy began to falter. The massive excesses of wealth did bring inflation, but the real killer of the Empire was a lack of land. In Antiquity, land was far more valuable than money, and it was more or less the primary good for exchanges between those in the upperclass. Your wealth was not defined by how much gold you had stockpiled, but by how much land and how many resources you owned. If anything, currency was for the commoners to trade and peddle with on the streets. During the early days of the Roman Empire, land was quite abundant due to the massive conquests of the legions. Legionaries were granted land in exchange for service. However, many of those legionaries came from poor backgrounds[[note]]The reforms of Gaius Marius allowed all Romans to serve in the legions, not just nobles. Later reforms also introduced state-purchased equipment, meaning you no longer had to bring your own stuff to the field, and they also introduced the Auxilia, which were non-citizens from newly conquered Roman provinces or client states who wanted to gain land and citizenship through military service[[/note]], they could not afford to sustain their land during the economic crisis of the 3rd and 4th centuries. Meanwhile, as the empire stopped continuously conquering land after the reign of Trajan, the soldiers were paid actually, hard currency. Of course, this became a problem, as the Roman Legions were very numerous and more and more pay increases were needed to keep them staffed. Ultimately, this led to mass inflation.

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Toward the end of the empire's existence, Rome gradually gave up on more and more territory as undefendable. Repeated incursions by hostile forces destroyed the population, the buildings, and the land. By the time the city of Rome was sacked, the Empire`s territory in the West had shrunk to more or less that of modern Italy. Rome itself was sacked multiple times during the fifth century and is seen as the final coda on the death of the empire. The Eastern, or Byzantine, empire continued for another thousand years, having much more secure natural borders borders, a nigh impregnable fall-back point in the form of Constantinople, and making better use of the significantly more abundant natural resources. Further, the density of hostile barbarians was much less in Western Asia than in Northern Europe, at least until the rise of, variously, the Mongols and Islam. It was Muslim Ottoman Turks who finally conquered Constantinople, destroying the last remnant of the empire. For a time, Byzantium reached out, claimed, and held onto actually reconquered a significant portion of the Western empire (including North Africa, Sicily, modern Italy) Italy and parts of Spain) in the sixth century, but century under Justinian I thanks to Flavius Belisarius and Narses. But it, too, had to retreat from those claims.

claims, losing the last of North Africa to the Muslims in 698 after the Siege of Carthage and the remains of Italy to the Normans in 1071 after the Siege of Bari.

The ultimate end of the Empire was really due more to its internal struggles than to outside threats like the Germans or Persians. In truth, those groups merely capitalized on the failure of the Roman state. They were an effect -not - not a cause- cause - of the Fall of Rome.

The reasons for the crumbling of the Western half of the Empire[[note]]as mentioned above, the East stayed strong for roughly a millennium after the West fell[[/note]] are still hotly debated to this day, but a few common things are agreed upon. First and foremost, the Roman economy began to falter. The massive excesses of wealth did bring inflation, but the real killer of the Empire was a lack of land. In Antiquity, land was far more valuable than money, and it was more or less the primary good for exchanges between those in the upperclass.upper class. Your wealth was not defined by how much gold you had stockpiled, but by how much land and how many resources you owned. If anything, currency was for the commoners to trade and peddle with on the streets. During the early days of the Roman Empire, land was quite abundant due to the massive conquests of the legions. Legionaries were granted land in exchange for service. However, many of those legionaries came from poor backgrounds[[note]]The reforms of Gaius Marius allowed all Romans to serve in the legions, not just nobles. Later reforms also introduced state-purchased equipment, meaning you no longer had to bring your own stuff to the field, and they also introduced the Auxilia, which were non-citizens from newly conquered Roman provinces or client states who wanted to gain land and citizenship through military service[[/note]], they could not afford to sustain their land during the economic crisis of the 3rd and 4th centuries. Meanwhile, as the empire stopped continuously conquering land after the reign of Trajan, the soldiers were paid actually, hard currency. Of course, this became a problem, as the Roman Legions were very numerous and more and more pay increases were needed to keep them staffed. Ultimately, this led to mass inflation.
23rd Mar '17 2:00:54 PM DarkPhoenix94
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Although the Pax Romana specifically refers to a phenomenon in the Mediterranean world, the fact is that the period was marked by unusual peace across a solid belt across the Eurasian civilized world from the Atlantic to the Pacific, controlled by four great empires: Rome in the west; with Persia to its east; and then to Persia's east the Kushan and Gupta empires in Afghanistan and northern India; and to the east of both of those the [[UsefulNotes/DynastiesFromShangToQing Han Dynasty]] held not only the Chinese heartland but also the Tarim Basin in modern Xinjiang. This is arguably the first period of "proto-globalization,"[[note]]the Hellenistic period might also count, although frankly the Greek kingdoms kept fighting each other and China was disunited, which put a serious damper on trade[[/note]] as in this time, the influence of the four large empires (Rome, Persia, India, and China) made regular cross-Eurasian trade not merely a reality, but big business. Although restricted to luxuries -- nothing else was worth shipping that far -- there was unquestionably regular trade, with the Romans developing a taste for Eastern silk and spices, the Chinese developing an interest in Roman glassware, and everything in between. (The Han, by the way, sent an explorer to Rome, who left a fairly detailed report; they seem to have greatly respected Rome, seeing it as a Western mirror to themselves and calling it ''Daqin'': Great China.) Ideas also travelled: Christianity made its way to India and Central Asia in this time, finding moderate purchase; late in the period, the Persian Manichaeism spread to Rome and China. At the same time, fighting was restricted to proxy wars at the fringes of the great empires. This period of peace ended, however, after plagues swept Rome and China in the third century. Rome managed to hang on for another two centuries, but only just (see below); the Han [[Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms met their fate quicker]].

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Although the Pax Romana specifically refers to a phenomenon in the Mediterranean world, the fact is that the period was marked by unusual peace across a solid belt across the Eurasian civilized world from the Atlantic to the Pacific, controlled by four great empires: Rome in the west; with Persia to its east; and then to Persia's east the Kushan and Gupta empires in Afghanistan and northern India; and to the east of both of those the [[UsefulNotes/DynastiesFromShangToQing Han Dynasty]] held not only the Chinese heartland but also the Tarim Basin in modern Xinjiang. This is arguably the first period of "proto-globalization,"[[note]]the Hellenistic period might also count, although frankly the Greek kingdoms kept fighting each other and China was disunited, which put a serious damper on trade[[/note]] as in this time, the influence of the four large empires (Rome, Persia, India, and China) made regular cross-Eurasian trade not merely a reality, but big business. Although restricted to luxuries -- nothing else was worth shipping that far -- there was unquestionably regular trade, with the Romans developing a taste for Eastern silk and spices, the Chinese developing an interest in Roman glassware, and everything in between. (The Han, by the way, sent an explorer to Rome, who didn't quite reach Rome at the insistence of the Parthians, who were justifiably terrified of the two imperial juggernauts to their East and West deciding to meet in the middle. Nevertheless, he left a fairly detailed report; they report, if one coloured by Chinese mythological views of the West; the Han seem to have greatly respected Rome, seeing it as a Western mirror to themselves and calling it ''Daqin'': Great China.) Ideas also travelled: Christianity made its way to India and Central Asia in this time, finding moderate purchase; late in the period, the Persian Manichaeism spread to Rome and China. At the same time, fighting was restricted to proxy wars at the fringes of the great empires. This period of peace ended, however, after plagues swept Rome and China in the third century. Rome The Western Roman Empire managed to hang on for another two centuries, but only just (see below); below), while the East held on for another 1200 years; the Han [[Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms met their fate quicker]].
18th Mar '17 4:54:29 AM v2
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Thus, over the course of the century, the Germans would gradually bite off slices of the Western Empire for themselves while the Huns and other groups sacked and raided the ever-loving crap out of the Empire. The Huns tore through the Balkans and Greece, attacking one of the wealthiest and most urban parts of the Empire, but falling short of sacking Constantinople itself. They defeated the Romans twice and forced Theodosius to pay them a massive sum in tribute. Then they set their sites on Gaul.

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Thus, over the course of the century, the Germans would gradually bite off slices of the Western Empire for themselves while the Huns and other groups sacked and raided the ever-loving crap out of the Empire. The Huns tore through the Balkans and Greece, attacking one of the wealthiest and most urban parts of the Empire, but falling short of sacking Constantinople itself. They defeated the Romans twice and forced Theodosius to pay them a massive sum in tribute. Then they set their sites sights on Gaul.
3rd Mar '17 10:35:44 PM Xtifr
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-->--'''Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar'''

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-->--'''Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar'''
-->--'''UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar'''



-->--'''UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}}''', ordering the death of Cleopatra's son (and supposedly Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar's bastard)

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-->--'''UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}}''', ordering the death of Cleopatra's son (and supposedly Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar's UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar's bastard)



Oh, and, just in case you did not know, Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar was ''not'' an emperor. He died almost 20 years before Rome became an empire, for that matter. It is true, though, that he was a monarch in all but name by the time he died, and played a critical role in helping Rome transition into an empire.

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Oh, and, just in case you did not know, Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar was ''not'' an emperor. He died almost 20 years before Rome became an empire, for that matter. It is true, though, that he was a monarch in all but name by the time he died, and played a critical role in helping Rome transition into an empire.
12th Feb '17 2:08:40 PM Jhonny
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The results of the Crisis were dire. Trade broke down due to an increase in banditry, as the garrisons and peacekeepers were spread thin by the war. Entire regions were depopulated, either by constant fighting between the Legions (as in Italy) or constant raids from external enemies (as in Gaul). This caused the disruption in the fragile agriculture network that the highly urbanized empire was so dependent on. The Empire could sustain such massive cities through the vast plantation estates of the wealthy, farmed often by slaves but sometimes by poor tenant farmers, as mentioned above. This caused massive famines and people were forced to abandon the cities and take on a life of farming just to survive. To make matters worse, climate change had devastated Europe. Those raiding Germans weren't just pillaging ForTheEvulz, they were migrating to escape the colder winters that were setting in. This also caused food prices to increase, further encouraging inflation and agrarianism. And to make things [[FromBadToWorse even worse]], a plague broke out near the tail end of the 3rd Century. The Empire was poised right then and there to fall, but Emperor Aurelian held it together somehow, and Diocletian split it in two in an effort to prevent a conflict of interest.

The later Germanic invasions were simply the final nail in the coffin. The Crisis had put such a damper on Rome that not even the revitalizing reign of Constantine could reverse the Empire's decline. What is certain, however, is that Rome was largely the one responsible for its own downfall.

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The results of the Crisis were dire. Trade broke down due to an increase in banditry, as the garrisons and peacekeepers were spread thin by the war. Entire regions were depopulated, either by constant fighting between the Legions (as in Italy) or constant raids from external enemies (as in Gaul). This caused the disruption in the fragile agriculture network that the highly urbanized empire was so dependent on. The Empire could sustain such massive cities through the vast plantation estates of the wealthy, farmed often by slaves but sometimes by poor tenant farmers, as mentioned above. This caused massive famines and people were forced to abandon the cities and take on a life of farming just to survive. To make matters worse, climate change had devastated Europe. Those raiding Germans weren't just pillaging ForTheEvulz, they were migrating to escape the colder winters that were setting in. This also caused food prices to increase, further encouraging inflation and agrarianism. And to make things [[FromBadToWorse even worse]], a plague broke out near the tail end of the 3rd Century. The Empire was poised right then and there to fall, but Emperor Aurelian held it together somehow, and Diocletian split it in two in an effort to prevent a conflict of interest.

interest. As Creator/MikeDuncan points out in his Podcast/TheHistoryOfRome Podcast, the question as to why the Empire survived the 3rd century but didn't survive the 5th century has many of the same answers. The empire failed to fully integrate the tribes that had settled on their land, turning them from potential allies into rivals and later enemies. Furthermore, there were no "Germanic emperors" unlike the Illyrian Emperors that were drawn from the top talent of "barbarians" and provincials - this inability to use a potentially vast talent pool to its fullest extent made governing that much harder.

The later Germanic invasions were simply the final nail in the coffin. The Crisis had put such a damper on Rome that not even the revitalizing reign of Constantine could reverse the Empire's decline. What is certain, however, is that Rome was largely the one responsible for its own downfall.
downfall. Constatine's reign furthermore introduced a new layer of problems that would continue to hamper the Eastern Empire centuries after the fall of the Western Empire - by ''de facto'' replacing the various cults in the old Roman Empire with Christianity, religious disputes became political disputes and heterodoxy in religious matters became treason in political matters. Thus the Empire had to spend enormous resources on keeping religious cohesion. Some scholars argue that Egypt and the Levant fell as easily as they did when the Muslim armies came knocking because being a dhimmi under Muslim rule seemed preferable to being an apostate under byzantine rule. And Egypt in particular was a center of all kinds of heterodox Christianity.
11th Feb '17 8:48:08 PM DoktorSoviet
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The reasons for the crumbling of the Western half of the Empire[[note]]as mentioned above, the East stayed strong for roughly a millennium after the West fell[[/note]] are still hotly debated to this day, but a few common things are agreed upon. First and foremost, the Roman economy began to falter. The massive excesses of wealth did bring inflation, but the real killer of the Empire was a lack of land. In Antiquity, land was far more valuable than money, and it was more or less the primary good for exchanges between those in the upperclass. Your wealth was not defined by how much gold you had stockpiled, but by how much land and how many resources you owned. If anything, currency was for the commoners to trade and peddle with on the streets. During the early days of the Roman Empire, land was quite abundant due to the massive conquests of the legions. Legionaries were granted land in exchange for service. However, many of those legionaries came from poor backgrounds[[note]]The reforms of Gaius Marius allowed all Romans to serve in the legions, not just nobles. Later reforms also introduced state-purchased equipment, meaning you no longer had to bring your own stuff to the field, and they also introduced the Auxilia, which were non-citizens from newly conquered Roman provinces or client states who wanted to gain land and citizenship through military service[[/note]], they could not afford to sustain their land during the economic crisis of the 3rd and 4th centuries. Thus, they often sold their land to wealthy land owners and started a life of tenant farming, which some link to the foundation of serfdom. The widening class divide was a sign of the Empire's decline, as the Empire had formerly been a place of great social mobility in comparison to most places in Antiquity. It also meant that there was an increasing reliance on money for exchanges instead of, say, bartered goods or land exchanges, and this proved disastrous once that currency became devalued. The widespread poverty may have been one of the factors in the spread of Christianity. After all, the poor would want to follow a religion in which all men are equal under the eyes of God, instead of the Greco-Roman pantheon with JerkassGods that typically favored the rich and powerful in the afterlife.

to:

The reasons for the crumbling of the Western half of the Empire[[note]]as mentioned above, the East stayed strong for roughly a millennium after the West fell[[/note]] are still hotly debated to this day, but a few common things are agreed upon. First and foremost, the Roman economy began to falter. The massive excesses of wealth did bring inflation, but the real killer of the Empire was a lack of land. In Antiquity, land was far more valuable than money, and it was more or less the primary good for exchanges between those in the upperclass. Your wealth was not defined by how much gold you had stockpiled, but by how much land and how many resources you owned. If anything, currency was for the commoners to trade and peddle with on the streets. During the early days of the Roman Empire, land was quite abundant due to the massive conquests of the legions. Legionaries were granted land in exchange for service. However, many of those legionaries came from poor backgrounds[[note]]The reforms of Gaius Marius allowed all Romans to serve in the legions, not just nobles. Later reforms also introduced state-purchased equipment, meaning you no longer had to bring your own stuff to the field, and they also introduced the Auxilia, which were non-citizens from newly conquered Roman provinces or client states who wanted to gain land and citizenship through military service[[/note]], they could not afford to sustain their land during the economic crisis of the 3rd and 4th centuries. Thus, they often sold their Meanwhile, as the empire stopped continuously conquering land after the reign of Trajan, the soldiers were paid actually, hard currency. Of course, this became a problem, as the Roman Legions were very numerous and more and more pay increases were needed to keep them staffed. Ultimately, this led to mass inflation.

From this, the latifunda system was born. Latifunda was essentially a system of sharecropping where
wealthy nobles owned and operated large plantation farms. The Crisis of the Third Century, a time of unbridled civil war that lasted decades, saw a decline in the urban population, and the urban poor flocked to these latifunda plantations. You see, the mass inflation made the price of food -bread in particular- go up immensely. The urban poor were very susceptible to price changes. There was also widespread banditry, looting, and attacks by Germanic tribes that reduced commerce further [[note]]descriptions of Gaul in the Third Century are pretty much apocalyptic, with entire villages abandoned due to raiding, rampant piracy, and highwaymen everywhere[[/note]] and caused food prices to increase more. Thus, the urban poor had no choice but to strike out to the country to start farming themselves. However, as previously mentioned, most of the land owners had been purchased cheaply from legionaries and started a life of the like by nobles. Thus, the urban poor had to work as tenant farming, which some link to farmers. It is argued that this was the foundation start of serfdom.the serfdom in Europe. The widening class divide was a sign of the Empire's decline, as the Empire had formerly been a place of great social mobility in comparison to most places in Antiquity. It also meant that there was an increasing reliance on money for exchanges instead of, say, bartered goods or land exchanges, and this proved disastrous once that currency became devalued. The widespread poverty may have been one of the factors in the spread of Christianity. After all, the poor would want to follow a religion in which all men are equal under the eyes of God, instead of the Greco-Roman pantheon with JerkassGods that typically favored the rich and powerful in the afterlife.


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It wasn't until the 5th Century that the Western Empire actually fell, though. Early into the 5th Century, Germanic tribes migrated southward as the climate grew colder. The Empire had to accommodate these tribes, so the decision was made to allow them to settle the depopulated lands of the Empire, sometimes in exchange for military service. Tribes like the Vandals and Suebi were settled in Hispania, for example.

However, tensions were always high between the two. The Germanic tribesmen were often looked down upon and derided as barbarians, and the Germans did not seem to really respect the Romans either. Fighting inevitably broke out, and that fighting spiraled into war. However, things wouldn't get really bad until UsefulNotes/AttilaTheHun showed up. In the 420s the Huns started to make incursions into Europe. The origin of the Hunnic people isn't fully known, but they appear to be an Altaic people, possibly related to a group described in Chinese sources from a few centuries prior. In 434, Attila and his brother Bleda took joint command of the Hunnic tribes and started raiding the lands of the Eastern Roman Empire and parts of Germany. The Germanic tribes underwent a mass exodus to flee from the Huns, and wound up running straight into Roman territory.

Thus, over the course of the century, the Germans would gradually bite off slices of the Western Empire for themselves while the Huns and other groups sacked and raided the ever-loving crap out of the Empire. The Huns tore through the Balkans and Greece, attacking one of the wealthiest and most urban parts of the Empire, but falling short of sacking Constantinople itself. They defeated the Romans twice and forced Theodosius to pay them a massive sum in tribute. Then they set their sites on Gaul.

Attila [[RapePillageAndBurn raided and pillaged]] his way through Germania and Gaul until finally an army of Roman and Visigothic troops managed to defeat [[note]]Well nobody knows if it was an actual defeat, really, since we have few sources on the subject. It does appear to be a strategic Roman victory though, at the least[[/note]] him at the Battle of Catalaunian Plains (also known as the Battle of Chalons). Attila was forced to withdraw, but he continued his raiding and pillaging until 453, when he died at a feast due to internal hemorrhaging.

By that point, it was too late. The Western Roman Empire was pretty much beyond the point of no return. The Visigoths had already sacked the Shining City in 410, and it hadn't even been the capital of the Empire for over a decade [[note]]The city of Mediolanum, which is modern day Milan, had been the temporary capital until 402 AD, when Ravenna became the new capital.[[/note]]. It was sacked again in 455, this time by the Vandals in one of their many raids across the Mediterranean. Interesting, the Visigoths would later go on to fight alongside the Romans.

By the time Attila died, the Empire had lost territory in Aquitania, Gallicia, and Africa. However, the official end of the Empire came in 476 AD, when Odoacer, a soldier of German descent, took Rome and became the de facto ruler. he nominally claimed to rule in the stead of the emperor Julius Nepos, but Nepos died in 480 AD, which is what some consider to be the actual final date of the Western Roman Empire.

However, the Empire survived in the East for almost a thousand years more as the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire, until Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. Some historians consider ''that'' to be the ''actual'' final date of the Empire, for real this time.
8th Jan '17 12:17:49 PM Morgenthaler
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* Roman Salute - There is little evidence that actual Romans actually saluted each other by raising their right hands above their heads, palm facing downward. Nevertheless, the image was associated with Roman Republicanism (via paintings by J-L David, among others) and became popularized during the French Revolution and thereafter. It was adopted by many Americans (as Bellamy Salute), by UsefulNotes/FascistItaly (the Roman Salute), UsefulNotes/NaziGermany (the Nazi salute), and many other political movements, although, after WorldWar2, its popularity receded drastically.

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* Roman Salute - There is little evidence that actual Romans actually saluted each other by raising their right hands above their heads, palm facing downward. Nevertheless, the image was associated with Roman Republicanism (via paintings by J-L David, among others) and became popularized during the French Revolution and thereafter. It was adopted by many Americans (as Bellamy Salute), by UsefulNotes/FascistItaly (the Roman Salute), UsefulNotes/NaziGermany (the Nazi salute), and many other political movements, although, after WorldWar2, UsefulNotes/WorldWar2, its popularity receded drastically.
19th Dec '16 8:23:58 PM karstovich2
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Former governor of Judea and last of the "four emperors". A very competent administrator and military leader. Defeated the UsefulNotes/JewishRevolts and built the Colosseum. According to some, the MessianicArchetype prophecy referred to him.

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Former governor of Judea and last of the "four emperors". A very competent administrator and military leader. Defeated the UsefulNotes/JewishRevolts and built the Colosseum. According to some, the MessianicArchetype prophecy referred to him.
him. He also left his mark on several modern European languages: Because he imposed a tax on the collection of urine,[[note]]In Rome, urine was collected in great vats, and was then taken by collectors for sale to various industries, including tanners and launderers (the ammonia gets togas white. What?)[[/note]] urinals, especially public ones, are known by words derived from his name in several Continental languages (e.g. ''vespasienne'' in French and ''vespasiano'' in Italian).



* DeadpanSnarker: His main trait. Vespasian is said to have dealed the snark even when he was sick and about to die. As he lay in his deathbed with knowledge that his successor would have the Senate deify him, he declared: ''"Oh, dammit I think I'm becoming a god."'' (Ut puto, deus fio.)

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* DeadpanSnarker: His main trait. Well, that and ToiletHumor.
**
Vespasian is said to have dealed dealt the snark even when he was sick and about to die. As he lay in his deathbed with knowledge that his successor would have the Senate deify him, he declared: ''"Oh, dammit I think I'm becoming a god."'' (Ut puto, deus fio.) )
** Another bit of snark related to the aforementioned urine tax: Vespasian's son Titus was expressing discomfort with raising Imperial funds with money from pee, and in response Vespasian gave Titus a coin from the day's haul and asked him, "Here. Does it stink?" Titus said, "No." Vespasian replied, "And yet it comes from piss." (This led to a proverb: "''Pecunia non olet''"--"Money does not stink.")
16th Dec '16 9:41:43 PM karstovich2
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Another cousin of Caracalla and Elagabalus. Did his best, but was very [[MommasBoy dominated by his mother]]. Was murdered by his soldiers after trying to negotiate with the German tribes as opposed to fighting them on the battlefield.

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Another young cousin of Caracalla and Elagabalus. Did his best, Rather a MommasBoy, but was very [[MommasBoy dominated by his mother]]. Was shaping up to be a fair, wise, and competent emperor when he was unceremoniously murdered by his soldiers after for trying to negotiate with the German tribes as opposed to fighting them on the battlefield.
battlefield.
16th Dec '16 9:35:09 PM karstovich2
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[[folder:Podcasts]]
* Creator/MikeDuncan's ''Podcast/TheHistoryOfRome'' details the history of Rome from the legendary founding by Romulus to the deposition of Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer in 476. Even though Duncan is partial to the middle Republican period, the bulk of the work is spent on the Imperial period, in part because it is more complex and in part because more sources are available for a longer period of time.
[[/folder]]
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.TheRomanEmpire