History UsefulNotes / Swords

15th Jan '16 8:57:09 AM penguinist
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* Sometimes called a "Chinese broadsword" because [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnThetin the blade happens to be broad and made in China]], though its curved blade has nothing to do with European cruciform swords. Dāo came in various shapes and sizes, with the most famous being the ''Liuye Dāo'', or the Willow Leaf Saber. Most have a moderately curved broad blade, with a single cutting edge and an inverted cup-shaped hilt to prevent rainwater or blood from flowing down the blade and onto the hand. Some have a partially sharpened back edge to allow for a thrust or a back-handed slash, but all share the characteristic of being used for either chopping or for slashing. Like the jiÓn, the origins of the dāo stem back as far as the Bronze Age, though the dāo is considered more of a utilitarian weapon (nicknamed the "General of Weapons") than the jiÓn, and was traditionally used by both cavalry and infantry alike.
to:
* Sometimes called a "Chinese broadsword" because [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnThetin the blade happens to be broad and made in China]], though its curved blade has nothing to do with European cruciform swords.swords; indeed, in shape it much more resembles the European falchion. Dāo came in various shapes and sizes, with the most famous being the ''Liuye Dāo'', or the Willow Leaf Saber. Most have a moderately curved broad blade, with a single cutting edge and an inverted cup-shaped hilt to prevent rainwater or blood from flowing down the blade and onto the hand. Some have a partially sharpened back edge to allow for a thrust or a back-handed slash, but all share the characteristic of being used for either chopping or for slashing. Like the jiÓn, the origins of the dāo stem back as far as the Bronze Age, though the dāo is considered more of a utilitarian weapon (nicknamed the "General of Weapons") than the jiÓn, and was traditionally used by both cavalry and infantry alike.
2nd Dec '15 8:41:51 PM Coincleaner
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Because good iron ore was difficult to come by in ancient Japan, Japanese master swordsmiths had to remove impurities from the iron by "folding of the blade". Folding iron is a common forging technique not unique to Japan, but Japanese blades were folded many more times than many European blades due to the Japanese retaining the bloomery method for steel manufacture rather than a blast furnace (the starting material was generally black iron sand). Japanese smiths also used the technique called "leaching" in order to remove impurities from steel: the steel blank was left to "marinate" in the acidic water (mainly in bogs and rice paddies) for months or even years. This would eventually cause the impurities to gradually dissolve and leach out from the billet, which would later be reforged with multiple foldings, which forced the developed oxide and impurities out. The remains would then be arranged in the thin bands that improved the blade properties. Some swordsmiths in later periods are known to have incorporated imported Indian or Western iron brought by Portuguese or Dutch traders.
to:
Because good iron ore was difficult to come by in ancient Japan, Japanese master swordsmiths had to remove impurities from the iron by "folding of the blade". Folding iron is a common forging technique not unique to Japan, but Japanese blades were folded many more times than many European blades due to the Japanese retaining the bloomery method for steel manufacture rather than a blast furnace (the starting material was generally black iron sand). Japanese smiths also used the technique called "leaching" in order to remove impurities from steel: the steel blank was left to "marinate" in the acidic water (mainly in bogs and rice paddies) for months or even years. This would eventually cause the impurities to gradually dissolve and leach out from the billet, which would later be reforged with multiple foldings, which forced the developed oxide and impurities out. The remains would then be arranged in the thin bands that improved the blade properties. Some swordsmiths in later periods are known to have incorporated imported Indian or Western iron brought by Portuguese or Dutch traders.

The vast majority of Japanese infantrymen in the feudal eras were either archers or spearmen. The spear was a much more economical use of rare and costly steel. The sword was the weapon of a nobleman or a nobleman's retainers and bodyguards, the samurai. And then there was the naginata, a glaive that became the traditional weapon of Japanese noblewomen for the defense of the household, but these were likewise relatively rare, or, more precisely, ''became'' rare during the late ''Sengoku Jidai'', when the evolving tactics have led to the prevalence of the dense infantry formations that favored pikemen and arquebusiers, as the naginata, similar to the other halberds, required a relatively large open space around its wielder. Since Japan's relative paucity of metals made plate armor or even chain mail impractically expensive, most native Japanese weapons were designed for slashing attacks, a slash being the quickest way to inflict maximum damage on an unarmored opponent.
to:
The vast majority of Japanese infantrymen in the feudal eras were either archers or spearmen. The spear was a much more economical use of rare and costly steel. The sword was the weapon of a nobleman or a nobleman's of his retainers and bodyguards, the samurai. And then there was the naginata, a glaive that became the traditional weapon of Japanese noblewomen for the defense of the household, but these were likewise relatively rare, or, more precisely, ''became'' rare during the late ''Sengoku Jidai'', when the evolving tactics have led to the prevalence of the dense infantry formations that favored pikemen and arquebusiers, as the naginata, similar to the other halberds, naginata required a relatively large open space around its wielder. Since Japan's relative paucity of metals made plate armor or even chain mail impractically expensive, most native Japanese weapons were designed for slashing attacks, a slash being the quickest way to inflict maximum damage on an unarmored opponent.

* Unarguably the most famous Japanese weapon is by far [[KatanasAreJustBetter the katana]]. While the word "katana" in Japanese refers to any sword with a curved, single-edged blade, many sword lovers use the term to define the moderately curved, single edged sword of length no less than 60cm. Most Katana exhibit the distinctive Japanese extended hilt, which provides balance when used with a one-handed grip and leverage when used with two, but they are not the only Japanese swords with this feature. The katana is largely associated with samurai, though throughout most of samurai history, it was only one of their three primary weapons, along with the spear and the bow. It wasn't until the 17th century that the katana became so synonymous with the samurai.
to:
* Unarguably the most famous Japanese weapon is by far [[KatanasAreJustBetter the katana]]. While the word "katana" in Japanese refers to any sword with a curved, single-edged blade, many sword lovers use the term to define the moderately curved, single edged sword of length no less than 60cm. Most Katana exhibit the distinctive Japanese extended long hilt, which provides balance when used with a one-handed grip and leverage when used with two, but they are not the only Japanese swords with this feature. The katana is largely associated with samurai, though throughout most of samurai history, it was only one of their three primary weapons, along with the spear and the bow. It wasn't until the 17th century that the katana became so synonymous with the samurai.

* The ōdachi, also called the nōdachi, is a two-handed sword even larger than the Katana, and was used both ceremonially and as a devastating weapon from horseback. The ōdachi was also used [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]] and in open field engagements, but was infrequently used due to the difficulty of forging the blade, the greater strength required to wield it, and due to weapons like the Naginata and the Nagamaki doing the weapon's basic job better. An even [[{{BFS}} larger version called the Zanbato]] also exists, but the creation of such is more a test of a swordsmith's art than a proper weapon of war, and may have gotten its name from the Chinese ''zhanmadāo'', which the Chinese used against cavalry. The ōdachi features in the weapons training of the Kage-Ryu, one of the few Japanese sword schools that still teaches its use, and one was wielded by Sasaki Kojiro, who was very deadly with the weapon and is remembered for having fought Miyamoto Musashi. Sometimes referred to as a "daikatana" in foreign texts.
to:
* The ōdachi, also called the nōdachi, is a two-handed sword even larger than the Katana, and was used both ceremonially and as a devastating weapon from horseback. The ōdachi was also used [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]] and in open field engagements, but was infrequently used due to the difficulty of forging the blade, the greater strength required to wield it, and due to weapons like the Naginata and the Nagamaki doing the weapon's basic job better. An even [[{{BFS}} larger version called the Zanbato]] also exists, but the creation of such is more a test of a swordsmith's art than a proper weapon of war, and may have gotten its name from the Chinese ''zhanmadāo'', which the Chinese used against cavalry. The ōdachi features in the weapons training of the Kage-Ryu, one of the few Japanese sword schools that still teaches its use, and one was wielded by Sasaki Kojiro, who was very deadly with the weapon and is remembered for having fought Miyamoto Musashi. Sometimes referred to as a "daikatana" in foreign texts.

* The 'spatha', a long-bladed sword used by Roman cavalry, eventually evolved into the Viking weapons mentioned earlier, and is thus the grandfather of European arming swords.
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* The 'spatha', a long-bladed sword used by Roman cavalry, cavalry. It gradually replaced the gladius as the infantry sword, starting from the 2nd century. The spatha eventually evolved into the Viking weapons mentioned earlier, and is thus the grandfather of European arming swords.
31st Oct '15 11:40:53 AM Coincleaner
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* A sword designed for chopping such as the Egyptian Khopesh, the Iberian Falcata, the Italian Falchion or the [[KukrisAreKool Kukris]] used by the Gurkhas, will typically be single-edged and have most of the weight and mass toward the top third of the blade. They sometimes curve ''forwards'', but not always. Much like an axe, a chopping sword is designed for cleaving: it has a edge designed to deliver the vector of force behind a blow directly into the surface, which will either buckle or split apart if it yields. Against unprotected flesh will usually result in very nasty wounds that can easily dismember limbs, making such blades ideal for executions by beheading. As is the case with a regular axe, swords with chopping blades may often be employed or even intentionally designed as tools for purposes like chopping wood or hacking through brush.
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* A sword designed for chopping such as the Egyptian Khopesh, the Iberian Falcata, the Italian Falchion or the [[KukrisAreKool Kukris]] used by the Gurkhas, will typically be single-edged and have most of the weight and mass toward the top third of the blade. They sometimes curve ''forwards'', but not always. Much like an axe, a chopping sword is designed for cleaving: it has a edge designed to deliver the vector of force behind a blow directly into the surface, which will either buckle or split apart if it yields. Against unprotected flesh will usually result in very nasty wounds that can easily dismember limbs, making such blades ideal for executions by beheading. As is the case with a regular axe, swords with chopping blades may often be employed or even intentionally designed as tools for purposes like chopping wood or hacking through brush.

* The infamous "horse cutting saber", this weapon dates back to the Song Dynasty and was used by infantry [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]]. It consisted of a long single-edged blade and a long handle suitable for two-handed use. The Japanese ''zanbatō'' is a related weapon; not only are the two similar, but the characters are written the same. Other Japanese-looking Chinese swords exist, such as the Chang Dāo and Wo Dāo from the Ming era, and the Miao Dāo from the Republican era.
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* The infamous "horse cutting saber", this weapon dates back to the Song Dynasty and was used by infantry [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]]. It consisted of a long single-edged blade and a long handle suitable for two-handed use. The Japanese ''zanbatō'' is a related weapon; not only are the two similar, but the Han characters are written the same. Other Japanese-looking Chinese swords exist, such as the Chang Dāo and Wo Dāo from the Ming era, and the Miao Dāo from the Republican era.

Almost all Japanese swords were laminates; with different grades of steel used for the edge and body of the blade and essentially welded together by the swordsmith. The difference was compounded by the heat-treating process, in which layers of clay were applied in different thicknesses to the sword parts to achieve the desired levels of hardness. The combination of a hard (martensite) edge and a soft (pearlite) core created a sharp, durable cutting weapon, however the edge was somewhat brittle and more damage-prone than a comparable homogenous sword. Characteristic ''"sori"'' or blade curvature of the Japanese swords is also the product of this differential tempering. While European and Middle Eastern sabers were forged in the curved shape from the start, Japanese blades were forged straight, and obtained their curvature solely from the different contraction of the edge and the back during tempering. Wrong clay application could very easily lead to the sword bending ''sideways'', which required reforging. The vast majority of Japanese infantrymen in the feudal era were either archers or spearmen. The spear was a much more economical use of rare and costly steel. The sword was the weapon of a nobleman or a nobleman's retainers and bodyguards, the samurai. And then there was the naginata, a shashing glaive that became the traditional weapon of Japanese noblewomen for the defense of the household, but these were likewise relatively rare, or, more precisely, ''became'' rare during the late ''Sengoku Jidai'', when the evolving tactics have led to the prevalence of the dense infantry formations that favored pikemen and arquebusiers, as the naginata, similar to the other halberds, required a relatively large open space around its wielder. Since Japan's relative paucity of metals made plate armor or even chain mail impractically expensive, most native Japanese weapons were designed for slashing attacks, a slash being the quickest way to inflict maximum damage on an unarmored opponent.
to:
Almost all Japanese swords were laminates; with different grades of steel used for the edge and body of the blade and essentially welded together by the swordsmith. The difference was compounded by the heat-treating process, in which layers of clay were applied in different thicknesses to the sword parts to achieve the desired levels of hardness. The combination of a hard (martensite) edge and a soft (pearlite) core created a sharp, durable cutting weapon, however the edge was somewhat brittle and more damage-prone than a comparable homogenous sword. Characteristic ''"sori"'' or The characteristic blade curvature of the Japanese swords is also the product a byproduct of this differential tempering. While European and Middle Eastern sabers were forged in the curved shape from the start, Japanese blades were forged straight, and obtained their curvature solely from the different contraction of the edge and the back during tempering. Wrong clay application could very easily lead to the sword bending ''sideways'', which required reforging. The vast majority of Japanese infantrymen in the feudal era eras were either archers or spearmen. The spear was a much more economical use of rare and costly steel. The sword was the weapon of a nobleman or a nobleman's retainers and bodyguards, the samurai. And then there was the naginata, a shashing glaive that became the traditional weapon of Japanese noblewomen for the defense of the household, but these were likewise relatively rare, or, more precisely, ''became'' rare during the late ''Sengoku Jidai'', when the evolving tactics have led to the prevalence of the dense infantry formations that favored pikemen and arquebusiers, as the naginata, similar to the other halberds, required a relatively large open space around its wielder. Since Japan's relative paucity of metals made plate armor or even chain mail impractically expensive, most native Japanese weapons were designed for slashing attacks, a slash being the quickest way to inflict maximum damage on an unarmored opponent.

* Despite poleams having been the standard infantry weapon in Japan, the most famous Japanese weapon is by far [[KatanasAreJustBetter the katana]]. While the word "katana" in Japanese refers to any single-edged sword with blade curvature (or "sori"), many sword lovers use the term to define the moderately curved, single edged sword of length no less than 60cm. Most Katana exhibit the distinctive Japanese extended hilt, which provides balance when used with a one-handed grip and leverage when used with two, but they are not the only Japanese swords with this feature. The katana is largely associated with samurai, though throughout most of samurai history, it was only one of their three primary weapons, along with the spear and the bow. It wasn't until the 17th century that the katana became so synonymous with the samurai.
to:
* Despite poleams having been the standard infantry weapon in Japan, Unarguably the most famous Japanese weapon is by far [[KatanasAreJustBetter the katana]]. While the word "katana" in Japanese refers to any sword with a curved, single-edged sword with blade curvature (or "sori"), blade, many sword lovers use the term to define the moderately curved, single edged sword of length no less than 60cm. Most Katana exhibit the distinctive Japanese extended hilt, which provides balance when used with a one-handed grip and leverage when used with two, but they are not the only Japanese swords with this feature. The katana is largely associated with samurai, though throughout most of samurai history, it was only one of their three primary weapons, along with the spear and the bow. It wasn't until the 17th century that the katana became so synonymous with the samurai.

* The ōdachi, also called the nōdachi, is a two-handed sword even larger than the Katana, and was used both ceremonially and as a devastating weapon from horseback. The ōdachi was also used [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]] and in open field engagements, but was infrequently used due to the difficulty of forging the blade, the greater strength required to wield it, and due to weapons like the Naginata and the Nagamaki doing the weapon's basic job better. An even [[{{BFS}} larger version called the Zanbato]] also exists, but the creation of such is more a test of a swordsmith's art than a proper weapon of war, and may have gotten its name from the Chinese ''zhanmadāo'', which was used for much the same purpose as the ōdachi. The ōdachi features in the weapons training of the Kage-Ryu, one of the few Japanese sword schools that still teaches its use, and one was wielded by Sasaki Kojiro, who was very deadly with the weapon and is remembered for having fought Miyamoto Musashi. Sometimes referred to as a "daikatana" in foreign texts.
to:
* The ōdachi, also called the nōdachi, is a two-handed sword even larger than the Katana, and was used both ceremonially and as a devastating weapon from horseback. The ōdachi was also used [[AntiCavalry against cavalry]] and in open field engagements, but was infrequently used due to the difficulty of forging the blade, the greater strength required to wield it, and due to weapons like the Naginata and the Nagamaki doing the weapon's basic job better. An even [[{{BFS}} larger version called the Zanbato]] also exists, but the creation of such is more a test of a swordsmith's art than a proper weapon of war, and may have gotten its name from the Chinese ''zhanmadāo'', which was the Chinese used for much the same purpose as the ōdachi.against cavalry. The ōdachi features in the weapons training of the Kage-Ryu, one of the few Japanese sword schools that still teaches its use, and one was wielded by Sasaki Kojiro, who was very deadly with the weapon and is remembered for having fought Miyamoto Musashi. Sometimes referred to as a "daikatana" in foreign texts.
22nd Oct '15 8:54:10 PM Shadeblade11
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'''Chokutō'''
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'''Chokutō''''''Chokutō'''
22nd Oct '15 8:53:20 PM Shadeblade11
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* Sometimes called a "Chinese broadsword" because [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnThetin the blade happens to be broad]], though its curved blade has nothing to do with European cruciform swords. Dāo came in various shapes and sizes, with the most famous being the ''Liuye Dāo'', or the Willow Leaf Saber. Most have a broad blade that is moderately curved, with a single cutting edge and an inverted cup-shaped hilt to prevent rainwater or blood from flowing down the blade and onto the hand. Some have a partially sharpened back edge to allow for a thrust or a back-handed slash, but all share the characteristic of being used for either chopping or for slashing. Like the jiÓn, the origins of the dāo stem back as far as the Bronze Age, though the dāo is considered more of a utilitarian weapon (nicknamed the "General of Weapons") than the jiÓn, and was traditionally used by both cavalry and infantry alike.
to:
* Sometimes called a "Chinese broadsword" because [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnThetin the blade happens to be broad]], broad and made in China]], though its curved blade has nothing to do with European cruciform swords. Dāo came in various shapes and sizes, with the most famous being the ''Liuye Dāo'', or the Willow Leaf Saber. Most have a broad blade that is moderately curved, curved broad blade, with a single cutting edge and an inverted cup-shaped hilt to prevent rainwater or blood from flowing down the blade and onto the hand. Some have a partially sharpened back edge to allow for a thrust or a back-handed slash, but all share the characteristic of being used for either chopping or for slashing. Like the jiÓn, the origins of the dāo stem back as far as the Bronze Age, though the dāo is considered more of a utilitarian weapon (nicknamed the "General of Weapons") than the jiÓn, and was traditionally used by both cavalry and infantry alike.

'''Chokuto'''
to:
'''Chokuto''''''Chokutō'''
16th Oct '15 7:01:46 AM FF32
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->"''{{I like swords}}.''"
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->"''{{I ->"''[[SwordTropes I like swords}}.swords]].''"
5th Oct '15 11:07:16 PM Alceister
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By the 15th century, full plate armour (made of hardened and spring-tempered steel plates) was commonplace in Western Europe; thus, impetus was placed on the development of weaponry that could defeat a man wearing such pieces of armour without sacrificing versatility. The poleaxe was one such weapon that demonstrates this focus, combining an axe head with both a spear point and a hammerhead on a long wooden shaft. Swords in particular had their points narrowed and their grips lengthened in order to accommodate the use of both hands for a more forceful swing or thrust. As these and other such weapons became more common, tactics that made better use of these weapons were developed and eventually became so effective as to render armour useless. This subsequently resulted in the decline of the knightly order, since such tactics favoured the use of massed troops instead of individually talented warriors.
to:
By the 15th century, full plate armour (made of hardened and spring-tempered steel plates) was commonplace in Western Europe; thus, impetus was placed on the development of weaponry that could defeat a man wearing such pieces of armour without sacrificing versatility. The poleaxe was one such weapon that demonstrates this focus, combining an axe head with both a spear point and a hammerhead on a long wooden shaft. Swords in particular had their points narrowed and their grips lengthened in order to accommodate the use of both hands for a more forceful swing or thrust. As these and other such weapons became more common, tactics that made better use of these weapons were developed and eventually became so effective as to render armour almost useless. This subsequently resulted in the decline of the knightly order, since such tactics favoured the use of massed troops instead of individually talented warriors.
29th Sep '15 8:11:07 PM Alceister
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* Mass-produced officers' blades used from 1934 to the end of WWII. Previously the Japanese military utilized the ''kyu-guntō'', which resembled a Western cavalry saber. However, nationalists demanded that a more "native" sword be carried, so a design closely patterned on the katana was adopted. While some Type 94 Shin-Guntō used traditionally made blades, the Type 95 and 98 versions all used a blade that was essentially a piece of machined steel with an edge ground onto it. The best blades of this type were said to be made out of used rails, although personal swords of the samurai-class officers sometimes had blades that were family heirlooms. Unlike traditionally-made Japanese swords, ''shin-guntō'' with the mass-produced blades have no recognized artistic merit in Japan and are therefore ineligible for registration. If one is found within the country, it may be immediately confiscated and destroyed.
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* Mass-produced officers' blades used from 1934 to the end of WWII. Previously the Japanese military utilized the ''kyu-guntō'', which resembled a Western cavalry saber. However, nationalists demanded that a more "native" sword be carried, so a design closely patterned on the katana was adopted. While some Type 94 Shin-Guntō used traditionally made blades, the Type 95 and 98 versions all used a blade that was essentially a piece of machined steel with an edge ground onto it. The best blades of this type were said to be made out of used rails, although personal swords of the samurai-class officers sometimes had blades that were family heirlooms. Unlike traditionally-made Japanese swords, ''shin-guntō'' with the mass-produced blades have no recognized artistic merit in Japan and are therefore ineligible for registration. If one is found within the country, it may be immediately confiscated and destroyed. destroyed. This probably has something to do with [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar some unpleasantness back in 1930's and 1940's]].
29th Sep '15 8:08:09 PM Alceister
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There were always a vast majority of other weapons you could lay your hands on, like polearms (increased reach) or maces, hammers and morningstars (more crushing power). In fact, it's fairly likely that most people on battlefields used implements other than swords: a sword is a weapon, meant to injure people, with no other function; it would have been something of a luxury item[[note]]However, by the 11th century in England, a cheaply made arming sword would have been affordable to virtually anyone with any income at all, and while not a knightly weapon, it was plenty adequate and standard equipment for anyone with reason to travel between towns[[/note]]. On the other hand, pitchforks, spades, tridents, axes, knives, etc have non-combat uses and thus would be more familiar to the majority of combatants on the battlefield (who were peasants and serfs, conscripted by their knights on the [[SarcasmMode totally fair]] grounds of "Hey, you there, now you're a soldier," or were part of a militia). But this article is about swords and ''not'' about those other weapons, so we're going to ignore all this and just get on with it.
to:
There were always a vast majority of other weapons you could lay your hands on, like polearms (increased reach) or maces, hammers and morningstars (more crushing power). In fact, it's fairly likely that most people on battlefields used implements other than swords: a sword is a weapon, meant to injure people, with no other function; it would have been something of a luxury item[[note]]However, by the 11th century in England, a cheaply made arming sword would have been affordable to virtually anyone with any income at all, and while not a knightly weapon, it was plenty adequate and standard equipment for anyone with reason to travel between towns[[/note]]. On the other hand, pitchforks, spades, tridents, axes, knives, etc have non-combat uses and thus would be more familiar to the majority of combatants on the battlefield (who were peasants and serfs, desperately fighting for their own protection or conscripted by their knights on the [[SarcasmMode totally fair]] grounds of "Hey, you there, now you're a soldier," or were part of a militia).soldier"). But this article is about swords and ''not'' about those other weapons, so we're going to ignore all this and just get on with it.
11th Sep '15 6:36:00 PM Alceister
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Cutting motions are of limited use against metal armor. To get through to someone who is clad in steel, you'll really need more of a stab, or a thrust; this was true even in the days of maille[[note]]calling it "chain mail" is redundant, as there ''is'' no such thing as non-chain mail. You can have scales ''over'' mail, or plate over mail, or even splinted mail which has integrated plates, but all of these involve chain.[[/note]] and only grew worse as full plate armor was layered over it. Alternatively, one could also cause injury through armour using sheer blunt force trauma, as even a man fully clad in steel was not immune to being stunned by a steel mace swung directly at their helmeted head.
to:
Cutting motions are of limited use against metal armor. To get through to someone who is clad in steel, you'll really need more of a stab, or a thrust; this was true even in the days of maille[[note]]calling it "chain mail" is redundant, as there ''is'' no such thing as non-chain mail. You can have scales ''over'' mail, or plate over mail, or even splinted mail which has integrated plates, but all of these involve chain.[[/note]] and only grew worse as full plate armor was layered over it. Alternatively, one could also cause injury through armour using sheer blunt force trauma, as even a man fully clad in steel was not immune susceptible to being stunned by a steel mace swung directly at their helmeted head.
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