History UsefulNotes / TheIrishRevolution

17th Oct '16 3:17:06 PM Morgenthaler
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Fighting began the same day, with a (technically unauthorized) IRA ambush of RIC members transporting gelignite, at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. The Irish Republican Army had been formed in 1918 under Michael Collins, which Dáil Eireann had no control over (the IRA did not officially swear loyalty to them until August 1920), and the Dáil was banned in August of 1919, with its entire cabinet being arrested save Collins (in fact only 27 of the 73 candidates elected were out of prison to attend when the Dáil first assembled). The IRA went on to fight British forces by guerrilla methods, with great success. Collins pioneered urban guerrilla tactics which later movements used from Israel to China. In 1920, British WW1 veterans were sent in as auxiliary troops and police reservists. Becoming known as "Black and Tans" due to the color of their uniforms, they were notorious for brutality, and were disliked for it even by many British officers. Irish hatred for British forces on their soil was fueled even more when, in the space of a week, Lord Mayor of Cork Terence [=MacSwiney=] died after a 74-day hunger strike that brought Britain international criticism, and an 18-year old medical student and member of the IRA, Kevin Barry, was sentenced to death and hanged on FelonyMurder charges, though he had not actually killed anyone. This served only to harden resistance, and the underground Irish government gained control of most rural areas, even setting up its own Republican courts that handled both civil and criminal cases. Although these were not empowered to pass death sentences on prisoners, IRA military tribunals that convicted people of collaborating with British forces could and did, along with with its mainly extrajudicial killings, especially of police officers, informants or intelligence agents. For its part, the British administration put to death 24 IRA members (including Kevin Barry) convicted of various offences, and Munster was under martial law. As Irish coroner's juries repeatedly found that British forces had committed crimes against civilians, inquests were transferred to the military courts of inquiry, which then whitewashed atrocities. Such abuses merely served to increase support for the Republicans.

to:

Fighting began the same day, with a (technically unauthorized) IRA ambush of RIC members transporting gelignite, at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. The Irish Republican Army had been formed in 1918 under Michael Collins, which Dáil Eireann had no control over (the IRA did not officially swear loyalty to them until August 1920), and the Dáil was banned in August of 1919, with its entire cabinet being arrested save Collins (in fact only 27 of the 73 candidates elected were out of prison to attend when the Dáil first assembled). The IRA went on to fight British forces by guerrilla methods, with great success. Collins pioneered urban guerrilla tactics which later movements used from Israel to China. In 1920, British WW1 UsefulNotes/WW1 veterans were sent in as auxiliary troops and police reservists. Becoming known as "Black and Tans" due to the color of their uniforms, they were notorious for brutality, and were disliked for it even by many British officers. Irish hatred for British forces on their soil was fueled even more when, in the space of a week, Lord Mayor of Cork Terence [=MacSwiney=] died after a 74-day hunger strike that brought Britain international criticism, and an 18-year old medical student and member of the IRA, Kevin Barry, was sentenced to death and hanged on FelonyMurder charges, though he had not actually killed anyone. This served only to harden resistance, and the underground Irish government gained control of most rural areas, even setting up its own Republican courts that handled both civil and criminal cases. Although these were not empowered to pass death sentences on prisoners, IRA military tribunals that convicted people of collaborating with British forces could and did, along with with its mainly extrajudicial killings, especially of police officers, informants or intelligence agents. For its part, the British administration put to death 24 IRA members (including Kevin Barry) convicted of various offences, and Munster was under martial law. As Irish coroner's juries repeatedly found that British forces had committed crimes against civilians, inquests were transferred to the military courts of inquiry, which then whitewashed atrocities. Such abuses merely served to increase support for the Republicans.
16th Sep '16 11:16:33 AM Morgenthaler
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In 1912, Westminster passed the Home Rule Bill (1914) for Ireland, meaning that Ireland would re-establish its own Parliament (something which it had lost in 1801 through the Act Of Union). Unionists, usually Protestants descended from those imported to replace the rebellious Earl of Tyrone's subjects (the 'Plantation of Ulster') under Elizabeth I and further immigration after the devastation of the EnglishCivilWar (which had hit eastern Ireland hardest of all), who desired continued rule of the country from Westminster, strongly opposed Home Rule as disloyalty to Britain (even though the Irish Parliamentary Party, or simply "Home Rule Party" were long-time [=MPs=] and mostly only moderate nationalists) and saw the bill as a threat that could lead to a nationalist and Catholic-dominated country. However, British intervention in the war between the German-led Central Powers and the French-led Entente Cordiale (on France's side, no less) afforded an opportunity for the Liberal-Unionist coalition government to suspend the bill (which the Home Rule Party had been pushing for since 1870) on a plea of "limited resources".

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In 1912, Westminster passed the Home Rule Bill (1914) for Ireland, meaning that Ireland would re-establish its own Parliament (something which it had lost in 1801 through the Act Of Union). Unionists, usually Protestants descended from those imported to replace the rebellious Earl of Tyrone's subjects (the 'Plantation of Ulster') under Elizabeth I and further immigration after the devastation of the EnglishCivilWar UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar (which had hit eastern Ireland hardest of all), who desired continued rule of the country from Westminster, strongly opposed Home Rule as disloyalty to Britain (even though the Irish Parliamentary Party, or simply "Home Rule Party" were long-time [=MPs=] and mostly only moderate nationalists) and saw the bill as a threat that could lead to a nationalist and Catholic-dominated country. However, British intervention in the war between the German-led Central Powers and the French-led Entente Cordiale (on France's side, no less) afforded an opportunity for the Liberal-Unionist coalition government to suspend the bill (which the Home Rule Party had been pushing for since 1870) on a plea of "limited resources".
24th Mar '16 3:05:27 PM jormis29
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* An episode of ''YoungIndianaJones'' featured Indy getting caught in the Easter Rising en route to join the Belgian army and fight in WorldWarOne.

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* An episode of ''YoungIndianaJones'' ''Series/YoungIndianaJones'' featured Indy getting caught in the Easter Rising en route to join the Belgian army and fight in WorldWarOne.UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne.
8th Mar '16 10:51:37 PM gallium
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Added DiffLines:

* ''Film/TheInformer'' is a 1935 film about a former IRA soldier who rats out one of his comrades for a £20 reward.
8th Mar '16 8:16:54 PM Fireblood
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The week-long 1916 Rising involved several hundred armed rebels, who attempted to seize control of strategic areas of Dublin. The Dublin Metropolitan Police quickly backed out because they were so heavily out-gunned and didn't have the training or equipment to fight armed enemies, so the Army was called in instead. The rebels refused to surrender, so the Army used a division's worth (c.15k) of troops to clear the city in messy block-by-block urban fighting. Given the similar armament between both sides, artillery was (from a military standpoint, correctly) seen was the only way to root out the defenders with anything less than horrific losses for the attackers (in this case probably no more than a thousand dead and crippled, but still). Unfortunately, direct-fire [[note]] aiming over the field gun's barrel [[/note]] was not an option because of the rebels' heavy armament and the Army (let alone their reservists) was not renowned for the accuracy of their indirect-fire [[note]] accurately calculating the fall of shots aimed into the air based on timely relayed information, trusting in the reliability of the weapons and shells. British artillery pieces and shells had much the same reputation as the industry that churned them out - cheap, shoddy, and unreliable [[/note]] at this time. This lead to a disastrous amount of friendly fire upon soldiers and particularly civilians, with the artillery being the biggest cause of (fatal) wounds and collateral damage during the rebellion. More than two hundred civilians, and a hundred rebels and soldiers each, died and more than 2000 civilians were injured. That so many survived was thanks to the presence of major hospital facilities and an organised medical response. On Saturday, following days of shelling and with the GPO reduced to a hulk, Pearse surrendered, since their position had become untenable, and an unconditional surrender notice was sent to the other garrisons. The GPO remained the only one of the Republican garrisons to be taken physically.The weight of public opinion was on the army's side when Pearse surrendered - the week's shelling had devastated the city centre and crippled the city for a week. Over three thousand were arrested and ninety were tried before military tribunals in accordance with the state of martial law then in existence over the city as a result of the fighting, found guilty of high treason ("levying war against the Sovereign"), and sentenced to death. In the end, only fifteen were executed (including all seven signatories of the Proclamation) due to what would follow.

In the aftermath of the event public opinion began to change. Anonymous pamphlets circulated emphasizing the Catholic piety of the rebels and particularly the leaders. Yet more pamphlets within Dublin emphasised their 'local-ness', and without, their 'Irish-ness'. Eventually both types openly called the rebel leaders 'martyrs', an apt religious appellation. Many pamphlets focused on the gory details of the rebels' suffering and the army's incompetence in dealing with the uprising, claiming that the Army's response had not been ''incompetent'' (which it undoubtedly was, and would remain so) so much as it had been brutal and expressly anti-Irish. Notoriously, the Irish Citizen Army leader James Connolly, who had a gut-wound and a shattered ankle and would have died within two or three days at most, was still found guilty by the tribunal and executed in accordance with military law - after being taken to the place of execution on a stretcher, almost delirious with fever, then tied upright to a chair for the firing squad.

The only surviving leader of the Rising was Sinn Féin Party leader Éamon de Valera. The Army didn't feel they could execute him because he was a US citizen, and ''anything'' that might inflame US public opinion could set back the United States' chances of entering World War I on the Entente Cordiale's side. (De Valera would of course go on to become one of the most important individuals in Irish history, becoming both Taoiseach and eventually President of Ireland.) After a slow start, the eventual effect of the rebellion was to increase support for Sinn Féin exponentially - once the rebellion came to be seen less as a madmen's attack upon their own people and more as a noble act of self-sacrifice resisting foreign oppression.

De Valera and other captured Irish rebels were released in 1918 after an amnesty. Immediately they began to campaign against conscription into the British Army (which had just been introduced to Ireland) and for the Autumn general election. Due to wide-spread popular support stemming from outrage at conscription (a measure Unionists also opposed) and mass internment of Irish people suspected of aiding the rebellion, Sinn Féin won in a landslide, winning 73 seats out of 105. With this mandate, on 21 January 1919 the Sinn Féin delegates formed their own parliament, Dáil Éireann (Irish Chamber), which elected a government including Éamon de Valera as President of the Executive Council [[note]]This position would eventually be renamed "Taoiseach" and is not the same position as later Presidents of Ireland.[[/note]] and Michael Collins as Minister for Finance, and reiterated their independence proclamation. This is regarded as the official beginning of the '''War Of Independence.'''

Fighting began the same day, with a (technically unauthorized) IRA ambush of RIC members transporting gelignite, at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. The Irish Republican Army had been formed in 1918 under Michael Collins, which Dáil Eireann had no control over (the IRA did not officially swear loyalty to them until August 1920), and the Dáil was banned in August of 1919, with its entire cabinet being arrested save Collins (in fact only 27 of the 73 candidates elected were out of prison to attend when the Dáil first assembled). The IRA went on to fight British forces by guerrilla methods, with great success. Collins pioneered urban guerrilla tactics which later movements used from Israel to China. In 1920, British WW1 veterans were sent in as auxiliary troops and police reservists. Becoming known as "Black and Tans" due to the colour of their uniforms, they were notorious for brutality, and were disliked for it even by many British officers. Irish hatred for British forces on their soil was fuelled even more when, in the space of a week, Lord Mayor of Cork Terence [=MacSwiney=] died after a 74-day hunger strike that brought Britain international criticism, and an 18-year old medical student and member of the IRA, Kevin Barry, was sentenced to death and hanged on FelonyMurder charges, though he had not actually killed anyone. This served only to harden resistance, and the underground Irish government gained control of most rural areas, even setting up its own Republican courts that handled both civil and criminal cases. Although these were not empowered to pass death sentences on prisoners, IRA military tribunals that convicted people of collaborating with British forces could and did, along with with its mainly extrajudicial killings, especially of police officers, informants or intelligence agents. For its part, the British administration put to death 24 IRA members (including Kevin Barry) convicted of various offences, and Munster was under martial law. As Irish coroner's juries repeatedly found that British forces had committed crimes against civilians, inquests were transferred to the military courts of inquiry, which then whitewashed atrocities. Such abuses merely served to increase support for the Republicans.

to:

The week-long 1916 Rising involved several hundred armed rebels, who attempted to seize control of strategic areas of Dublin. The Dublin Metropolitan Police quickly backed out because they were so heavily out-gunned and didn't have the training or equipment to fight armed enemies, so the Army was called in instead. The rebels refused to surrender, so the Army used a division's worth (c.15k) 15 k) of troops to clear the city in messy block-by-block urban fighting. Given the similar armament between both sides, artillery was (from a military standpoint, correctly) seen was as the only way to root out the defenders with anything less than horrific losses for the attackers (in this case probably no more than a thousand dead and crippled, but still). Unfortunately, direct-fire [[note]] aiming [[note]]Aiming over the field gun's barrel barrel.[[/note]] was not an option because of the rebels' heavy armament and the Army (let alone their reservists) was not renowned for the accuracy of their indirect-fire [[note]] accurately [[note]]Accurately calculating the fall of shots aimed into the air based on timely relayed information, trusting in the reliability of the weapons and shells. British artillery pieces and shells had much the same reputation as the industry that churned them out - cheap, shoddy, and unreliable unreliable.[[/note]] at this time. This lead led to a disastrous amount of friendly fire upon soldiers and particularly civilians, with the artillery being the biggest cause of (fatal) wounds and collateral damage during the rebellion. More than two hundred civilians, and a hundred rebels and soldiers each, died and more than 2000 civilians were injured. That so many survived was thanks to the presence of major hospital facilities and an organised medical response. On Saturday, following days of shelling and with the GPO reduced to a hulk, Pearse surrendered, since their position had become untenable, and an unconditional surrender notice was sent to the other garrisons. The GPO remained the only one of the Republican garrisons to be taken physically. The weight of public opinion was on the army's side when Pearse surrendered - the week's shelling had devastated the city centre center and crippled the city for a week. Over three thousand were arrested and ninety were tried before military tribunals courts in accordance with the state of martial law then in existence over the city as a result of the fighting, found guilty of high treason ("levying war against the Sovereign"), and sentenced to death. In the end, only fifteen were executed (including all seven signatories of the Proclamation) due to what would follow.

In the aftermath of the event public opinion began to change. Anonymous pamphlets circulated emphasizing the Catholic piety of the rebels and particularly the leaders. Yet more pamphlets within Dublin emphasised their 'local-ness', and without, their 'Irish-ness'. Eventually both types openly called the rebel leaders 'martyrs', an apt religious appellation. Many pamphlets focused on the gory details of the rebels' suffering and the army's incompetence in dealing with the uprising, claiming that the Army's response had not been ''incompetent'' (which it undoubtedly was, and would remain so) so much as it had been brutal and expressly anti-Irish. Notoriously, the Irish Citizen Army leader James Connolly, who had a gut-wound gut wound and a shattered ankle and would have died within two or three days at most, was still found guilty by the tribunal and executed in accordance with military law - after being taken to the place of execution on a stretcher, almost delirious with fever, then tied upright to a chair for the firing squad.

The only surviving leader of the Rising was Sinn Féin Party leader Éamon de Valera. The Army didn't feel they could execute him because he was a US citizen, and ''anything'' that might inflame US public opinion could set back the United States' chances of entering World War I on the Entente Cordiale's side. side (De Valera would of course go on to become one of the most important individuals in Irish history, becoming both Taoiseach and eventually President of Ireland.) Ireland). After a slow start, the eventual effect of the rebellion was to increase support for Sinn Féin exponentially - once the rebellion came to be seen less as a madmen's attack upon their own people and more as a noble act of self-sacrifice resisting foreign oppression.

De Valera and other captured Irish rebels were released in 1918 after an amnesty. Immediately they began to campaign against conscription into the British Army (which had just been introduced to Ireland) and for the Autumn autumn general election. Due to wide-spread widespread popular support stemming from outrage at conscription (a measure Unionists also opposed) and mass internment of Irish people suspected of aiding the rebellion, Sinn Féin won in a landslide, winning taking 73 seats out of 105. With this mandate, on 21 January 1919 the Sinn Féin delegates formed their own parliament, Dáil Éireann (Irish Chamber), which elected a government including Éamon de Valera as President of the Executive Council [[note]]This position would eventually be renamed "Taoiseach" and is not the same position as later Presidents of Ireland.[[/note]] and Michael Collins as Minister for Finance, and reiterated their independence proclamation. This is regarded as the official beginning of the '''War Of Independence.'''

Fighting began the same day, with a (technically unauthorized) IRA ambush of RIC members transporting gelignite, at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. The Irish Republican Army had been formed in 1918 under Michael Collins, which Dáil Eireann had no control over (the IRA did not officially swear loyalty to them until August 1920), and the Dáil was banned in August of 1919, with its entire cabinet being arrested save Collins (in fact only 27 of the 73 candidates elected were out of prison to attend when the Dáil first assembled). The IRA went on to fight British forces by guerrilla methods, with great success. Collins pioneered urban guerrilla tactics which later movements used from Israel to China. In 1920, British WW1 veterans were sent in as auxiliary troops and police reservists. Becoming known as "Black and Tans" due to the colour color of their uniforms, they were notorious for brutality, and were disliked for it even by many British officers. Irish hatred for British forces on their soil was fuelled fueled even more when, in the space of a week, Lord Mayor of Cork Terence [=MacSwiney=] died after a 74-day hunger strike that brought Britain international criticism, and an 18-year old medical student and member of the IRA, Kevin Barry, was sentenced to death and hanged on FelonyMurder charges, though he had not actually killed anyone. This served only to harden resistance, and the underground Irish government gained control of most rural areas, even setting up its own Republican courts that handled both civil and criminal cases. Although these were not empowered to pass death sentences on prisoners, IRA military tribunals that convicted people of collaborating with British forces could and did, along with with its mainly extrajudicial killings, especially of police officers, informants or intelligence agents. For its part, the British administration put to death 24 IRA members (including Kevin Barry) convicted of various offences, and Munster was under martial law. As Irish coroner's juries repeatedly found that British forces had committed crimes against civilians, inquests were transferred to the military courts of inquiry, which then whitewashed atrocities. Such abuses merely served to increase support for the Republicans.



* ''Film/MichaelCollins'': Mostly involving [[HistoricalDomainCharacter historical figures]], including the title character.

to:

* ''Film/MichaelCollins'': Mostly involving [[HistoricalDomainCharacter historical figures]], including particularly the title character.



* ''Series/PeakyBlinders'': Set in Birmingham in 1919 through the 1920s, but several IRA characters appear. It is ''by far'' the least sympathetic portrait of the IRA on this list, portraying them as universally composed of AxCrazy murderers to the point the series can only be called enthusiastically Unionist. That said, its portrayal of the Unionist side is, if anything, ''even worse'', with the overzealous CI Campbell's [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain insane racism]] (even for one of his time) and his use of Unionist paramilitaries (who seem to be cold-blooded murderers to a man) to do his dirty work. Frankly, the only people who come off well are the Blinders themselves (and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill, whose Unionist paramilitaries aren't really).

to:

* ''Series/PeakyBlinders'': Set in Birmingham in 1919 through the 1920s, but several IRA characters appear. It is ''by far'' the least sympathetic portrait of the IRA on this list, portraying them as universally composed of AxCrazy murderers to the point that the series can only be called enthusiastically Unionist. That said, its portrayal of the Unionist side is, if anything, ''even worse'', with the overzealous CI Campbell's [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain insane racism]] (even for one of his time) and his use of Unionist paramilitaries (who seem to be cold-blooded murderers to a man) to do his dirty work. Frankly, the only people who come off well are the Blinders themselves (and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill, whose Unionist paramilitaries aren't really).
8th Jan '16 1:21:09 PM ProfessorGrimm
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* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars'': A classic 1926 play showing the Easter Rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.

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* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars'': A classic 1926 play by Sean O'Casey showing the Easter Rising from the point of view of Dublin's a group of working class.class Dubliners.
7th Jan '16 8:50:35 PM ProfessorGrimm
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* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars'': A classic 1926 play showing the rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.

to:

* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars'': A classic 1926 play showing the rising Easter Rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.
7th Jan '16 8:46:15 PM ProfessorGrimm
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* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars": A classic 1926 play showing the rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.

to:

* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars": ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars'': A classic 1926 play showing the rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.
7th Jan '16 8:45:19 PM ProfessorGrimm
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to:

* ''Theatre/ThePloughAndTheStars": A classic 1926 play showing the rising from the point of view of Dublin's working class.



%%!!Tropes as portrayed in fiction:

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%%!!Tropes as portrayed in fiction:
12th Nov '15 3:32:30 PM karstovich2
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* ''Series/PeakyBlinders'': Set in Birmingham in 1919 through the 1920s, but several IRA characters appear. It is ''by far'' the least sympathetic portrait of the IRA on this list, portraying them as universally composed of AxCrazy murderers to the point the series can only be called enthusiastically Unionist. That said, its portrayal of the Unionist side is, if anything, ''even worse'', with the overzealous CI Campbell's [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain insane racism]] (even for one of his time) and his use of Unionist paramilitaries (who seem to be cold-blooded murderers to a man) to do his dirty work. Frankly, the only people who come off well are the Blinders themselves.

to:

* ''Series/PeakyBlinders'': Set in Birmingham in 1919 through the 1920s, but several IRA characters appear. It is ''by far'' the least sympathetic portrait of the IRA on this list, portraying them as universally composed of AxCrazy murderers to the point the series can only be called enthusiastically Unionist. That said, its portrayal of the Unionist side is, if anything, ''even worse'', with the overzealous CI Campbell's [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain insane racism]] (even for one of his time) and his use of Unionist paramilitaries (who seem to be cold-blooded murderers to a man) to do his dirty work. Frankly, the only people who come off well are the Blinders themselves.
themselves (and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill, whose Unionist paramilitaries aren't really).
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.TheIrishRevolution