History UsefulNotes / StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs

11th Feb '18 10:25:47 PM ElSquibbonator
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# '''Middle Stock: **''' Have frequently appeared in media but not so often as the Great Stock. [[note]]Some are closely-related to the latter and may be used as their substitutes in fictional works.[[/note]]
# '''Little Stock: *''' Have frequently appeared in documentary media but quite rarely in the more popular ones. [[note]]Their presence in fiction might actually be seen as an aversion of the trope.[[/note]]
# '''Non-Stock:''' Have appeared even more rarely in media (if at all). [[note]]The difference between the Little Stock and the Non-Stock is rather hazy: the latter are generally less frequent in TV documentaries and dino-books than the former.[[/note]] See [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Useful Notes Prehistoric Life]] for these.

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# '''Middle Stock: **''' Have frequently appeared in media but not so often as the Great Stock. [[note]]Some Some are closely-related to the latter and may be used as their substitutes in fictional works.[[/note]]
works.
# '''Little Stock: *''' Have frequently appeared in documentary media but quite rarely in the more popular ones. [[note]]Their Their presence in fiction might actually be seen as an aversion of the trope.[[/note]]
trope.
# '''Non-Stock:''' Have appeared even more rarely in media (if at all). [[note]]The difference between the Little Stock and the Non-Stock is rather hazy: the latter In general, Little Stock species are generally less frequent still frequently used in TV documentaries documentary and dino-books than the former.nonfiction works, but not in fiction, whereas Non-Stock species rarely even appear in documentaries.[[/note]] See [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Useful Notes Prehistoric Life]] for these.
22nd Jan '18 2:18:14 PM schoi30
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Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].

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Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Scolosaurus'', ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Polacanthus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].
22nd Jan '18 2:15:07 PM schoi30
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!!'''Club or spikes?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scolosaurus Scolosaurus]]'' *

It seems ScienceMarchesOn can potentially hit every well-known dinosaur, suddenly making it less relevant than it used to be. Late Cretaceous North America has several example of dinosaurs that were very common in older popular dino-books but now have been "substituted" in their role by close relatives. The carnivorous ''Gorgosaurus'' was synonymized with ''Albertosaurus'' between the 1970s and the 2000s (though this has been reversed, and it is now a valid genus again); the hadrosaur ''Kritosaurus'' was revealed to be based upon the related ''Gryposaurus'' in the 1990s; the ceratopsid ''Monoclonius'' is today thought by several experts as a non-diagnostic juvenile centrosaur; and the small [[IncrediblyLamePun deinonychosaur]] ''[[IncrediblyLamePun Stenonychosaurus]]'' has been synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Troodon]]'' since the 1980s. And, of course, the notorious "[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Trachodon]]" case.

The couple ''Scolosaurus''/''Euoplocephalus'' is the latest addition in this special list. The original specimen of the latter was discovered in 1902. Between 1923 and 1929 three other genera very similar to it (''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyoplosaurus Dyoplosaurus]]'', ''Scolosaurus'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anodontosaurus Anodontosaurus]]'') were named, but these three were combined into ''Euoplocephalus'' in 1971. However, all three genera were rescued from the Invalid Box between 2007 and 2013 after showing that some patterns of armor were useful in classifying their owners. For example, the ''Dyoplosaurus'' club was different from that of ''Euoplocephalus'', being longer than wide, while the ''Anodontosaurus'' club had pointed ends like a giant pickaxe. ''Dyoplosaurus'' was also older than most ''Euoplocephalus'' specimens, while ''Anodontosaurus'' lived after the latter but before ''Ankylosaurus''.

But it's ''Scolosaurus'' that has surely been the most relevant among these alleged euoplocephaluses. It is known from one really well-preserved skeleton from Alberta and several more incomplete specimens from Montana [[note]]which had previously been given their own genus, ''Oohkotokia'', after their initial stint as "Euoplocephalus"[[/note]]. The scolosaur was about the same size as ''Euoplocephalus'', live in the same age, had a similar head but with longer, more swept-back horns, and a club also similar in shape. The main point is: the aforementioned "artistic" armor has been found to actually pertain to ''Scolosaurus'', while the real ''Euoplocephalus'' had less complex armor. The classic "Euoplocephalus" portrayals described above are actually based on the aforementioned well-preserved ''Scolosaurus'' found in Alberta.

This skeleton, nonetheless, lacked the skull as well as the clubbed tip of its tail, making its tail look shorter and ending with a single pair of spikes (which were actually in the middle of the tail). Several old books and models have portrayed this "stegosaur-tailed ankylosaur" (wrongly showing it with much more generic armor than the RealLife fossil): interestingly, they usually named it "Scolosaurus" instead of "Euoplocephalus", but sometimes they wrongly named it "Ankylosaurus" (ex. one famous picture by Zdenek Burian which shows this critter defending itself against a ''Gorgosaurus''). Though few noticed, even [[WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime one very popular work]] has made the same mistake: if observed carefully, the wise "Euoplocephalus" Rooter has armor analogous to Knight's picture, and also shows the pair of spikes on the tip of its tail when he goes away, revealing it's based on a very inaccurate, old-fashioned ''Scolosaurus''.

# '''Entry time:''' 1928
# '''TropeMaker:''' Zdenek Burian

!!'''Spiny yet clubless:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polacanthus Polacanthus]]'' *

Some decades later, a companion was added to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Hylaeosaurus]]'': ''Polacanthus''. English too, and also conviving with ''Iguanodon'' in the Early Cretaceous, it was also 4 m long, and also very incomplete. In older depictions, ''Polacanthus'' had very light armor, consisting only of pairs of long dorsal spikes (hence the name, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin "many spines"]]), a bony shield on its hips, and small plates on the tail. Some portrayals took it a further step and gave it a stegosaur-like thagomizer. The spiked-tailed polacanth made cameo appearances in ''Film/PlanetOfDinosaurs'' and the film adaptation of ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' as well as a more prominent role in ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'' as Robbie Sinclair's friend Spike. Today we know its armor was extensive and ''Ankylosaurus''-like (though even spikier) and with no club-like tail. The polacanth appears with this new look in ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' as a follower of ''Iguanodon'' herds.

# '''Entry Time:''' 1865
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' (1975 film)
11th Jan '18 2:17:45 PM Sleeping_Beauty
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Lived in Northern Africa 112-97 mya, during the Cretaceous Period. At present, this is ''the'' biggest theropod; no other matches it in bulk and length.

''Spinosaurus'' is one of the most recognizable theropods with its 5 ft/1.5 m-tall spines on its back. In the most common interpretation the spines form a "sail" similar to that of the non-dinosaur ''[[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Dimetrodon]]''. Some suggest that they instead supported a ridge, while others thought they came from another dinosaur altogether. A sail could have been useful as a thermoregulating device to prevent overheating and/or as a display tool, and a ridge could have been for display, making the animal seem larger, as well as storing extra energy gained from the giant fish and other prey that ''Spinosaurus'' fed on.

''Spinosaurus'' was first described in 1915 by a German paleontologist, but its remains are very scanty: its skull is incomplete, and we have ''no limb bones''. The best spinosaur find was stored in a German museum, which was destroyed by aerial bombing during World War II. In older drawings ''Spinosaurus'' had a head like a generic "[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods carnosaur]]"; today it is generally accepted that its head was similar to a crocodile's. Due to the fragmentary nature of its remains, the actual overall size is in debate; it was once thought the same length of an average ''Tyrannosaurus'' (40 ft/12 m), but many paleontologists wanted to set the length at 50 ft/15 m. Lack of real evidence for this left ''T. rex'' with the official record until the discovery of ''Giganotosaurus'' in the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, the spinosaur remained an only-known-among-dino-lovers dinosaur. Then, in the year 2001...

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Lived in Northern Africa 112-97 mya, during the Cretaceous Period. At present, this is ''the'' biggest theropod; no other matches it in bulk bulk, length and length.

height.

''Spinosaurus'' is one of the most recognizable theropods with its 5 ft/1.5 7 ft/2.1 m-tall spines on its back. In the most common interpretation the spines form a "sail" similar to that of the non-dinosaur ''[[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Dimetrodon]]''. Some suggest that they instead supported a ridge, while others thought they came from another dinosaur altogether. A sail could have been useful as a thermoregulating device to prevent overheating and/or as a display tool, and a ridge could have been for display, making the animal seem larger, as well as storing extra energy gained from the giant fish and other prey that ''Spinosaurus'' fed on.

''Spinosaurus'' was first described in 1915 by a German paleontologist, but its remains are very scanty: its skull is incomplete, and we have ''no limb bones''. The best spinosaur find was stored in a German museum, which was destroyed by accident during an aerial bombing during in World War II. In older drawings ''Spinosaurus'' had a head like a generic "[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods carnosaur]]"; today it is generally accepted that its head was similar to a crocodile's. Due to the fragmentary nature of its remains, the actual overall size is in debate; it was once thought the same length of an average ''Tyrannosaurus'' (40 ft/12 m), but many paleontologists wanted to set the length at 50 ft/15 m. Lack of real evidence for this left ''T. rex'' with the official record until the discovery of ''Giganotosaurus'' in the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, the spinosaur remained an only-known-among-dino-lovers dinosaur. Then, in the year 2001...
4th Jan '18 3:34:05 PM CJCroen1393
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The dodo is probably the most famous extinct animal that ''didn't'' come from the Mesozoic or the Pleistocene Ice Age, to the point that a notable euphemism for death or obsolescence is "going the way of the dodo" or "dead as a dodo". On a more serious note, the dodo's extinction is one of the things that has motivated humankind to try and be more environmentally minded--after all, we were able to wipe this innocent, goofy-looking bird out of extinction, who's to say we won't end up wiping out more species? Sadly, not everyone got the hint, not to mention we lost many species ''before'' the dodo too.

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The dodo is probably the most famous extinct animal that ''didn't'' come from the Mesozoic or the Pleistocene Ice Age, to the point that a notable euphemism for death or obsolescence is "going the way of the dodo" or "dead as a dodo". On a more serious note, the dodo's extinction is one of the things that has motivated humankind to try and be more environmentally minded--after all, we were able to wipe drive this innocent, goofy-looking bird out of to extinction, who's to say we won't end up wiping out more species? Sadly, not everyone got the hint, not to mention we lost many species ''before'' the dodo too.
13th Dec '17 10:03:50 PM PaulA
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1980s/1990s/2000s: ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' and other works made at the end of the 1980s started popularizing the image of dinosaurs as set up by the Dinosaur Renaissance. Since the 1990s, scientifically up-to-date books and computer animation in films/shows (especially in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' franchises) have definitively completed the job. Introducing:

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1980s/1990s/2000s: ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' and other works made at the end of the 1980s started popularizing the image of dinosaurs as set up by the Dinosaur Renaissance. Since the 1990s, scientifically up-to-date books and computer animation in films/shows (especially in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' franchises) have definitively completed the job. Introducing:



# '''TropeMaker''': The "Dinosaur Renaissance" (''Deinonychus''); ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' (''Velociraptor''); ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' (''Utahraptor'')

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# '''TropeMaker''': The "Dinosaur Renaissance" (''Deinonychus''); ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' (''Velociraptor''); ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' (''Utahraptor'')



''Giganotosaurus'' remains one of the most powerful meat-eaters that ever lived; and it's ''just'' starting to gain popularity. The fact that it could have possibly hunted some of the largest sauropods — possibly including of the utterly vast ''Argentinosaurus'' — means that it may become ''very'' popular in the future. If that doesn't sound cool enough, then consider that to do so, it would have had to be a ''pack hunter''. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' did a special on just how badass such a hunt would be (even though in the show the ''Argentinosaurus'' that became prey was a juvenile). Though there isn't any evidence for pack behavior in ''Giganotosaurus'', there ''might'' be for its relative, the recently-discovered ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods Mapusaurus]]'', which was the same length but had a more slender frame.

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''Giganotosaurus'' remains one of the most powerful meat-eaters that ever lived; and it's ''just'' starting to gain popularity. The fact that it could have possibly hunted some of the largest sauropods — possibly including of the utterly vast ''Argentinosaurus'' — means that it may become ''very'' popular in the future. If that doesn't sound cool enough, then consider that to do so, it would have had to be a ''pack hunter''. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/ChasedByDinosaurs'' did a special on just how badass such a hunt would be (even though in the show the ''Argentinosaurus'' that became prey was a juvenile). Though there isn't any evidence for pack behavior in ''Giganotosaurus'', there ''might'' be for its relative, the recently-discovered ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods Mapusaurus]]'', which was the same length but had a more slender frame.



''Allosaurus'' was the top predator in the Late Jurassic, sometimes referred as "the tyrannosaur of the Jurassic". Its hunting behavior is still uncertain: we're not sure if it was mainly a pack-hunter or a solitary ambush-predator. In documentaries and pop-books it usually appears as a pack-hunter capable of bringing down the biggest sauropods like ''Diplodocus'' (like in the memorable ''[[WalkingWithDinosaurs The Ballad Of Big Al]]''), ''Apatosaurus'', or even ''Brachiosaurus''. Alternatively, it is shown in a battle against the armored ''Stegosaurus'' (the Jurassic equivalent of the ''Tyrannosaurus''-vs-''Triceratops'' Cretaceous duel). All this might be TruthInTelevision since all these animals lived together in North America in the same period, but more probably ''Allosaurus'' more often hunted easier prey such as young sauropods, young stegosaurs, and ornithopods like ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeHadrosaurPredecessors Camptosaurus]]''. There are, however, stegosaur fossils showing ''Allosaurus'' bite marks and ''Allosaurus'' fossils that show wounds created by stegosaur tails.

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''Allosaurus'' was the top predator in the Late Jurassic, sometimes referred as "the tyrannosaur of the Jurassic". Its hunting behavior is still uncertain: we're not sure if it was mainly a pack-hunter or a solitary ambush-predator. In documentaries and pop-books it usually appears as a pack-hunter capable of bringing down the biggest sauropods like ''Diplodocus'' (like in the memorable ''[[WalkingWithDinosaurs The Ballad Of Big Al]]''), ''WesternAnimation/TheBalladOfBigAl''), ''Apatosaurus'', or even ''Brachiosaurus''. Alternatively, it is shown in a battle against the armored ''Stegosaurus'' (the Jurassic equivalent of the ''Tyrannosaurus''-vs-''Triceratops'' Cretaceous duel). All this might be TruthInTelevision since all these animals lived together in North America in the same period, but more probably ''Allosaurus'' more often hunted easier prey such as young sauropods, young stegosaurs, and ornithopods like ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeHadrosaurPredecessors Camptosaurus]]''. There are, however, stegosaur fossils showing ''Allosaurus'' bite marks and ''Allosaurus'' fossils that show wounds created by stegosaur tails.



''Ceratosaurus'' is quite rare in films these days: the only recent example is a short cameo in ''Film/JurassicParkIII'', in which it's not even named (but at least is correctly sized). Even modern documentaries rarely represent it — the ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' series didn't show it at all. The recent ''Ceratosaurus'' decline is probably due to the occurrence of other, newly-discovered theropods since the '70s: ''Carnotaurus'' in particular, being similar yet even more badass looking.

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''Ceratosaurus'' is quite rare in films these days: the only recent example is a short cameo in ''Film/JurassicParkIII'', in which it's not even named (but at least is correctly sized). Even modern documentaries rarely represent it — the ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' series didn't show it at all. The recent ''Ceratosaurus'' decline is probably due to the occurrence of other, newly-discovered theropods since the '70s: ''Carnotaurus'' in particular, being similar yet even more badass looking.



The only-valid ''Megalosaurus'' is a fairly generic theropod some 30 ft/9 m in length, similar to an elongated allosaur but smaller and more primitive. Even though its historical relevance makes it a common sight in classic and modern dino-books, the "big lizard" didn't go a long way in popular works after the two important mentions in early literature (''Literature/BleakHouse'' and ''Literature/{{The Lost World|1912}}''). In the 20th century it heavily suffered the competition with ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Allosaurus'' — and the resolution of the "wastebasket" issue didn't make its case better. Apart from some occasional documentary, you have little chance of seeing any megalosaur either in cinema or in TV media — just as an example, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' chose to portray the contemporary close-relative ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods Eustreptospondylus]]'' in the Jurassic Europe episode. There is, however, the curious case of the TV show ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'', which has one "megalosaur" in the form of Earl Sinclair: but he doesn't look particularly like any dinosaur at all.

to:

The only-valid ''Megalosaurus'' is a fairly generic theropod some 30 ft/9 m in length, similar to an elongated allosaur but smaller and more primitive. Even though its historical relevance makes it a common sight in classic and modern dino-books, the "big lizard" didn't go a long way in popular works after the two important mentions in early literature (''Literature/BleakHouse'' and ''Literature/{{The Lost World|1912}}''). In the 20th century it heavily suffered the competition with ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Allosaurus'' — and the resolution of the "wastebasket" issue didn't make its case better. Apart from some occasional documentary, you have little chance of seeing any megalosaur either in cinema or in TV media — just as an example, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' chose to portray the contemporary close-relative ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods Eustreptospondylus]]'' in the Jurassic Europe episode. There is, however, the curious case of the TV show ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'', which has one "megalosaur" in the form of Earl Sinclair: but he doesn't look particularly like any dinosaur at all.
all.



Together with the large herbivorous ''Plateosaurus'', ''Coelophysis'' is the dinosaur you're most likely to see in those documentary works portraying the Triassic Period, to show how the earliest dinosaurs looked (even though in RealLife there were many other dinos in the Triassic, some even more primitive: ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifePrimitiveSaurischians Staurikosaurus]]'' and ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeSauropodPredecessors Thecodontosaurus]]'' are two examples). In these works, the smaller ''Coelophysis'' is used to represent the very start of the dinosaur evolution, while the bigger ''Plateosaurus'' represents a more advanced/enlarged stage. An excellent example of all this is the first episode of the TV documentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', in which the two animals are shown living together in North America (in RealLife only the coelophysis was North American, [[MisplacedWildlife the plateosaur was found in Europe]]). On the other hand, ''Coelophysis'' has been far less common in fiction or other more popular media, since it is too humble-looking and generic to be interesting; the best-known appearance may be "Spot" from the 1974 children's television series ''Series/LandOfTheLost''.

to:

Together with the large herbivorous ''Plateosaurus'', ''Coelophysis'' is the dinosaur you're most likely to see in those documentary works portraying the Triassic Period, to show how the earliest dinosaurs looked (even though in RealLife there were many other dinos in the Triassic, some even more primitive: ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifePrimitiveSaurischians Staurikosaurus]]'' and ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeSauropodPredecessors Thecodontosaurus]]'' are two examples). In these works, the smaller ''Coelophysis'' is used to represent the very start of the dinosaur evolution, while the bigger ''Plateosaurus'' represents a more advanced/enlarged stage. An excellent example of all this is the first episode of the TV documentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', in which the two animals are shown living together in North America (in RealLife only the coelophysis was North American, [[MisplacedWildlife the plateosaur was found in Europe]]). On the other hand, ''Coelophysis'' has been far less common in fiction or other more popular media, since it is too humble-looking and generic to be interesting; the best-known appearance may be "Spot" from the 1974 children's television series ''Series/LandOfTheLost''.



Meanwhile, a special spinoff of ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' from 2002 temporarily recreated our imagination in CGI: in the episode titled "The Giant Claw" Nigel Marven talks about ''Therizinosaurus'', [[LampshadeHanging lampshading]] its whole ScienceMarchesOn story from a mighty carnivore to a GentleGiant. Nigel is in Late Cretaceous Mongolia searching for the possessor of the eponymous "giant claw", which the zoologist believes to have pertained to a fearsome predator. After several adventures with other famous dinosaurs of the habitat (''Protoceratops'', ''Velociraptor'', etc.), Nigel witnesses a fight between ''Therizinosaurus'' and ''Tarbosaurus'': even though the former unexpectedly reveals itself to be an herbivore, it easily defeats the tyrannosaur by slapping it in the face with its scythe-claws, obliging the predator to flee. Finally, the [[RuleOfCool therizinosaur licks Nigel’s face]]. Really!

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Meanwhile, a special spinoff of ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/ChasedByDinosaurs'' from 2002 temporarily recreated our imagination in CGI: in the episode titled "The Giant Claw" Nigel Marven talks about ''Therizinosaurus'', [[LampshadeHanging lampshading]] its whole ScienceMarchesOn story from a mighty carnivore to a GentleGiant. Nigel is in Late Cretaceous Mongolia searching for the possessor of the eponymous "giant claw", which the zoologist believes to have pertained to a fearsome predator. After several adventures with other famous dinosaurs of the habitat (''Protoceratops'', ''Velociraptor'', etc.), Nigel witnesses a fight between ''Therizinosaurus'' and ''Tarbosaurus'': even though the former unexpectedly reveals itself to be an herbivore, it easily defeats the tyrannosaur by slapping it in the face with its scythe-claws, obliging the predator to flee. Finally, the [[RuleOfCool therizinosaur licks Nigel’s face]]. Really!



While these two do feature prominently in dinosaur books and sometimes documentaries (''Hesperornis'', for example, was the [[RedShirt token prey animal]] in ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs Sea Monsters]]'' and ''Ichthyornis'' got a bit part in ''Series/DinosaurPlanet'' as a [[CarnivoreConfusion scummy scavenger]]), their presence is rare in more mainstream media, presumably because, besides their teeth and ''Hesperornis''' large size, they don't have a lot of [[RuleOfCool cool points]]. That hasn't stopped folks from trying (for better or worse). An ''Ichthyornis'', creatively [[StealthInsult and perhaps fittingly]] named "Ichy" appears as a one-shot villain in the fourth ''[[WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime Land Before Time]]'' movie, accompanied by an equally villainous ''Deinosuchus''. ''Ichthyornis'' also cameos in ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'', erroneously depicted as duck-like creatures rather than seagull-like, and are among the many factors contributing to the start of the movie when they attack the mother ''Pteranodon'' carrying Aladar's egg, causing her to drop it. In ''Series/{{Primeval}}'', ''Hesperornis'' appears as [[NonMaliciousMonster an aggressive but non-malicious creature]] that kills a plumber after its anomaly appears in someone's flooded basement. It's portrayal there is probably one of the ''worst'' of any prehistoric bird — to the point that the creature designers had it ''featherless and standing upright''.

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While these two do feature prominently in dinosaur books and sometimes documentaries (''Hesperornis'', for example, was the [[RedShirt token prey animal]] in ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs Sea Monsters]]'' ''Series/SeaMonsters'' and ''Ichthyornis'' got a bit part in ''Series/DinosaurPlanet'' as a [[CarnivoreConfusion scummy scavenger]]), their presence is rare in more mainstream media, presumably because, besides their teeth and ''Hesperornis''' large size, they don't have a lot of [[RuleOfCool cool points]]. That hasn't stopped folks from trying (for better or worse). An ''Ichthyornis'', creatively [[StealthInsult and perhaps fittingly]] named "Ichy" appears as a one-shot villain in the fourth ''[[WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime Land Before Time]]'' movie, accompanied by an equally villainous ''Deinosuchus''. ''Ichthyornis'' also cameos in ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'', erroneously depicted as duck-like creatures rather than seagull-like, and are among the many factors contributing to the start of the movie when they attack the mother ''Pteranodon'' carrying Aladar's egg, causing her to drop it. In ''Series/{{Primeval}}'', ''Hesperornis'' appears as [[NonMaliciousMonster an aggressive but non-malicious creature]] that kills a plumber after its anomaly appears in someone's flooded basement. It's portrayal there is probably one of the ''worst'' of any prehistoric bird — to the point that the creature designers had it ''featherless and standing upright''.



Recently, it was shown that it wasn't even ''carnivorous'' at all: its strong beak wasn't hooked like an eagle's, and its body frame was stocky, seemingly slow-moving. It only was an herbivore that used its bill to crack nuts and cut vegetation — making erroneous the BizarroWorld portrayal in Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs where birds were shown ruling mammals. However, this does ''not'' mean it was the GentleGiant news articles claimed it was. Ostriches and cassowaries are herbivores too, but they're also some of the few birds that have been known to ''kill'' people. And ''Gastornis'' not only grew to their size, but it also had a powerful beak that would've been useful for fighting off the land-dwelling crocodiles that were the true dominant predator. Needless to say, the gastorn/diatryma was a literal and figurative giant in its forested world, 40 million years ago: while mammals were still small, some birds grew to large size.

With the Phorusrhacids, on the other hand, we have no doubts this time: thanks to their light weight and slender running legs, they ''were'' active hunters of small mammals. Not only that, with their strongly hooked, very eagle-like bills, they did not swallow their prey whole. They were once thought to have ''one clawed fingers'' protruding from each of their tiny wings [[note]]This is not so strange as one may think: there are also living birds with this feature, the most notable being the ''two-fingered'' young [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoatzin Hoatzin]][[/note]], for uncertain purpose. However, it was later discovered that their living relatives, the seriemas (see below) have similarly-shaped wings and lack wing claws, making these fingers unlikely. Perhaps the most amazing-looking among all prehistoric birds, they have recently been nicknamed [[CarnivoreConfusion terror birds]] in pop-documentaries (for example, [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Prehistoric Park]]).

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Recently, it was shown that it wasn't even ''carnivorous'' at all: its strong beak wasn't hooked like an eagle's, and its body frame was stocky, seemingly slow-moving. It only was an herbivore that used its bill to crack nuts and cut vegetation — making erroneous the BizarroWorld portrayal in Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' where birds were shown ruling mammals. However, this does ''not'' mean it was the GentleGiant news articles claimed it was. Ostriches and cassowaries are herbivores too, but they're also some of the few birds that have been known to ''kill'' people. And ''Gastornis'' not only grew to their size, but it also had a powerful beak that would've been useful for fighting off the land-dwelling crocodiles that were the true dominant predator. Needless to say, the gastorn/diatryma was a literal and figurative giant in its forested world, 40 million years ago: while mammals were still small, some birds grew to large size.

With the Phorusrhacids, on the other hand, we have no doubts this time: thanks to their light weight and slender running legs, they ''were'' active hunters of small mammals. Not only that, with their strongly hooked, very eagle-like bills, they did not swallow their prey whole. They were once thought to have ''one clawed fingers'' protruding from each of their tiny wings [[note]]This is not so strange as one may think: there are also living birds with this feature, the most notable being the ''two-fingered'' young [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoatzin Hoatzin]][[/note]], for uncertain purpose. However, it was later discovered that their living relatives, the seriemas (see below) have similarly-shaped wings and lack wing claws, making these fingers unlikely. Perhaps the most amazing-looking among all prehistoric birds, they have recently been nicknamed [[CarnivoreConfusion terror birds]] in pop-documentaries (for example, [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Prehistoric Park]]).
''Series/PrehistoricPark'').



In recent years, the British SpeculativeDocumentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' has popularized some recent theories about ''Diplodocus'' and sauropods in general: the straight, horizontal neck posture and the iguana-like spiky back. The first is due to analysis of the neck vertebrae using computer models; [[note]] Unlike mammals, sauropods had pairs of ribs even in their necks; the shape of these ribs, together with the relatively low number of cervical vertebrae, prevented their necks from being coiled in a snake-like manner.[[/note]] the second arose from a discovery made in the 1990s of a diplo with imprints of horny spikes near its back. Both theories are now disputed: both the base and the end of the sauropods' necks were more flexible, and the animals may have been able to fold their necks and lift them like most modern long-necked animals. The spikes were dermic structures not related to the skeleton; dinosaurs being closer to birds than to lizards, the structures might have been spread over the animal's back like theropod feathers, instead of in a single line like an iguana's. We don't know if other sauropods had spikes, but spiky longnecks are now a common sight in books and art — as it seems, dino-artists have hard work getting rid of the "[[DinosaursAreDragons Dinosaurs Are Lizards]]" idea even today.

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In recent years, the British SpeculativeDocumentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' has popularized some recent theories about ''Diplodocus'' and sauropods in general: the straight, horizontal neck posture and the iguana-like spiky back. The first is due to analysis of the neck vertebrae using computer models; [[note]] Unlike mammals, sauropods had pairs of ribs even in their necks; the shape of these ribs, together with the relatively low number of cervical vertebrae, prevented their necks from being coiled in a snake-like manner.[[/note]] the second arose from a discovery made in the 1990s of a diplo with imprints of horny spikes near its back. Both theories are now disputed: both the base and the end of the sauropods' necks were more flexible, and the animals may have been able to fold their necks and lift them like most modern long-necked animals. The spikes were dermic structures not related to the skeleton; dinosaurs being closer to birds than to lizards, the structures might have been spread over the animal's back like theropod feathers, instead of in a single line like an iguana's. We don't know if other sauropods had spikes, but spiky longnecks are now a common sight in books and art — as it seems, dino-artists have hard work getting rid of the "[[DinosaursAreDragons Dinosaurs Are Lizards]]" idea even today.



From its first description at the start of the 20th century, ''Brachiosaurus'' was considered "The biggest land animal ever!" until real or alleged new sauropods were described starting in the 1970s (see below). Of course, works made after TheSeventies may still qualify the brachiosaur in this way (sadly, among them, even ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', at least the original series). Generally thought to weigh between 30 and 50 tons, ''Brachiosaurus'' has often been oversized in popular books, so far as to ''triple'' its size [[UpToEleven up to 130 tons]], which would make it heavier than any animal alive today, except for the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_whale blue whale]].

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From its first description at the start of the 20th century, ''Brachiosaurus'' was considered "The biggest land animal ever!" until real or alleged new sauropods were described starting in the 1970s (see below). Of course, works made after TheSeventies may still qualify the brachiosaur in this way (sadly, among them, even ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', at least the original series). Generally thought to weigh between 30 and 50 tons, ''Brachiosaurus'' has often been oversized in popular books, so far as to ''triple'' its size [[UpToEleven up to 130 tons]], which would make it heavier than any animal alive today, except for the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_whale blue whale]].



In 2002, a ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' special (''Chased by Dinosaurs'') featured a herd of ''Argentinosaurus''. In a memorable scene, Nigel Marven hurries to place weight sensors in front of the herd as it approaches, walking straight towards the camera and messing with the viewer's perspective: a very effective demonstration of the immense size of these animals. Strangely, unlike its predator ''Giganotosaurus'' This is actually a case of either MisplacedWildlife or AnachronismStew; the two species lived at roughly contemporary times but were found in different formations. ''Argentinosaurus'' has not received much attention in fiction since then. Maybe because, size-related impressiveness apart, the ''Argentinosaurus'' here do nothing sensational — the adults continue to walk apparently unmoved after the ''Giganotosaurus'' bring down one of their young.

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In 2002, a ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' special (''Chased by Dinosaurs'') ''Series/ChasedByDinosaurs'' featured a herd of ''Argentinosaurus''. In a memorable scene, Nigel Marven hurries to place weight sensors in front of the herd as it approaches, walking straight towards the camera and messing with the viewer's perspective: a very effective demonstration of the immense size of these animals. Strangely, unlike its predator ''Giganotosaurus'' This is actually a case of either MisplacedWildlife or AnachronismStew; the two species lived at roughly contemporary times but were found in different formations. ''Argentinosaurus'' has not received much attention in fiction since then. Maybe because, size-related impressiveness apart, the ''Argentinosaurus'' here do nothing sensational — the adults continue to walk apparently unmoved after the ''Giganotosaurus'' bring down one of their young.



ScienceMarchesOn has been a strong factor within ''Plateosaurus'' portrayals. When believed a theropod it was depicted with a tripod stance like all large bipedal dinosaurs; one example could be in ''Disney/{{Fantasia}}''. After being classified as a sauropod relative, the plateosaur has usually appeared as a slow quadruped but able to rear up its hindlegs like diplodocids, either to reach higher foliage or for defensive purpose (like in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs''). The exclusively bipedal portrait re-emerged only very recently, and today scientists believe ''Plateosaurus'' was capable of rapid runs if necessary. It may have defended itself with its thumbclaws. The plateosaur's large size could have evolved to avoid predation by the carnivorous dinosaurs (which were still small and gracile at the time); the only predators that were possibly able to defeat the adults were basal archosaurs such as the contemporaneous ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Teratosaurus]]''.

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ScienceMarchesOn has been a strong factor within ''Plateosaurus'' portrayals. When believed a theropod it was depicted with a tripod stance like all large bipedal dinosaurs; one example could be in ''Disney/{{Fantasia}}''. After being classified as a sauropod relative, the plateosaur has usually appeared as a slow quadruped but able to rear up its hindlegs like diplodocids, either to reach higher foliage or for defensive purpose (like in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'').''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs''). The exclusively bipedal portrait re-emerged only very recently, and today scientists believe ''Plateosaurus'' was capable of rapid runs if necessary. It may have defended itself with its thumbclaws. The plateosaur's large size could have evolved to avoid predation by the carnivorous dinosaurs (which were still small and gracile at the time); the only predators that were possibly able to defeat the adults were basal archosaurs such as the contemporaneous ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Teratosaurus]]''.



The two stock Triassic dinosaurs, ''Plateosaurus'' and ''Coelophysis'', are among the most abundant in fossil record but among the least common in pop culture. ''Plateosaurus'' appearances in fiction are very rare; in documentaries, it is usually shown only to emphasize the dinosaurs' rise to power, as in the aforementioned ''WalkingWithDinosaurs''. Even though some ''Plateosaurus''-looking dinosaurs occasionally crop up in TV (such as [[TheFlintstones Dino]]), they are more likely humanized sauropods or MixAndMatchCritter things.

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The two stock Triassic dinosaurs, ''Plateosaurus'' and ''Coelophysis'', are among the most abundant in fossil record but among the least common in pop culture. ''Plateosaurus'' appearances in fiction are very rare; in documentaries, it is usually shown only to emphasize the dinosaurs' rise to power, as in the aforementioned ''WalkingWithDinosaurs''. ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs''. Even though some ''Plateosaurus''-looking dinosaurs occasionally crop up in TV (such as [[TheFlintstones [[WesternAnimation/TheFlintstones Dino]]), they are more likely humanized sauropods or MixAndMatchCritter things.



If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it may be shown with paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines, and they may be round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And its tail may have two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes, or none at all. These spikes may be shown as much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in ''ComicStrip/AlleyOop'', making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when seen from the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. In modern portrayals, however, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores]], like in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.

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If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it may be shown with paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines, and they may be round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And its tail may have two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes, or none at all. These spikes may be shown as much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in ''ComicStrip/AlleyOop'', making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when seen from the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. In modern portrayals, however, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores]], like in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.



''Ankylosaurus'' has been famous since the 1940s as the UpToEleven example of an armored dinosaur. In both fictional and documentary media it is often portrayed in a battle against ''T. rex'' (similarly to ''Triceratops''). In these struggles the ankylosaur is seen defending itself by sheltering under its impenetrable bony armor, and using its tail-club like a Medieval mace, breaking the legs of its opponent and making it fall down. This might be TruthInTelevision, even though tyrannosaurs almost certainly didn't prey upon adult ankylosaurians frequently (hadrosaurs were much more abundants and armor-less). Despite their heavy build and short legs, they may have been able to charge the carnivore like a rhino. Like stegosaurs, ankylosaurs tend today to be portrayed as more agile and active in fights now than in the past: in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' one easily wins the struggle (despite being shown as a very slow-walking animal), delivering to the carnivore a fatal blow with its tail-mace. When the tyrannosaur is shown winning the battle, it's seen "overturning" the ankylosaur to expone the soft vulnerable underbelly and deliver the fatal bite there.

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''Ankylosaurus'' has been famous since the 1940s as the UpToEleven example of an armored dinosaur. In both fictional and documentary media it is often portrayed in a battle against ''T. rex'' (similarly to ''Triceratops''). In these struggles the ankylosaur is seen defending itself by sheltering under its impenetrable bony armor, and using its tail-club like a Medieval mace, breaking the legs of its opponent and making it fall down. This might be TruthInTelevision, even though tyrannosaurs almost certainly didn't prey upon adult ankylosaurians frequently (hadrosaurs were much more abundants and armor-less). Despite their heavy build and short legs, they may have been able to charge the carnivore like a rhino. Like stegosaurs, ankylosaurs tend today to be portrayed as more agile and active in fights now than in the past: in ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' one easily wins the struggle (despite being shown as a very slow-walking animal), delivering to the carnivore a fatal blow with its tail-mace. When the tyrannosaur is shown winning the battle, it's seen "overturning" the ankylosaur to expone the soft vulnerable underbelly and deliver the fatal bite there.



''Ankylosaurus'' probably retains the sad record of being the worst-known Stock Dinosaur. Even in ''documentary works'', its size, shape, and composition tend to be pictured incorrectly, often with traits from other ankylosaurian species. The incompleteness of the remains only partially justify this. One common mistake is to leave out the tail club, or to have it shaped incorrectly — for example, adding spikes to it. A famous example of the latter is the "Ankylosaurus" (actually a ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Scolosaurus]]'') painted by Zdenek Burian defending itself against a tyrannosaurid: it is undersized and has two spikes on the tip of its tail. When based on RealLife fossils, the club usually appears two-lobed like that of a ''Euoplocephalus'' (a close relative commonly depicted in popular dino-books), instead of elliptical. The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es (see the aforementioned finale of ''WalkingWithDinosaurs''). Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth. Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'' (he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young). Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs (see above).

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''Ankylosaurus'' probably retains the sad record of being the worst-known Stock Dinosaur. Even in ''documentary works'', its size, shape, and composition tend to be pictured incorrectly, often with traits from other ankylosaurian species. The incompleteness of the remains only partially justify this. One common mistake is to leave out the tail club, or to have it shaped incorrectly — for example, adding spikes to it. A famous example of the latter is the "Ankylosaurus" (actually a ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Scolosaurus]]'') painted by Zdenek Burian defending itself against a tyrannosaurid: it is undersized and has two spikes on the tip of its tail. When based on RealLife fossils, the club usually appears two-lobed like that of a ''Euoplocephalus'' (a close relative commonly depicted in popular dino-books), instead of elliptical. The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es (see the aforementioned finale of ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'').''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs''). Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth. Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'' (he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young). Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs (see above).



Some decades later, a companion was added to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Hylaeosaurus]]'': ''Polacanthus''. English too, and also conviving with ''Iguanodon'' in the Early Cretaceous, it was also 4 m long, and also very incomplete. In older depictions, ''Polacanthus'' had very light armor, consisting only of pairs of long dorsal spikes (hence the name, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin "many spines"]]), a bony shield on its hips, and small plates on the tail. Some portrayals took it a further step and gave it a stegosaur-like thagomizer. The spiked-tailed polacanth made cameo appearances in ''Film/PlanetOfDinosaurs'' and the film adaptation of ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' as well as a more prominent role in ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'' as Robbie Sinclair's friend Spike. Today we know its armor was extensive and ''Ankylosaurus''-like (though even spikier) and with no club-like tail. The polacanth appears with this new look in ''Documentary/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' as a follower of ''Iguanodon'' herds.

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Some decades later, a companion was added to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Hylaeosaurus]]'': ''Polacanthus''. English too, and also conviving with ''Iguanodon'' in the Early Cretaceous, it was also 4 m long, and also very incomplete. In older depictions, ''Polacanthus'' had very light armor, consisting only of pairs of long dorsal spikes (hence the name, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin "many spines"]]), a bony shield on its hips, and small plates on the tail. Some portrayals took it a further step and gave it a stegosaur-like thagomizer. The spiked-tailed polacanth made cameo appearances in ''Film/PlanetOfDinosaurs'' and the film adaptation of ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' as well as a more prominent role in ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'' as Robbie Sinclair's friend Spike. Today we know its armor was extensive and ''Ankylosaurus''-like (though even spikier) and with no club-like tail. The polacanth appears with this new look in ''Documentary/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' as a follower of ''Iguanodon'' herds.



Compared to other stock dinosaurs, ''Triceratops'' and its relatives have been portrayed fairly accurately. The ceratopsids in the original movie ''The Lost World'' (the TropeMaker, from year 1925) are nearly as realistic as those seen in the 1999 docu ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' (which are actually ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsids Torosaurus]]''[[note]]though some research suggests that ''Torosaurus'' is just a more mature form of ''Triceratops''[[/note]]). Thanks to their obvious resemblance to rhinos, media ''Triceratops''es have usually been portrayed as agile and active like a modern ungulate mammal; basically, the only mistake in older depictions (other than the aforementioned issue regarding the legs) is the wide lizard-like mouth without the typical ornithischian cheeks (see also ''Iguanodon''). ScienceMarchesOn even for "Mr. Three-Horn" however, and a third element (the completely scaly hide) has been revealed to be an inaccuracy as well. Extremely recent finds indicate that ''Triceratops'' was covered in bristles. Today, many scientists believe ''every'' dinosaur was at least partially covered in filamentous structures (just like modern mammals).

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Compared to other stock dinosaurs, ''Triceratops'' and its relatives have been portrayed fairly accurately. The ceratopsids in the original movie ''The Lost World'' (the TropeMaker, from year 1925) are nearly as realistic as those seen in the 1999 docu ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' (which are actually ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsids Torosaurus]]''[[note]]though some research suggests that ''Torosaurus'' is just a more mature form of ''Triceratops''[[/note]]). Thanks to their obvious resemblance to rhinos, media ''Triceratops''es have usually been portrayed as agile and active like a modern ungulate mammal; basically, the only mistake in older depictions (other than the aforementioned issue regarding the legs) is the wide lizard-like mouth without the typical ornithischian cheeks (see also ''Iguanodon''). ScienceMarchesOn even for "Mr. Three-Horn" however, and a third element (the completely scaly hide) has been revealed to be an inaccuracy as well. Extremely recent finds indicate that ''Triceratops'' was covered in bristles. Today, many scientists believe ''every'' dinosaur was at least partially covered in filamentous structures (just like modern mammals).



''Trachodon'' first appeared in pop-media in 1925 (''Film/TheLostWorld'' film adaptation), in which is portrayed as a prey for a giant carnivore. Since then, it became THE duckbill in public consciousness, to the point "trachodont" was also used as a popular synonym of "hadrosaur" (a bit like "brontosaur" as a synonym of sauropod). Since the "renaissance" times, ''Anatosaurus'' has become the most widely-used name. After 1990, ''Trachodon'' rapidly disappeared in pop-consciousness -– even though its ghost is still seen sometimes, like the "brontosaur" one. As it seems, the name ''Edmontosaurus'' hasn’t gone a long way in non-docu media: when an edmontosaurine appears, is simply known as "duckbill," and the crested ''Parasaurolophus'' has become the most portrayed hadrosaur today. Compensating this, edmontosaurines remain still quite common in documentary media, being the only hadrosaurs which could have met TyrannosaurusRex in RealLife (with the possible exception of the crested ''Hypacrosaurus'', which lived from 75 to 67 million years ago). Current dino-books usually show them with the name ''Edmontosaurus'', while "''Anatotitan''" became popularized by ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', and has also appeared in Series/{{Primeval}}. According to the most recent researches, its proper name is either ''Edmontosaurus'' or ''Anatosaurus''.

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''Trachodon'' first appeared in pop-media in 1925 (''Film/TheLostWorld'' film adaptation), in which is portrayed as a prey for a giant carnivore. Since then, it became THE duckbill in public consciousness, to the point "trachodont" was also used as a popular synonym of "hadrosaur" (a bit like "brontosaur" as a synonym of sauropod). Since the "renaissance" times, ''Anatosaurus'' has become the most widely-used name. After 1990, ''Trachodon'' rapidly disappeared in pop-consciousness -– even though its ghost is still seen sometimes, like the "brontosaur" one. As it seems, the name ''Edmontosaurus'' hasn’t gone a long way in non-docu media: when an edmontosaurine appears, is simply known as "duckbill," and the crested ''Parasaurolophus'' has become the most portrayed hadrosaur today. Compensating this, edmontosaurines remain still quite common in documentary media, being the only hadrosaurs which could have met TyrannosaurusRex in RealLife (with the possible exception of the crested ''Hypacrosaurus'', which lived from 75 to 67 million years ago). Current dino-books usually show them with the name ''Edmontosaurus'', while "''Anatotitan''" became popularized by ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', and has also appeared in Series/{{Primeval}}.''Series/{{Primeval}}''. According to the most recent researches, its proper name is either ''Edmontosaurus'' or ''Anatosaurus''.



Even though has been extremely common in dino-books and other non-fictional media, ''Iguanodon'' has not made significative apparitions in cinema or TV before Disney's ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' were broadcast during the 20th-21st century change. RuleOfCool easily explains why: with its generic look and weak weapons, it don’t bear the comparison with ''Tyrannosaurus rex'' jaws, ''Triceratops'' horns, ''Stegosaurus'' plates, "raptor" claws, or the immense size of sauropods -- and some portraits could even leave the beak or the thumbspikes, making it even more generic. However, its historical and scientifical importance won't ever be deleted in dino-fans' consciousness, as no other dinosaur has run the whole two centuries of popular portraits: from Crystal Palace rhinos, to giant two-legged iguanas, up to Disneyan horses.

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Even though has been extremely common in dino-books and other non-fictional media, ''Iguanodon'' has not made significative apparitions in cinema or TV before Disney's ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' were broadcast during the 20th-21st century change. RuleOfCool easily explains why: with its generic look and weak weapons, it don’t bear the comparison with ''Tyrannosaurus rex'' jaws, ''Triceratops'' horns, ''Stegosaurus'' plates, "raptor" claws, or the immense size of sauropods -- and some portraits could even leave the beak or the thumbspikes, making it even more generic. However, its historical and scientifical importance won't ever be deleted in dino-fans' consciousness, as no other dinosaur has run the whole two centuries of popular portraits: from Crystal Palace rhinos, to giant two-legged iguanas, up to Disneyan horses.
19th Oct '17 2:32:07 PM schoi30
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Works from before the 1970s ''never'' represent dromaeosaurids, simply because they were scientifically too obscure at the time. Significantly, between 1970 and the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' mania in the 1990s, the most represented "raptor" (though not yet known by that term) in popular culture was the biggest known at the time, ''Deinonychus'', while the less-impressive ''Velociraptor'' was totally unknown to laymen (not counting the antecedent dino-fans). For instance, see WesternAnimation/DinoRiders, TabletopGame/DinosaursAttack, the ''VideoGame/RuneQuest Borderlands'' tabletop [=RPG=] adventure, or even the Dutch metal-band named [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinonychus_(band) Deinonychus]]. It was ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' that '''apparently''' caused ''Velociraptor'' to displace ''Deinonychus'' as the stock sickle-clawed dino (even documentary media started showing the "veloci" more often thanks to the film), and started the usage of "raptor" for dromaeosaurid in the mind of the public. (Prior to this, "raptor" was used only to indicate birds of prey.) Without ''Jurassic Park'', ''Velociraptor'' would have almost-surely remained in the Non-Stock realm forever. There are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_issues_in_Jurassic_Park#Velociraptor several issues]] with the [[RaptorAttack depiction of raptors]] in the film.

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Works from before the 1970s ''never'' represent dromaeosaurids, simply because they were scientifically too obscure at the time. Significantly, between 1970 and the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' mania in the 1990s, the most represented "raptor" (though not yet known by that term) in popular culture was the biggest known at the time, ''Deinonychus'', while the less-impressive ''Velociraptor'' was totally unknown to laymen (not counting the antecedent dino-fans). For instance, see WesternAnimation/DinoRiders, TabletopGame/DinosaursAttack, ''WesternAnimation/DinoRiders'', ''Literature/{{Carnosaur}}'', the ''VideoGame/RuneQuest Borderlands'' tabletop [=RPG=] adventure, or even the Dutch metal-band named [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinonychus_(band) Deinonychus]]. It was ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' that '''apparently''' caused ''Velociraptor'' to displace ''Deinonychus'' as the stock sickle-clawed dino (even documentary media started showing the "veloci" more often thanks to the film), and started the usage of "raptor" for dromaeosaurid in the mind of the public. (Prior to this, "raptor" was used only to indicate birds of prey.) Without ''Jurassic Park'', ''Velociraptor'' would have almost-surely remained in the Non-Stock realm forever. There are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_issues_in_Jurassic_Park#Velociraptor several issues]] with the [[RaptorAttack depiction of raptors]] in the film.
12th Oct '17 3:30:29 AM VagabondPeafowl
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Since the '80s/'90s, a handful of large theropods have started to filter into pop-consciousness, often after a single remarkable appearance in Movieland: ''Spinosaurus'' (''Film/JurassicParkIII''), ''Giganotosaurus'', ''Carnotaurus'' (Disney's ''Disney/Dinosaur''), and ''Baryonyx'' (''WesternAnimation/IceAge3DawnOfTheDinosaurs''). Despite having some cool traits (crests, horns, claws, or sheer size), none of them has managed to replace ''T. rex'' as the "King Dinosaur" — at least for now. Though relatively small, ''Dilophosaurus'' (popularized by the 1st Jurassic Park film) is here for comparison.

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Since the '80s/'90s, a handful of large theropods have started to filter into pop-consciousness, often after a single remarkable appearance in Movieland: ''Spinosaurus'' (''Film/JurassicParkIII''), ''Giganotosaurus'', ''Carnotaurus'' (Disney's ''Disney/Dinosaur''), and ''Baryonyx'' (''WesternAnimation/IceAge3DawnOfTheDinosaurs''). Despite having some cool traits (crests, horns, claws, or sheer size), none of them has managed to replace ''T. rex'' as the "King Dinosaur" — at least for now. Though relatively small, ''Dilophosaurus'' (popularized by the 1st Jurassic Park ''Jurassic Park'' film) is here for comparison.
12th Oct '17 3:27:45 AM VagabondPeafowl
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* By others: ''Coelophysis'', ''Oviraptor''/''Citipati'', ''Baryonyx'', ''Trooodon''/''Stenonychosaurus'', some alleged "biggest sauropods" (''Supersaurus'', "Ultrasaurus", "Seismosaurus"), and the non-dinosaur ''Quetzalcoatlus''.

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* By others: ''Coelophysis'', ''Oviraptor''/''Citipati'', ''Baryonyx'', ''Trooodon''/''Stenonychosaurus'', ''Troodon''/''Stenonychosaurus'', some alleged "biggest sauropods" (''Supersaurus'', "Ultrasaurus", "Seismosaurus"), and the non-dinosaur ''Quetzalcoatlus''.



# '''TropeMaker:''' WesternAnimation/IceAge3DawnOfTheDinosaurs

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# '''TropeMaker:''' WesternAnimation/IceAge3DawnOfTheDinosaurs
''WesternAnimation/IceAge3DawnOfTheDinosaurs''
7th Oct '17 6:29:03 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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''T. rex'' was discovered by Barnum Brown shortly before the start of the 20th century, and described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1905. Since then, it has been a hit with the audience and possibly ''the'' most famous dinosaur for almost a century. During this time depictions of ''T. rex'' have changed from the [[MightyGlacier heavy, fat-bellied giant]] with goose-like gait and flexible tail seen in ''Fantasia'' to the [[LightningBruiser slender, running beast]] seen in ''Franchise/JurassicPark''. We were waiting to see it, or at least its chicks, depicted with feathers[[note]] although recent studies have seemingly concluded that large tyrannosaurids would have been primarily scaly (any feathering would have been in the dorsal region), presumably having secondarily lost their feathers[[/note]], and recently this idea has been seeping into pop-consciousness (thank you ''Documentary/DinosaurRevolution'', ''Film/DinosaurIsland'', ''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}'', ''WebAnimation/MightyMagiswords'', and ''VideoGame/{{Saurian}}'').

to:

''T. rex'' was discovered by Barnum Brown shortly before the start of the 20th century, and described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1905. Since then, it has been a hit with the audience and possibly ''the'' most famous dinosaur for almost a century. During this time depictions of ''T. rex'' have changed from the [[MightyGlacier heavy, fat-bellied giant]] with goose-like gait and flexible tail seen in ''Fantasia'' to the [[LightningBruiser slender, running beast]] seen in ''Franchise/JurassicPark''. We were waiting to see it, or at least its chicks, depicted with feathers[[note]] although recent later studies have seemingly concluded that large tyrannosaurids would have been primarily scaly (any feathering would have been in the dorsal region), presumably having secondarily lost or at least reduced their feathers[[/note]], and recently this idea has been seeping into pop-consciousness (thank you ''Documentary/DinosaurRevolution'', ''Film/DinosaurIsland'', ''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}'', ''WebAnimation/MightyMagiswords'', and ''VideoGame/{{Saurian}}'').
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs