History UsefulNotes / Tajikistan

7th Oct '17 8:39:05 AM AntonF
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Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others and is in fact a part of the Persian world (see below). It was also poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.

"Tajik" is actually a term that was previously used by the Turkic settlers of Central Asia to refer to their southern Muslim neighbors (at that time, the Turkics hadn't yet converted to Islam). It eventually evolved to refer to the Persian-speaking peoples of Transoxiana (basically today's Tajikistan and Northern Afghanistan) after the Turkics' conversion, but it remained a somewhat pejorative term until the Russian era. While its use is politically-motivated, the term becomes handy to differentiate between the Sunni and Shia Persians, because the Tajiks are basically Persians who remain Sunni Muslims when the other Persians were aggressively evangelized to Shia Islam during the Safavid era. A good analogy would be the Germans post-Reformation; while the Germans who follow the Protestant movement retain their ethnonym, the Germans who keep being Catholics are gradually referred to as Austrians and/or Alemanns. The analogy goes even further as the conservative Tajiks live in the highlands like the Alemanns, while the progressive Persians live in the lowlands[[note]]relatively; Iran is actually quite mountainous, but Transoxiana is
''more'' mountainous.[[/note]] like the Germans.

The Tajiks consider themselves to be descendants of both Persian settlers during the Achaemenids and the native Sogdian population. It was attested that UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}}'s main book, the ''Avesta'', was written in Bactria, where Tajikistan and Afghanistan stands today. When it was invaded by the Arabs in the 8th century, the people living in the region became Muslims. The Samanid empire in Eastern Iran [900-999] was probably founded by Tajik-speakers. Then it came under the rule of Khorezm, the Mongols, Tamerlane, and the Shaybanids based in Uzbekistan. By the end of the 1700s, the territory of Tajikistan was under the control of the Uzbek khanates of Kokand and Bukhara.

The territory was caught into UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of UsefulNotes/JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.

to:

Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR [[UsefulNotes/SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn USSR]] until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others and is in fact a part of the Persian world (see below). Iranian world. It was also poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} and with the attendant problems of Islamic Islamist insurgency didn't help.

"Tajik" is actually a term that was previously used by The modern state of Tajikistan mainly encompasses the Turkic settlers more mountainous part of Sogdia, an ancient division of Central Asia to refer to their southern Muslim neighbors (at that time, contains some of the Turkics hadn't yet converted to Islam). It eventually evolved to refer to highest mountains in the Persian-speaking peoples world. Indeed, the Pamirs, the main mountain range of Transoxiana (basically today's Tajikistan the country, is the UrExample for the phrase "Roof of the World". As you can guess, few people are willing to take the risk of living in untamed mountains, both in the past or present, which is why most of the interesting things happened in the southwestern lowlands and Northern Afghanistan) after a piece of the Turkics' conversion, but it remained a somewhat pejorative term until very fertile Fergana valley located in the Russian era. While its use is politically-motivated, the term becomes handy to differentiate between the Sunni and Shia Persians, because the Tajiks are basically Persians northern panhandle. Those who remain Sunni Muslims when the other Persians were aggressively evangelized do choose to Shia Islam during the Safavid era. A good analogy would be the Germans post-Reformation; while the Germans who follow the Protestant movement retain their ethnonym, the Germans who keep being Catholics are gradually referred to as Austrians and/or Alemanns. The analogy goes even further as the conservative Tajiks live in the highlands like mountains have to make do with pastoral nomadism and isolation, so they inherited their ancestors' culture more faithfully compared to the Alemanns, while lowland peoples.

The [[UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} Zoroastrian]] holy book ''Avesta'' lists Sogdia as
the progressive Persians live in second of the lowlands[[note]]relatively; Iran is actually quite mountainous, but Transoxiana is
''more'' mountainous.[[/note]] like
sixteen lands created by Ahura Mazda for the Germans.

The Tajiks consider themselves to be descendants of both Persian settlers during
Iranian peoples. Though documentation had been going on since before the 6th century BC, no established state existed in Sogdia until the Achaemenids and the native Sogdian population. It was attested that UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}}'s main book, the ''Avesta'', was written in Bactria, where Tajikistan and Afghanistan stands today. When it was under UsefulNotes/CyrusTheGreat invaded by the Arabs in the 8th century, the people living in Central Asia. UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat's Asian campaign turned the region became Muslims. The Samanid empire in Eastern Iran [900-999] was probably founded by Tajik-speakers. Then it came under the rule of Khorezm, the Mongols, Tamerlane, and the Shaybanids based in Uzbekistan. By the end as part of the 1700s, the territory of Tajikistan was under the Greek Macedonian, then Seleucid empires before native control of returned with the Uzbek khanates of Kokand Kushans and Bukhara.a little-understood hodgepodge of nomadic and pastoralist tribes and peoples known as the Hephthalites.

In the 8th century, the Umayyad caliphate under Al-Walid invaded Sogdia and converted the local population to Islam. Conquest was not immediate, however, as a tug-of-war ensued between the Umayyads and the Turkic Turgesh confederation, who had made their move against Central Asia a few centuries earlier, ending with the caliphate's victory. Around this time, Persian settlers moved to Sogdia and Bactria (northern Afghanistan) and slowly but surely the locals abandoned their native tongues in favor of the immigrants' language. The new population was referred by the Turks, somewhat pejoratively, as "Tajiks".

Sogdia broke free of the Arabs' control a mere century after their conquest, alongside the rest of the Iranian world. The Samanid empire emerged as the most significant Persianate polity after independence, but it wasn't long until the Turks, now also Muslims, reestablished control with the Ghaznavids, the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians, although native control did exist (the formerly Buddhist Ghurids being a major example). In the 13th century, the Mongols' world invasions hit Sogdia hard, but rebuilding commenced quickly, helped by the fact that it was spared from a similar invasion by the Timurids in the following century. After Timur's empire fractured, control was taken by the Uzbeks, who ruled the territory as part of the Khanates of Bukhara and Kokand.

The territory was caught into UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. The northern part was directly controlled as part of Samarkand, Fergana, and Semirechie Oblasts, but the Russians allowed Bukhara, which included the present capital of Dushanbe, some degree of self-rule. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, In 1924, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital being, which finalized the modern borders of the country. Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of UsefulNotes/JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.
repression.

During their rule, the Soviets began to promote the notion of a separate Tajik identity and language for Persians who live in the Union (as noted above, the term was originally pejorative). The campaign even reached Persians across the border in Afghanistan as well, where there are more Persian speakers than in the Tajik SSR, though not to the same extent as that happening in the Union.



Geographically, Tajikistan is '''highly''' mountainous, sort of like a Central Asian UsefulNotes/{{Switzerland}}. It says something when more than 90% of the country is covered by mountains, many of which are over 6000 meters tall. The perpetual snow and many glaciers that dot the landscape has supported irrigation for as long as the area was first settled. The mountains that cover the country are mainly those from the Pamir, which extends to Afghanistan and UsefulNotes/{{China}}. About the only area not covered by mountains is the Fergana Valley in the north, which is mostly flat and populated by the Uzbeks. These traits are also shared by neighboring UsefulNotes/{{Kyrgyzstan}}, which has ''slightly'' less mountains but still enough to make it part of the "Roof of the World".

Tajikistan's population is one of the most homogenous in the famously diverse Central Asia. 89.9% of the population are officially Tajiks, while the rest mainly consists of Uzbeks and [[TheRemnant several small communities of Eastern Iranian peoples who once dominated the entire Central Asia before the Turkics screwed them up, though they managed to survive thanks to the mountainous terrain]]. Despite the high percentage, Tajikistan doesn't hold the most numerous Tajik population; that title would be awarded to Afghanistan, who has 9.4 million vs Tajikistan's 6.7 million Tajiks, though confusingly enough, the Tajiks' language is called Dari there (yes, another term to mix-up the already-convoluted way to refer to Persian).
30th Aug '17 6:24:17 AM BigLenny
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The current president is Inomali Rahmon, formerly Inomali Rakhmonov. He changed his surname to reduce Russian influence in Tajik culture. He also once considered reviving the Tajik Perso-Arabic alphabet. However, it was scrapped.

to:

The current president is Inomali Emomali Rahmon, formerly Inomali Emomali Rakhmonov. He changed his surname to reduce Russian influence in Tajik culture. He also once considered reviving the Tajik Perso-Arabic alphabet. However, it was scrapped.
11th Jun '17 3:25:55 PM nombretomado
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The Tajiks consider themselves to be descendants of both Persian settlers during the Achaemenids and the native Sogdian population. It was attested that {{Zoroastrianism}}'s main book, the ''Avesta'', was written in Bactria, where Tajikistan and Afghanistan stands today. When it was invaded by the Arabs in the 8th century, the people living in the region became Muslims. The Samanid empire in Eastern Iran [900-999] was probably founded by Tajik-speakers. Then it came under the rule of Khorezm, the Mongols, Tamerlane, and the Shaybanids based in Uzbekistan. By the end of the 1700s, the territory of Tajikistan was under the control of the Uzbek khanates of Kokand and Bukhara.

to:

The Tajiks consider themselves to be descendants of both Persian settlers during the Achaemenids and the native Sogdian population. It was attested that {{Zoroastrianism}}'s UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}}'s main book, the ''Avesta'', was written in Bactria, where Tajikistan and Afghanistan stands today. When it was invaded by the Arabs in the 8th century, the people living in the region became Muslims. The Samanid empire in Eastern Iran [900-999] was probably founded by Tajik-speakers. Then it came under the rule of Khorezm, the Mongols, Tamerlane, and the Shaybanids based in Uzbekistan. By the end of the 1700s, the territory of Tajikistan was under the control of the Uzbek khanates of Kokand and Bukhara.
16th May '17 9:44:34 AM nombretomado
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The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of UsefulNotes/JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.

to:

The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of UsefulNotes/JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.
29th Sep '16 12:46:15 PM Morgenthaler
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The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.

to:

The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of JosephStalin.UsefulNotes/JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.
6th Sep '16 3:10:16 AM Morgenthaler
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26th Mar '16 7:03:52 AM Dimas28
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Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; in fact the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself. It was also poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.

The Tajiks consider themselves Persian with a slight difference. Unlike the Shia Iranians, they are Sunnis. If an Afghan introduces himself as a Persian, chances are he is mostly a Tajik.

to:

Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; others and is in fact a part of the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself.Persian world (see below). It was also poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.

The "Tajik" is actually a term that was previously used by the Turkic settlers of Central Asia to refer to their southern Muslim neighbors (at that time, the Turkics hadn't yet converted to Islam). It eventually evolved to refer to the Persian-speaking peoples of Transoxiana (basically today's Tajikistan and Northern Afghanistan) after the Turkics' conversion, but it remained a somewhat pejorative term until the Russian era. While its use is politically-motivated, the term becomes handy to differentiate between the Sunni and Shia Persians, because the Tajiks consider themselves Persian with a slight difference. Unlike are basically Persians who remain Sunni Muslims when the other Persians were aggressively evangelized to Shia Iranians, they Islam during the Safavid era. A good analogy would be the Germans post-Reformation; while the Germans who follow the Protestant movement retain their ethnonym, the Germans who keep being Catholics are Sunnis. If an Afghan introduces himself gradually referred to as a Persian, chances are he Austrians and/or Alemanns. The analogy goes even further as the conservative Tajiks live in the highlands like the Alemanns, while the progressive Persians live in the lowlands[[note]]relatively; Iran is mostly a Tajik.
actually quite mountainous, but Transoxiana is
''more'' mountainous.[[/note]] like the Germans.



Geographically, Tajikistan is '''highly''' mountainous, sort of like a Central Asian UsefulNotes/{{Switzerland}}. It says something when more than 90% of the country is covered by mountains, many of which are over 6000 meters tall. The perpetual snow and many glaciers that dot the landscape has supported irrigation for as long as the area was first settled. The mountains that cover the country are mainly those from the Pamir, which extends to Afghanistan and UsefulNotes/{{China}}. About the only area not covered by mountains is the Ferghana Valley in the north, which is mostly dry and populated by Uzbeks. These traits are also shared by neighboring UsefulNotes/{{Kyrgyzstan}}, which has ''slightly'' less mountains but still enough to make it part of the "Roof of the World".

to:

Geographically, Tajikistan is '''highly''' mountainous, sort of like a Central Asian UsefulNotes/{{Switzerland}}. It says something when more than 90% of the country is covered by mountains, many of which are over 6000 meters tall. The perpetual snow and many glaciers that dot the landscape has supported irrigation for as long as the area was first settled. The mountains that cover the country are mainly those from the Pamir, which extends to Afghanistan and UsefulNotes/{{China}}. About the only area not covered by mountains is the Ferghana Fergana Valley in the north, which is mostly dry flat and populated by the Uzbeks. These traits are also shared by neighboring UsefulNotes/{{Kyrgyzstan}}, which has ''slightly'' less mountains but still enough to make it part of the "Roof of the World".
World".

Tajikistan's population is one of the most homogenous in the famously diverse Central Asia. 89.9% of the population are officially Tajiks, while the rest mainly consists of Uzbeks and [[TheRemnant several small communities of Eastern Iranian peoples who once dominated the entire Central Asia before the Turkics screwed them up, though they managed to survive thanks to the mountainous terrain]]. Despite the high percentage, Tajikistan doesn't hold the most numerous Tajik population; that title would be awarded to Afghanistan, who has 9.4 million vs Tajikistan's 6.7 million Tajiks, though confusingly enough, the Tajiks' language is called Dari there (yes, another term to mix-up the already-convoluted way to refer to Persian).
19th Dec '15 3:37:56 AM Dimas28
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Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; in fact the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself. It was also the poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of Afghanistan and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.

to:

Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; in fact the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself. It was also the poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of Afghanistan UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.


Added DiffLines:

Geographically, Tajikistan is '''highly''' mountainous, sort of like a Central Asian UsefulNotes/{{Switzerland}}. It says something when more than 90% of the country is covered by mountains, many of which are over 6000 meters tall. The perpetual snow and many glaciers that dot the landscape has supported irrigation for as long as the area was first settled. The mountains that cover the country are mainly those from the Pamir, which extends to Afghanistan and UsefulNotes/{{China}}. About the only area not covered by mountains is the Ferghana Valley in the north, which is mostly dry and populated by Uzbeks. These traits are also shared by neighboring UsefulNotes/{{Kyrgyzstan}}, which has ''slightly'' less mountains but still enough to make it part of the "Roof of the World".
23rd Nov '15 11:06:13 PM amateur55
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Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; in fact the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself. It was also the poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of Afghanistan and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.

to:

Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Тоҷикистон''), officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan ('''Tajik:''' ''Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Jumhuriyi Tojikiston''; '''Russian:''' ''Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan'') is a Central Asian country that was a part of the USSR until 1991. While it is lumped among the Central Asian states, it is not Turkic as the others; in fact the Tajiks are related to Iranians and Afghans, and more Tajiks live in the latter country rather than in Tajikistan itself. It was also the poorest of the former Soviet republics, being north of Afghanistan and with the attendant problems of Islamic insurgency didn't help.
12th Mar '15 9:22:13 PM jormis29
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The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.

to:

The territory was caught into TsaristRussia's expansion in the late 1800s, with light resistance. During the [[RedOctober [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]], Bukhara became a communist state until it was subsumed to what would be the Soviet Union. During the 1930s, the Tajik ASSR, later promoted to an SSR, came to being. Its capital Dushanbe was for a time, called [[EgoPolis Stalinabad]], in honor of JosephStalin. It seen its period of repression.
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