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History UsefulNotes / StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs

27th Apr '16 12:09:58 AM MrMediaGuy2
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This text is about [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur dinosaurs]]. Dinosaurs are a grouping of animals tiny to large, bipedal or quadrupedal, eating plants, meat, or both, but ''always land-based'' [[note]]though a few of them (ex. the spinosaurids) might have been semi-aquatic[[/note]]. More precisely, this text is about ''non-avialian dinosaurs'', i.e. definite birds are excluded.

All dinosaurs of this kind (and many early bird genera) lived in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesozoic Mesozoic Era]], nicknamed "The Age of Dinosaurs," 250-66 million years ago (mya). The era is divided by geologists and palaeontologists into three periods: from the most ancient to the most recent one, they are the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triassic Triassic]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurassic Jurassic]], and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous Cretaceous]]. You'll note that most stock dinosaurs come from North America during either the Late Jurassic or the Late Cretaceous.

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This text is about [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur dinosaurs]]. Dinosaurs are a grouping of animals tiny to large, bipedal or quadrupedal, eating plants, meat, or both, but ''always land-based'' [[note]]though a few of them (ex. the spinosaurids) might have been semi-aquatic[[/note]]. More precisely, this text is about ''non-avialian dinosaurs'', i.e. definite birds are excluded.

All
both.

Most
dinosaurs of this kind (and many early bird genera) lived in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesozoic Mesozoic Era]], nicknamed "The Age of Dinosaurs," 250-66 million years ago (mya). The era is divided by geologists and palaeontologists into three periods: from the most ancient to the most recent one, they are the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triassic Triassic]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurassic Jurassic]], and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous Cretaceous]]. You'll note that most stock dinosaurs come from North America during either the Late Jurassic or the Late Cretaceous.




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[[folder:True birds]]
As easy as it is to forget, birds are dinosaurs as well. Specifically, birds are members of the maniraptoran clade, which also includes the aforementioned dromeosaurs, troodontids and oviraptorans. Yes, that means that dinosaurs are technically ''not extinct!'' These are the only Cenozoic dinosaurs on this list.

!!Dinosaurs continued to rule: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastornis Gastornis]]'' (once called "Diatryma"), ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phorusrhacos Phorusrhacos]]'', & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanis Titanis]]', aka the “Terror Birds” *

Long-standing paleo-fans will remember for sure the name "Diatryma": that large, flightless, large-headed predatory bird who used to hunt the small "horse" ''Eohippus'' in so many paleo-artistic depictions. Well, now poor "Diatryma" seems having definitively disappeared... but luckily, it's not such: it has simply changed identity. Now we have to call it ''Gastornis'' (a far less awesome name, we've got to admit, but...never mind.) Whatever name should be used, this is actually one of the most enigmatic extinct birds.

Recently, it was shown that it wasn't even ''carnivorous'' at all: its strong beak wasn't hooked like an eagle's, and its body frame was stocky, seemingly slow-moving. It only was an herbivore who used its bill to crack nuts, and cut vegetation - making erroneous the BizarroWorld portrayal in Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs where birds were shown ruling mammals. Anyway, the gastorn/diatryma was a real giant in its forestal world, 40 million years ago: while mammals were still small, some birds grew to large size.

With the Phorusrhacids, on the other hand, we have no doubts this time: thanks to their light weight and slender running legs, they ''were'' active hunter of small mammals. Not only that, with their strongly hooked, very eagle-like bill, they did not swallow their prey whole. It has recently been discovered they had even ''one clawed finger'' protruding from each of their tiny wings [[note]]This is not so strange as one may think: there are also living birds with this feature, the most notable being the ''two-fingered'' young [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoatzin Hoatzin]][[/note]], for uncertain purpose. Perhaps the most amazing-looking among all prehistoric birds, they have recently nicknamed [[CarnivoreConfusion terror-birds]] in pop- documentaries (for example, [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Prehistoric Park]].)

Originally from South America, they have left a legacy in our modern world as well: the closely-related [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seriema Seriema]] is a medium-sized South American bird whose shape and habits resemble a miniaturized "terrorbird". The prototypical South American ''Phorusrhacos'' (often misspelled "Phororhacos") and the North American ''Titanis'' (which first originated in South America as well) are the two stock species of the family.

Despite being distant relatives, and the aforementioned ScienceMarchesOn, expect ''Gastornis'' to be lumped in or confused with the true “terror birds” anyway. In fact, ''Gastornis'' was actually more closely related to ''waterfowl'' than to the Phorusrhacids. The most notable appearance in non-documentary fiction is in ''Film/TenThousandBC'', where they fill the role of [[RaptorAttack raptors]]. Never mind that, even if species like ''Titanis'' ''did'' live alongside humans, they never made it to Egypt, where the film appears to take place.

# '''Entry Time:''' 2001
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Walking With Beasts''

!!Other birds

Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Aurornis'', ''Confuciusornis'', ''Hesperornis'', ''Ichthyornis'', ''Teratornis'', ''Argentavis'', ''Osteodontornis'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirds here]].
[[/folder]]
23rd Apr '16 12:03:46 PM TVRulezAgain
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1980s/1990s/2000s: ''TheLandBeforeTime'' and other works made at the end of the 1980s started popularizing the image of dinosaurs as set up by the Dinosaur Renaissance. Since the 1990s, scientifically up-to-date writing in the books and computer-based animation in the films / shows (especially in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' franchises) have definitively completed the job. Introducing:

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1980s/1990s/2000s: ''TheLandBeforeTime'' ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' and other works made at the end of the 1980s started popularizing the image of dinosaurs as set up by the Dinosaur Renaissance. Since the 1990s, scientifically up-to-date writing in the books and computer-based animation in the films / shows (especially in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' and ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' franchises) have definitively completed the job. Introducing:



Unusually for dinosaurs, media have never shown ornithomimids as scary killers dangerous to humans. This can be due to their lacking of teeth that make them look harmless. Their actual diet is still uncertain, as no stomach remains are known for now. Their large numbers, among other things, seems to indicate that they were mainly herbivorous with insects, eggs, and small animals as a supplement. In popular media they have often been depicted as plant-eaters and/or insect-eaters (very rarely as meat-eaters). But the most common pop-portrayal has shown them as egg-stealers outwitting larger dinosaurs, like in the LandBeforeTime (possibly due to confusion with ''Oviraptor''). Even though they could have eaten some eggs, there is no evidence this was a major part of their diet. Furthermore, being not "maniraptorans" ("robbing hands"), they probably couldn't grasp things so easily as the latter did. Today, the "robbing" role is more often attributed to the true-maniraptoran oviraptorosaurs (see further). Finally, in the early 2000s it was suggested ornithomimids were filter-feeders like flamingos (as seen in ''Series/PrehistoricPark''), but now this hypothesis is disproved.

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Unusually for dinosaurs, media have never shown ornithomimids as scary killers dangerous to humans. This can be due to their lacking of teeth that make them look harmless. Their actual diet is still uncertain, as no stomach remains are known for now. Their large numbers, among other things, seems to indicate that they were mainly herbivorous with insects, eggs, and small animals as a supplement. In popular media they have often been depicted as plant-eaters and/or insect-eaters (very rarely as meat-eaters). But the most common pop-portrayal has shown them as egg-stealers outwitting larger dinosaurs, like in the LandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime (possibly due to confusion with ''Oviraptor''). Even though they could have eaten some eggs, there is no evidence this was a major part of their diet. Furthermore, being not "maniraptorans" ("robbing hands"), they probably couldn't grasp things so easily as the latter did. Today, the "robbing" role is more often attributed to the true-maniraptoran oviraptorosaurs (see further). Finally, in the early 2000s it was suggested ornithomimids were filter-feeders like flamingos (as seen in ''Series/PrehistoricPark''), but now this hypothesis is disproved.



Unlike ornithomimids, oviraptorids have attracted the attention of dino-writers only since the 2000s: ''after'' the apparition of the feathered, non-egg-stealing scientific depiction. And yet, expect to see them in the older inaccurate way nonetheless (and you could also see oviraptorids and ornithomimids mixed up with each other). E.g. in the 2000 Disney movie ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'', a featherless "Oviraptor" steals Aladar's egg, but loses it before it has a chance to eat the contents. More recently, an "Oviraptor" appeared in ''TheLandBeforeTime'' TV series: feathered and not egg-stealing. Both portrayals show the oviraptors with a ''Citipati''-like tall crest on their head. ''{{Dinotopia}}'' [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] the animal's ScienceMarchesOn story showing it in two variations; the featherless "Oviraptor" and the feathered "Ovinutrix" ("egg-nurse").

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Unlike ornithomimids, oviraptorids have attracted the attention of dino-writers only since the 2000s: ''after'' the apparition of the feathered, non-egg-stealing scientific depiction. And yet, expect to see them in the older inaccurate way nonetheless (and you could also see oviraptorids and ornithomimids mixed up with each other). E.g. in the 2000 Disney movie ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}'', a featherless "Oviraptor" steals Aladar's egg, but loses it before it has a chance to eat the contents. More recently, an "Oviraptor" appeared in ''TheLandBeforeTime'' ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' TV series: feathered and not egg-stealing. Both portrayals show the oviraptors with a ''Citipati''-like tall crest on their head. ''{{Dinotopia}}'' [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] the animal's ScienceMarchesOn story showing it in two variations; the featherless "Oviraptor" and the feathered "Ovinutrix" ("egg-nurse").



Being related to each other, stegosaurs and ankylosaurs shared many features even in RealLife. They had the typical ornithischian jaws, with teeth only on the back and a toothless beak on the tip. However, their beak/teeth were weaker than other ornithischians (ceratopsians, ornithopods); maybe they chewed only soft plant material near the ground-level, and/or swallowed small stones to aid digestion, like sauropods. Even though were much smaller-sized, stegosaurians and ankylosaurians tend to be shown as slow-moving as the sauropods: ex. the aforementioned Url which has the slowest pace among all the dinosaurs of its herd (just as slow as its companion brachiosaur Baylene). Pre-"renaissance" depictions used to portray ankylosaurians and other four-legged dinosaurs with splayed legs and dragged tails. Actually quadrupedal dinos had erect limbs (among them only sauropods had true claws), and footprints show they usually kept their tails above the ground when walking around. Of course, expect to see splayed-limbed ankylosaurs even in relatively recent works -- Rooter of ''TheLandBeforeTime'', which appears even slower than the sauropods of the same film (the latter have correct upright limbs, though).

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Being related to each other, stegosaurs and ankylosaurs shared many features even in RealLife. They had the typical ornithischian jaws, with teeth only on the back and a toothless beak on the tip. However, their beak/teeth were weaker than other ornithischians (ceratopsians, ornithopods); maybe they chewed only soft plant material near the ground-level, and/or swallowed small stones to aid digestion, like sauropods. Even though were much smaller-sized, stegosaurians and ankylosaurians tend to be shown as slow-moving as the sauropods: ex. the aforementioned Url which has the slowest pace among all the dinosaurs of its herd (just as slow as its companion brachiosaur Baylene). Pre-"renaissance" depictions used to portray ankylosaurians and other four-legged dinosaurs with splayed legs and dragged tails. Actually quadrupedal dinos had erect limbs (among them only sauropods had true claws), and footprints show they usually kept their tails above the ground when walking around. Of course, expect to see splayed-limbed ankylosaurs even in relatively recent works -- Rooter of ''TheLandBeforeTime'', ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'', which appears even slower than the sauropods of the same film (the latter have correct upright limbs, though).



Its portrayal in ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' consolidated ''Triceratops''' popularity even more: the touching scene of the sick triceratops with the caring humans around has remained in public consciousness. And how could we forget the strong temper of [[CuteBruiser Cera]] in the LandBeforeTime film?

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Its portrayal in ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' consolidated ''Triceratops''' popularity even more: the touching scene of the sick triceratops with the caring humans around has remained in public consciousness. And how could we forget the strong temper of [[CuteBruiser Cera]] in the LandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime film?



As one of the most recent groups of herbivores/omnivores in formal dinosaur classification, pachys never appear in the oldest works. The ur-example was perhaps the 1988 ''TheLandBeforeTime'' film where the pachy shows up as a predatory villain trying to kill one of the protagonists with headbutts. The headbutting is a standard trait when pachycephalosaurs appear in works. Since the "dinosaur renaissance", it used to be that males were shown trying to impress females by ramming their heads into each other: ''Pachycephalosaurus'' is traditionally depicted so in classic dino-books and documentaries. [[note]]Pachycephalosaurs have often been compared with rams: some scientists even hypothized they lived in mountain habitats just like the bighorn sheeps. This would explain their rarity in fossil record (mountains do not preserve fossils well). However, the mountain-living hyp is not much followed today.[[/note]] However, scientists found in the 2000s that the smooth domes would have slipped if put against each other, and proposed that pachycephalosaurians bashed each others' flanks instead. But even this has been disputed: recent studies seem to show their necks were weaker than traditionaly thought, maybe not even able to withstand such an impact. Now many scientists think pachycephalosaurs simply used their dome heads to display maturity like an over-sized toucan bill. However a [[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620 2013 study]] found healed injuries in multiple pachycephalosaur domes, suggesting that they were used for headbutting and/or flankbutting after all. The pachycephalosaurs' real lifestyle and diet will probably remain a mystery for long, until more complete remains will be found.

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As one of the most recent groups of herbivores/omnivores in formal dinosaur classification, pachys never appear in the oldest works. The ur-example was perhaps the 1988 ''TheLandBeforeTime'' ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' film where the pachy shows up as a predatory villain trying to kill one of the protagonists with headbutts. The headbutting is a standard trait when pachycephalosaurs appear in works. Since the "dinosaur renaissance", it used to be that males were shown trying to impress females by ramming their heads into each other: ''Pachycephalosaurus'' is traditionally depicted so in classic dino-books and documentaries. [[note]]Pachycephalosaurs have often been compared with rams: some scientists even hypothized they lived in mountain habitats just like the bighorn sheeps. This would explain their rarity in fossil record (mountains do not preserve fossils well). However, the mountain-living hyp is not much followed today.[[/note]] However, scientists found in the 2000s that the smooth domes would have slipped if put against each other, and proposed that pachycephalosaurians bashed each others' flanks instead. But even this has been disputed: recent studies seem to show their necks were weaker than traditionaly thought, maybe not even able to withstand such an impact. Now many scientists think pachycephalosaurs simply used their dome heads to display maturity like an over-sized toucan bill. However a [[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620 2013 study]] found healed injuries in multiple pachycephalosaur domes, suggesting that they were used for headbutting and/or flankbutting after all. The pachycephalosaurs' real lifestyle and diet will probably remain a mystery for long, until more complete remains will be found.



# '''TropeMaker:''' ''TheLandBeforeTime''

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# '''TropeMaker:''' ''TheLandBeforeTime''
''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime''



Like the sauropods, hadrosaurs used to be associated with water in pre-"Renaissance" times. The early discover of some mummified hadrosaurs whose skin on their hands was believed to be remnants of webbing, made scientists believe they were semi-aquatic creatures with literally duck-like webbed "hands." We know now this skin bound the fingers together into a single, toughened "hoof" apt for walking on dry soil. Also, when on land, hadrosaurs were once shown assuming the same upright posture of an old-fashioned theropod. After the "renaissance," scientists described hadrosaurs as terrestrial animals, similar to modern ungulates but capable to shift from a quadrupedal to a bipedal pose. Needless to say, amphibious hadrosaurs with webbed hands and upright stance still appear in recent media (see ''TheLandBeforeTime'').

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Like the sauropods, hadrosaurs used to be associated with water in pre-"Renaissance" times. The early discover of some mummified hadrosaurs whose skin on their hands was believed to be remnants of webbing, made scientists believe they were semi-aquatic creatures with literally duck-like webbed "hands." We know now this skin bound the fingers together into a single, toughened "hoof" apt for walking on dry soil. Also, when on land, hadrosaurs were once shown assuming the same upright posture of an old-fashioned theropod. After the "renaissance," scientists described hadrosaurs as terrestrial animals, similar to modern ungulates but capable to shift from a quadrupedal to a bipedal pose. Needless to say, amphibious hadrosaurs with webbed hands and upright stance still appear in recent media (see ''TheLandBeforeTime'').''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'').



This dinosaur has a rather strange destiny in fiction: it has appeared in ''almost every'' dino-film, but almost always with minor roles – basically with the only purpose to increase the variety of the "dinosaur world." And don’t expect to hear its name, too. [[note]]Even though not one of the shortest dino-names, it remains coolly-sounding anyway.[[/note]] A good example is in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' films. Some ''Parasaurolophus''es are visible behing the ''Brachiosaurus'' in the famous "Welcome to Jurassic Park!" scene; some are seen in both sequels, too. But all these were simple cameos, and the animal is ''never'' named. [[note]]One character does make an attempt, but [[NoPronunciationGuide gives up fairly quickly.]][[/note]] Other unnamed apparitions are in Disney’s ''Fantasia'' and ''Dinosaurs''. One rare example of a major-character ''Parasaurolophus'' is seen in ''TheLandBeforeTime''... at least, Ducky and her parents are officially labeled so: they’re actually another hadrosaur, ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Saurolophus]]''.

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This dinosaur has a rather strange destiny in fiction: it has appeared in ''almost every'' dino-film, but almost always with minor roles – basically with the only purpose to increase the variety of the "dinosaur world." And don’t expect to hear its name, too. [[note]]Even though not one of the shortest dino-names, it remains coolly-sounding anyway.[[/note]] A good example is in the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' films. Some ''Parasaurolophus''es are visible behing the ''Brachiosaurus'' in the famous "Welcome to Jurassic Park!" scene; some are seen in both sequels, too. But all these were simple cameos, and the animal is ''never'' named. [[note]]One character does make an attempt, but [[NoPronunciationGuide gives up fairly quickly.]][[/note]] Other unnamed apparitions are in Disney’s ''Fantasia'' and ''Dinosaurs''. One rare example of a major-character ''Parasaurolophus'' is seen in ''TheLandBeforeTime''...''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime''... at least, Ducky and her parents are officially labeled so: they’re actually another hadrosaur, ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Saurolophus]]''.



This reconstruction made the top of the Dinosaur Renaissance, definitively debunking the old "big, stupid, unfeeling, oafs" thing, and making ''Maiasaura'' just as common in popular books as ''Parasaurolophus'' ''Corythosaurus'' & ''"Anatosaurus"'' since then. Some years after 1980, the discover became known among pop-writers, too. Only... ''Maiasaura''s inconspicuous appearance was [[RuleOfCool not interesting enough]]. Even though the "good mother dinosaur" and the whole argument are widely mentioned in the 1st ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' novel, [[note]]which, by the way, had Horner as the consultant.[[/note]] this was totally overlooked in Creator/StevenSpielberg's following film. Other Hollywoodians resolved the problem in another way: giving ''Maiasaura'''s behaviour to other relatives. In ''TheLandBeforeTime'', the hadrosaurs (actually, every herbivorous dinosaur) migrate through the lands and hatch their young in crater-like nests made of earth. This was copied later by Disney's ''Dinosaurs'' (this time the duckbills were substituted by ''Iguanodon''). All OK? Obviously, not. We have no proof if other dinosaurs really behaved the same. It's like saying that if sparrows build cup-like nests, then ''every'' other bird must build cup-like nests just because ''is'' a bird. Mind this: have you ever seen an ostrich or a penguin [[SomewhereAnOrnithologistIsCrying brooding their eggs in a cup-like nest built on a branch?]]

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This reconstruction made the top of the Dinosaur Renaissance, definitively debunking the old "big, stupid, unfeeling, oafs" thing, and making ''Maiasaura'' just as common in popular books as ''Parasaurolophus'' ''Corythosaurus'' & ''"Anatosaurus"'' since then. Some years after 1980, the discover became known among pop-writers, too. Only... ''Maiasaura''s inconspicuous appearance was [[RuleOfCool not interesting enough]]. Even though the "good mother dinosaur" and the whole argument are widely mentioned in the 1st ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' novel, [[note]]which, by the way, had Horner as the consultant.[[/note]] this was totally overlooked in Creator/StevenSpielberg's following film. Other Hollywoodians resolved the problem in another way: giving ''Maiasaura'''s behaviour to other relatives. In ''TheLandBeforeTime'', ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'', the hadrosaurs (actually, every herbivorous dinosaur) migrate through the lands and hatch their young in crater-like nests made of earth. This was copied later by Disney's ''Dinosaurs'' (this time the duckbills were substituted by ''Iguanodon''). All OK? Obviously, not. We have no proof if other dinosaurs really behaved the same. It's like saying that if sparrows build cup-like nests, then ''every'' other bird must build cup-like nests just because ''is'' a bird. Mind this: have you ever seen an ostrich or a penguin [[SomewhereAnOrnithologistIsCrying brooding their eggs in a cup-like nest built on a branch?]]



# '''TropeMaker:''' ''TheLandBeforeTime'' (indirectly)

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# '''TropeMaker:''' ''TheLandBeforeTime'' ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' (indirectly)



# '''TropeMaker:''' TheLandBeforeTime (?)

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# '''TropeMaker:''' TheLandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime (?)
24th Feb '16 10:58:56 AM Morgenthaler
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Works from before the 1970s ''never'' represent dromaeosaurids, simply because they were scientifically too obscure at the time. Significantly, between 1970 and the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' mania in the 1990s, the most represented "raptor" (though not yet known as such) in popular culture was the biggest known at the time, ''Deinonychus'', while the less-impressive ''Velociraptor'' was totally unknown to laymen (not counting the antecedent dino-fans). For instance, see DinoRiders, TabletopGame/DinosaursAttack, the ''RuneQuest Borderlands'' tabletop [=RPG=] adventure, or even the Dutch metal-band named [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinonychus_(band) Deinonychus]] It was ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' that '''apparently''' caused ''Velociraptor'' to displace ''Deinonychus'' as the stock sickle-clawed dino (even documentary media started showing the "veloci" more often thanks to the film), and started the usage of "raptor" for dromaeosaurid in the mind of the public. (Prior to this, "raptor" was used only to indicate birds of prey.) Without Jurassic Park, ''Velociraptor'' would have almost-surely remained in the Non-Stock realm forever. There are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_issues_in_Jurassic_Park#Velociraptor several issues]] with the [[RaptorAttack depiction of raptors]] in [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods the film]].

At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]]. Speaking of misplaced wildlife, you can expect any of these three to be placed in the same habitat as at least ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Triceratops''. In reality, ''Deinonychus'' and ''Utahraptor'' were already extinct by the time ''T. rex'' came along and ''Velociraptor'' lived on the other side of the planet[[note]]though a nigh identical relative of ''T. rex'', ''Tarbosaurus bataar'' did coexist with ''Velociraptor''[[/note]]. However, this inaccuracy was vindicated somewhat by the discovery of ''Acheroraptor'' (described in 2013) and ''Dakotaraptor'' (described in 2015), which greatly resembled ''Velociraptor'' and ''Deinonychus'' respectively, and the latter was roughly the size of ''Utahraptor''.

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Works from before the 1970s ''never'' represent dromaeosaurids, simply because they were scientifically too obscure at the time. Significantly, between 1970 and the ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' mania in the 1990s, the most represented "raptor" (though not yet known as such) in popular culture was the biggest known at the time, ''Deinonychus'', while the less-impressive ''Velociraptor'' was totally unknown to laymen (not counting the antecedent dino-fans). For instance, see DinoRiders, WesternAnimation/DinoRiders, TabletopGame/DinosaursAttack, the ''RuneQuest ''VideoGame/RuneQuest Borderlands'' tabletop [=RPG=] adventure, or even the Dutch metal-band named [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinonychus_(band) Deinonychus]] It was ''Franchise/JurassicPark'' that '''apparently''' caused ''Velociraptor'' to displace ''Deinonychus'' as the stock sickle-clawed dino (even documentary media started showing the "veloci" more often thanks to the film), and started the usage of "raptor" for dromaeosaurid in the mind of the public. (Prior to this, "raptor" was used only to indicate birds of prey.) Without Jurassic Park, ''Velociraptor'' would have almost-surely remained in the Non-Stock realm forever. There are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_issues_in_Jurassic_Park#Velociraptor several issues]] with the [[RaptorAttack depiction of raptors]] in [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods the film]].

At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]]. Speaking of misplaced wildlife, you can expect any of these three to be placed in the same habitat as at least ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Triceratops''. In reality, ''Deinonychus'' and ''Utahraptor'' were already extinct by the time ''T. rex'' came along and ''Velociraptor'' lived on the other side of the planet[[note]]though a nigh identical relative of ''T. rex'', ''Tarbosaurus bataar'' did coexist with ''Velociraptor''[[/note]]. However, this inaccuracy was vindicated somewhat by the discovery of ''Acheroraptor'' (described in 2013) and ''Dakotaraptor'' (described in 2015), which greatly resembled ''Velociraptor'' and ''Deinonychus'' respectively, and the latter was roughly the size of ''Utahraptor''.
16th Jan '16 11:38:08 PM nombretomado
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''Stegosaurus''' tail was muscular and flexible, and could have been put on the ground to lift the animal on its hindlegs and reach higher vegetation (this is not sure however). When swung from side to side, this tail made a [[BewareMyStingerTail powerful weapon]] against enemies. Near the tip of the tail was a group of four long spikes known as the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thagomizer thagomizer]]'', a term that originates from a ''[[TheFarSide Far Side]]'' cartoon, later adopted by the paleontological community (you can find it used in serious scientific publications) in an even more awesome case of AscendedFanon than "raptors".

to:

''Stegosaurus''' tail was muscular and flexible, and could have been put on the ground to lift the animal on its hindlegs and reach higher vegetation (this is not sure however). When swung from side to side, this tail made a [[BewareMyStingerTail powerful weapon]] against enemies. Near the tip of the tail was a group of four long spikes known as the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thagomizer thagomizer]]'', a term that originates from a ''[[TheFarSide ''[[ComicStrip/TheFarSide Far Side]]'' cartoon, later adopted by the paleontological community (you can find it used in serious scientific publications) in an even more awesome case of AscendedFanon than "raptors".
20th Nov '15 11:19:25 PM schoi30
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The ceratopsids’ horn structure was more like cattle’s than to a rhino’s: that is, bony protrusions covered with a horny sheath. Their function is still debated: maybe ceratopsian horns were simply display devices. The frequently-seen "''Triceratops'' goring to death a big carnivore" scene could not be realistic, and some think the frontal horns were too fragile and not pointed enough to go through flesh. Although given the keratinous sheath would have made the horn less likely to break and many animals often use their horns for offensive purposes against carnivores, goring may still be plausible. Another classic hypothesis is that triceratopses locked their horns like deer in head-vs-head combats, based on possible "wounds" found in ceratopsian skulls. However, only some ''Triceratops'' specimens show curved frontal horns apt for that, others had straight horns. The frill was variable, too: some individuals had tubercles on its edges, while others had smooth shields. Generally, most media ''Triceratops''es have tubercled frills.

to:

The ceratopsids’ horn structure was more like cattle’s than to a rhino’s: that is, bony protrusions covered with a horny sheath. Their function is still debated: maybe ceratopsian horns were simply display devices. The frequently-seen "''Triceratops'' goring to death a big carnivore" scene could not be realistic, and some think the frontal horns were too fragile and not pointed enough to go through flesh. Although given the keratinous sheath would have made the horn less likely to break and many animals often use their horns for offensive purposes against carnivores, help better shape it, goring may still be plausible. Another classic hypothesis is that triceratopses locked their horns like deer in head-vs-head combats, based on possible "wounds" found in ceratopsian skulls. However, only some ''Triceratops'' specimens show curved frontal horns apt for that, others had straight horns. The frill was variable, too: some individuals had tubercles on its edges, while others had smooth shields. Generally, most media ''Triceratops''es have tubercled frills.
20th Nov '15 11:17:02 PM schoi30
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The ceratopsids’ horn structure was more like cattle’s than to a rhino’s: that is, bony protrusions covered with a horny sheath. Their function is still debated: maybe ceratopsian horns were simply display devices. The frequently-seen "''Triceratops'' goring to death a big carnivore" scene could not be realistic, and some think the frontal horns were too fragile and not pointed enough to go through flesh. Another classic hypothesis is that triceratopses locked their horns like deer in head-vs-head combats, based on possible "wounds" found in ceratopsian skulls. However, only some ''Triceratops'' specimens show curved frontal horns apt for that, others had straight horns. The frill was variable, too: some individuals had tubercles on its edges, while others had smooth shields. Generally, most media ''Triceratops''es have tubercled frills.

to:

The ceratopsids’ horn structure was more like cattle’s than to a rhino’s: that is, bony protrusions covered with a horny sheath. Their function is still debated: maybe ceratopsian horns were simply display devices. The frequently-seen "''Triceratops'' goring to death a big carnivore" scene could not be realistic, and some think the frontal horns were too fragile and not pointed enough to go through flesh. Although given the keratinous sheath would have made the horn less likely to break and many animals often use their horns for offensive purposes against carnivores, goring may still be plausible. Another classic hypothesis is that triceratopses locked their horns like deer in head-vs-head combats, based on possible "wounds" found in ceratopsian skulls. However, only some ''Triceratops'' specimens show curved frontal horns apt for that, others had straight horns. The frill was variable, too: some individuals had tubercles on its edges, while others had smooth shields. Generally, most media ''Triceratops''es have tubercled frills.
20th Nov '15 11:05:04 PM schoi30
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The back plates were the most distinctive stegosaurian feature, but it isn't entirely clear what their purpose was. It was debated whether the plates were covered in horn or in skin, but a [[http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2011/01/10/stegosaur-skin-plates-sex/ recent study on stegosaur skin impression]] suggests the former is more likely. Defense, thermoregulation, and display (mating or threat) are the classic hyps, but we haven’t definitive proof for any. The early theory that they were used for armor is the most unlikely: the plates were dermic structures not attached to the skeleton, and were rich in blood-vessels (if wounded, they’d have bled a lot, bringing the animal to death). Furthermore the plates are irregularly placed to be used as armor and would leave the animal's sides unprotected. Although if covered in horn they might have had sharp edges, which would make them effective as defense. The "solar panel/radiator" theory was the most followed until recent years: it could explain the vessels, and also the singular arrangement of these plates--they were asymmetrically-placed, giving more surface to solar rays. There is still possibility for this theory, as studies on crocodilian scutes show they have usage for thermoregulartory purposes. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' popularized the third theory, showing a ''Stegosaurus'' reddening its plates and scaring an ''Allosaurus'' away. However, if used for display, they might also have had the function to make the animal look larger or communicating with others of its kind.

to:

The back plates were the most distinctive stegosaurian feature, but it isn't entirely clear what their purpose was. It was debated whether the plates were covered in horn or in skin, but a [[http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2011/01/10/stegosaur-skin-plates-sex/ recent study on stegosaur skin impression]] suggests the former is more likely. Defense, thermoregulation, and display (mating or threat) are the classic hyps, but we haven’t definitive proof for any. The early theory that they were used for armor is the most unlikely: the plates were dermic structures not attached to the skeleton, and they were rich in blood-vessels (if wounded, they’d have bled a lot, bringing the animal to death). Furthermore the plates are irregularly placed to be used as armor and would leave the animal's sides unprotected. Although if covered in horn they might have had sharp edges, which would make them effective as defense. The "solar panel/radiator" theory was the most followed until recent years: it could explain the vessels, and also the singular arrangement of these plates--they were asymmetrically-placed, giving more surface to solar rays. There is still possibility for this theory, as studies on crocodilian scutes show they have usage for thermoregulartory purposes. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' popularized the third theory, showing a ''Stegosaurus'' reddening its plates and scaring an ''Allosaurus'' away. However, if used for display, they might also have had the function to make the animal look larger or communicating with others of its kind.
19th Nov '15 11:37:10 AM StFan
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If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it could have paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines -- and they could be wrongly round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And it could have none, two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes. These spikes may be shown much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in AlleyOop, making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when faced in the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. Later in modern portraits, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass took a level in badass]] and more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores, like in ''Film/TheLostWorldJurassicPark'' or ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.

to:

If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it could have paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines -- and they could be wrongly round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And it could have none, two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes. These spikes may be shown much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in AlleyOop, ''ComicStrip/AlleyOop'', making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when faced in the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. Later in modern portraits, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass took a level in badass]] and more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores, like in ''Film/TheLostWorldJurassicPark'' or ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.
10th Nov '15 3:46:46 PM CJCroen1393
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At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]]. Speaking of misplaced wildlife, you can expect any of these three to be placed in the same habitat as at least ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Triceratops''. In reality, ''Deinonychus'' and ''Utahraptor'' were already extinct by the time ''T. rex'' came along and ''Velociraptor'' lived on the other side of the planet. However, this inaccuracy was vindicated somewhat by the discovery of ''Acheroraptor'' (described in 2013) and ''Dakotaraptor'' (described in 2015), which greatly resembled ''Velociraptor'' and ''Deinonychus'' respectively, and the latter was roughly the size of ''Utahraptor''.

to:

At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]]. Speaking of misplaced wildlife, you can expect any of these three to be placed in the same habitat as at least ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Triceratops''. In reality, ''Deinonychus'' and ''Utahraptor'' were already extinct by the time ''T. rex'' came along and ''Velociraptor'' lived on the other side of the planet.planet[[note]]though a nigh identical relative of ''T. rex'', ''Tarbosaurus bataar'' did coexist with ''Velociraptor''[[/note]]. However, this inaccuracy was vindicated somewhat by the discovery of ''Acheroraptor'' (described in 2013) and ''Dakotaraptor'' (described in 2015), which greatly resembled ''Velociraptor'' and ''Deinonychus'' respectively, and the latter was roughly the size of ''Utahraptor''.
10th Nov '15 3:44:45 PM CJCroen1393
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At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]].

to:

At the same time that the name ''Velociraptor'' became popular, a new dromaeosaurid was discovered in Utah. This animal was even larger and slightly older than ''Deinonychus'', living 128--105 mya and being 23 ft / 7 m long and as tall as a human. It was named ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor Utahraptor]]'', beginning an awesome case of science culture AscendedFanon -- before ''Franchise/JurassicPark'', no genus of dromaeosaurids except ''Velociraptor'' had the ''-raptor'' suffix to its name. Since the film, paleontologists started to use it for naming most new dromaeosaurids. Despite the scantiness of its remains, the discovery of ''Utahraptor'' was much reported in media as it incidentally matched the size of the oversized JP raptors (or rather, was even longer than they were). Many then reported the Utahraptors as "the most fearsome killing-machines of all times", capable to kill, in packs, the biggest sauropods and even to [[KillEmAll destroy entire dinosaur species]]. However, ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' was not so extreme, showing ''Utahraptor'' hunting the relatively smaller ''Iguanodon'' -- not in Utah but [[MisplacedWildlife in Europe]] [[TheyJustDidntCare for some reason]]. \n Speaking of misplaced wildlife, you can expect any of these three to be placed in the same habitat as at least ''Tyrannosaurus'' and ''Triceratops''. In reality, ''Deinonychus'' and ''Utahraptor'' were already extinct by the time ''T. rex'' came along and ''Velociraptor'' lived on the other side of the planet. However, this inaccuracy was vindicated somewhat by the discovery of ''Acheroraptor'' (described in 2013) and ''Dakotaraptor'' (described in 2015), which greatly resembled ''Velociraptor'' and ''Deinonychus'' respectively, and the latter was roughly the size of ''Utahraptor''.
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