History UsefulNotes / StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs

2nd Sep '16 6:28:08 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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The back plates were the most distinctive stegosaurian feature, but it isn't entirely clear what their purpose was. It was debated whether the plates were covered in horn or in skin, but a [[http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2011/01/10/stegosaur-skin-plates-sex/ recent study on stegosaur skin impression]] suggests the former is more likely. Defense, thermoregulation, and display (mating or threat) are the classic hyps, but we haven’t definitive proof for any. The early theory that they were used for armor is the most unlikely: the plates were dermic structures not attached to the skeleton, and they were irregularly placed to be used as armor and would leave the animal's sides unprotected. Although if covered in horn they might have had sharp edges, which would make them effective as defense. The "solar panel/radiator" theory was the most followed until recent years: it could explain the vessels, and also the singular arrangement of these plates--they were asymmetrically-placed, giving more surface to solar rays. There is still possibility for this theory, as studies on crocodilian scutes show they have usage for thermoregulartory purposes. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' popularized the third theory, showing a ''Stegosaurus'' reddening its plates and scaring an ''Allosaurus'' away. However, if used for display, they might also have had the function to make the animal look larger or communicating with others of its kind.

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The back plates were the most distinctive stegosaurian feature, but it isn't entirely clear what their purpose was. It was debated whether the plates were covered in horn or in skin, but a [[http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2011/01/10/stegosaur-skin-plates-sex/ recent study on stegosaur skin impression]] suggests the former is more likely. Defense, thermoregulation, and display (mating or threat) are the classic hyps, but we haven’t definitive proof for any. The early theory that they were used for armor is the most unlikely: the plates were dermic structures not attached to the skeleton, and they were irregularly placed to be used as armor and would leave the animal's sides unprotected. Although if covered in horn they might have had sharp edges, which would make them effective as defense. The "solar panel/radiator" theory was the most followed until recent years: it could explain the vessels, and also the singular arrangement of these plates--they were asymmetrically-placed, giving more surface to solar rays. There is still possibility for this theory, as studies on crocodilian scutes show they have usage for thermoregulartory purposes. ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' popularized the third theory, showing a ''Stegosaurus'' reddening its plates and scaring an ''Allosaurus'' away. However, if used for display, they might also have had the function to make the animal look larger or communicating with others of its kind.
1st Sep '16 5:37:54 PM schoi30
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If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it could have paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines -- and they could be wrongly round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And it could have none, two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes. These spikes may be shown much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in ''ComicStrip/AlleyOop'', making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when faced in the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. Later in modern portraits, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass took a level in badass]] and more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores, like in ''Film/TheLostWorldJurassicPark'' or ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.

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If you see ''Stegosaurus'' in popular media, don't be surprised to see inaccuracies. To this day, it could have paired plates or even plates in a single line, instead of zigzagging in two lines -- and they could be wrongly round or triangular instead of pentagonal. And it could have none, two, three, five, six, or even ''eight'' spikes. These spikes may be shown much shorter than in reality [[note]] The fossil spikes were about three feet in length, and they might have been covered in horn which would have made them larger[[/note]]. In some cases the neck is unrealistically long, like Dinny in ''ComicStrip/AlleyOop'', making it resemble a cross between a stegosaurian and a sauropod. The body may be shown as very low-slung and fat (even when faced in the front), and the legs are often stubby. ''Stegosaurus'' may often be depicted with a turtle-like face instead of a horse-shaped one like in real life. Occasionally, it is shown with a beak full of teeth or even worse, ''no beak''. In many old films, ''Stegosaurus'' is shown as a sorta "predestined loser" against big meat-eaters like ''Allosaurus'', ''Ceratosaurus'' or ''[[AnachronismStew Tyrannosaurus]]'', being too slow to defend itself effectively. Later in In modern portraits, however, ''Stegosaurus'' [[TookALevelInBadass took a level in badass]] and more often wins fights with the aforementioned carnivores, carnivores]], like in ''Film/TheLostWorldJurassicPark'' or ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'', as it is now considered to be agile and flexible in spite of its slow running speed and heavy body.
10th Aug '16 8:26:51 PM schoi30
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* By the ''Walking With'' docu series: ''Giganotosaurus'', ''Argentinosaurus'', ''Utahraptor'', and the non-dinosaur ''Liopleurodon''.

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* By the ''Walking With'' docu series: ''Giganotosaurus'', ''Argentinosaurus'', ''Utahraptor'', ''Therizinosaurus'', and the non-dinosaur ''Liopleurodon''.
10th Aug '16 8:24:25 PM schoi30
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# ''TropeMaker:''' ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot''

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# ''TropeMaker:''' ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot''
'''TropeMaker:''' ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' (1975 film)
10th Aug '16 8:22:54 PM schoi30
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!! Wolverine-Claws dinosaur: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therizinosaurus Therizinosaurus]]''*

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!! Wolverine-Claws dinosaur: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therizinosaurus Therizinosaurus]]''*
Therizinosaurus]]'' *



'''Spiny yet clubless:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polacanthus Polacanthus]]''

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'''Spiny !!'''Spiny yet clubless:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polacanthus Polacanthus]]''
Polacanthus]]'' *
10th Aug '16 8:22:04 PM schoi30
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'''Spiny yet clubless:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polacanthus Polacanthus]]''

Some decades later, a companion was added to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs Hylaeosaurus]]'': ''Polacanthus''. English too, and also conviving with ''Iguanodon'' in Early Cretaceous, it was also 4 m long, and also very incomplete. In older depictions, ''Polacanthus'' had a very light armor, only made by couples of long dorsal spikes (hence the name, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin “many spines”]]), a bony shield on its hips, and small plates on the tail. Some portrayals took a further step and gave it a stegosaur-like thagomizer. The spiked-tailed polacanth made cameo appearances in ''Film/PlanetOfDinosaurs'' and the film adaptation of ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot'' as well as a more prominent role in ''Series/{{Dinosaurs}}'' as Robbie Sinclair's friend Spike. Today we know its armor was complete and ''Ankylosaurus''-like (though even spikier) and with no club-like tails. The polacanth appears with this new look in ''Documentary/WalkingWithDinosaurs as a follower of ''Iguanodon''’s herds.

# '''Entry Time:''' 1865
# ''TropeMaker:''' ''Literature/TheLandThatTimeForgot''



Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Polacanthus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].

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Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Polacanthus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].
28th Jul '16 2:26:04 PM MrMediaGuy2
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!!Dinosaurs continued to rule: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastornis Gastornis]]'' (once called "Diatryma"), ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phorusrhacos Phorusrhacos]]'', & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanis Titanis]]', aka the “Terror Birds” *

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!!Dinosaurs continued to rule: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastornis Gastornis]]'' (once called "Diatryma"), ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phorusrhacos Phorusrhacos]]'', & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanis Titanis]]', aka the “Terror Birds” *
**
26th Jul '16 1:32:25 PM schoi30
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''Ornithomimus'' was a small, agile animal (the antithesis to the classical MightyGlacier dinosaur) that lived in North America between 75--65 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous. It was 12 feet / 3.5 meters long and weighed around 220--330 lbs / 100--150 kg. Its shape was similar to a long-tailed ostrich. It had a long neck with a birdlike skull and a toothless beak. The brain and eyes were large, possibly an adaptation to support quick movement. Its tail was very long, balancing the animal when running. The legs were similar to modern running birds, with short muscular femurs, elongated tibias / shins, and three toes each. With this anatomy it may have been the fastest non-avian dinosaur, easily capable to escape the bigger and clumsier ''Tyrannosaurus rex''. [[http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/510.abstract Ultimately confirmed to be feathered]], which was already suspected for some time.[[note]]It certainly had down-covering; the adult specimens were argued to also have shafted feathers (similar to covert feathers of birds) on their forelimbs that most likely formed a wing-like structures called ''pennibrachia'' (though obviously not used for aerial locomotion). The presence of the latter feathers, however, was only inferred on the basis of markings on its forelimb bones, and it has also been [[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v511/n7507/extref/nature13467-s1.pdf argued]] (p. 18) that, instead of covert-like feathers, ''Ornithomimus'' might have had thick filamentous feathers on its forelimbs. So far only ''WesternAnimation/WhenDinosaursRoamedAmerica'' had a cameo appearance of a fully feathered ''Ornithomimus'', [[IKnewIt a decade before it was confirmed that this dinosaur had feathers]], (although it was [[AllThereInTheManual only identified on the show's website]]).[[/note]]

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''Ornithomimus'' was a small, agile animal (the antithesis to the classical MightyGlacier dinosaur) that lived in North America between 75--65 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous. It was 12 feet / 3.5 meters long and weighed around 220--330 lbs / 100--150 kg. Its shape was similar to a long-tailed ostrich. It had a long neck with a birdlike skull and a toothless beak. The brain and eyes were large, possibly an adaptation to support quick movement. Its tail was very long, balancing the animal when running. The legs were similar to modern running birds, with short muscular femurs, elongated tibias / shins, and three toes each. With this anatomy it may have been the fastest non-avian dinosaur, easily capable to escape the bigger and clumsier ''Tyrannosaurus rex''. [[http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/510.abstract Ultimately confirmed to be feathered]], which was already suspected for some time.[[note]]It certainly had down-covering; the adult specimens were argued to also have shafted feathers (similar to covert feathers of birds) on their forelimbs that most likely formed a wing-like structures called ''pennibrachia'' (though obviously not used for aerial locomotion). The presence of the latter feathers, however, was only inferred on the basis of markings on its forelimb bones, and it has also been [[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v511/n7507/extref/nature13467-s1.pdf argued]] (p. 18) that, instead of covert-like feathers, ''Ornithomimus'' might have had thick filamentous feathers on its forelimbs. So far only ''WesternAnimation/WhenDinosaursRoamedAmerica'' and the 2006 remake of the first ''Anime/{{Doraemon}}'' movie had a cameo appearance appearances of a fully feathered ''Ornithomimus'', [[IKnewIt a decade before it was confirmed that this dinosaur had feathers]], (although it was [[AllThereInTheManual only identified on the show's former's website]]).[[/note]]
24th Jul '16 10:43:08 AM nombretomado
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''Archaeopteryx'' was discovered 1861 in the famed [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solnhofen_Limestone Solnhofen]] deposit in Germany, whose rocks have preserved fossils so well that even soft parts of animals are visible. Because of this, most specimens of ''Archaeopteryx'' found later in Germany were found with impressions of feathers. CharlesDarwin had published ''On the Origin of Species'' two years earlier, and in the following debate this "half-reptile" / "half-bird" became a key piece of evidence, as the perfect example of a "missing link" between two animal classes.

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''Archaeopteryx'' was discovered 1861 in the famed [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solnhofen_Limestone Solnhofen]] deposit in Germany, whose rocks have preserved fossils so well that even soft parts of animals are visible. Because of this, most specimens of ''Archaeopteryx'' found later in Germany were found with impressions of feathers. CharlesDarwin UsefulNotes/CharlesDarwin had published ''On the Origin of Species'' two years earlier, and in the following debate this "half-reptile" / "half-bird" became a key piece of evidence, as the perfect example of a "missing link" between two animal classes.
7th Jul '16 1:22:01 PM schoi30
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!!'''Smaller Tyrants:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertosaurus Albertosaurus]]'' *

''Albertosaurus'' is the most abundant tyrannosaur in fossil record, and also the second big-sized theropod by wealth of fossil material, just after the unbeatable ''Allosaurus''. And yet, ''Albertosaurus'' has not gained much attention in films and comics as ''Tyrannosaurus'' - tyrannosaurids are so similar to each other that if one appears in cinema, people will always call it ''T. rex''. To compensate, ''Albertosaurus'' is a very common sight in many paleo-books, just as common as several [[StockDinosaurs Stock Theropods]].

Naturally, it is portrayed as the superpredator of its time, North America 80-75 million years ago, 10 million years before ''T. rex''. The menu of an ''Albertosaurus'' was probably not monotonous; several kinds of herbivores roamed North American plains at the time, from ceratopsians to hadrosaurs, from the armored ankylosaurs to small swift "hypsilophodonts" and ornithomimids. Even though tyrannosaurids are classically shown [[RuleOfCool battling some powerful prey]], they more probably hunted young individuals more often, to avoid the risk of fatal injuries or consequent infections.

Compared with the legendary ''TyrannosaurusRex'', ''Albertosaurus'' was like a leopard compared with a lion; smaller (25 ft long against the 40 ft of ''T. rex''), it was also more slender, with longer, thinner jaws, smaller teeth, and more agile legs apt to higher top speeds than ''Tyrannosaurus''. Even the herbivores which shared their world were conformed to these predators; those which lived alongside ''T. rex'' were bigger, slower and more powerful than those living with ''Albertosaurus''.

''Albertosaurus'' was also the first dinosaur ever discovered in Canada, at the end of the XIX century, but was named only in 1905 (incidentally, the same year as ''Tyrannosaurus'') [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin after the Canadian province of Alberta]], where most of the abundant Canadian dinos have been discovered. ''Albertosaurus'' has also contributed indirectly to the popular image of tyrannosaurs. The forelimbs of ''Albertosaurus'' have been known since its very first find, while those of ''T. rex'' were first discovered only in the 1990s; for almost a century the well-known two-fingered hands of "rex" have been modeled upon those of ''Albertosaurus'', debunking at the time the [[DeadHorseTrope old pop-cultural]] HandWave about portraying three-fingered tyrannosaurs. [[note]]Beware, we’re talking about ''functional'' fingers, not the so-often cited third vestigial digit present in ''T. rex''[[/note]]

# '''Entry Time:''' 1905
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''VideoGame/JurassicParkTrespasser''



Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Tarbosaurus'', ''Albertosaurus'', ''Megaraptor'', ''Suchomimus'', ''Majungasaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods here]].

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Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Tarbosaurus'', ''Albertosaurus'', ''Megaraptor'', ''Suchomimus'', ''Majungasaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods here]].



!!'''Porcupinosaur:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentrosaurus Kentrosaurus]]'' *

...Indeed, if you're watching a film or even a TV documentary, good luck if you’ll ever find a stegosaurian which is not ''[[StockDinosaurs Stegosaurus]]''. However, if you do, it would probably be ''Kentrosaurus''.

Only half the length of ''Stegosaurus'', its overall body-shape was almost identical to the latter… except for the armor. The usual plates on the neck and back were much smaller and paired (not zigzaging), became gradually spikes on the hip and lasted with at least five pairs of true spikes on the tail. But this is not all, ''Kentrosaurus'' had also a pair of isolated spikes arising from its shoulders. A Late Jurassic animal like ''Stegosaurus'', ''Kentrosaurus'' was discovered in the 1910s in the same Eastern-African site along with with much bigger dinosaurs like ''Giraffatitan''. Dozens of ''Kentrosaurus'' skeletons have been discovered, but with plates/spikes scattered away (as usual among stegosaurs): thus, scientists once thought ''Kentrosaurus'' side-spikes [[ScienceMarchesOn were on its hips instead of its shoulders]]. That's why classic dino-portrayals show it with spikes protruding from the pelvis instead of from its forequarters.

One mention about [mis-]spelling: '''K'''entrosaurus should ''never'' be confused with '''C'''entrosaurus . Both names mean “pointed lizard”, but the “points” of ''Centrosaurus'' were on its head: it was a ''ceratopsian''. In some old sources ''Kentrosaurus'' is known as "''Kentrurosaurus''" ("pointed-tailed lizard"), but this name is now invalid.

# '''Entry Time:''' 1915
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''VideoGame/ZooTycoon''



Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Kentrosaurus'', ''Tuojiangosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeStegosaurs here]].

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Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Kentrosaurus'', ''Tuojiangosaurus'', ''Dacentrurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeStegosaurs here]].



!!'''Gimme the club:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euoplocephalus Euoplocephalus]]'' *

''Ankylosaurus'' was the first clubtail recognized (1908), but, again, its remains were very scanty; however, its record-size (more than 10 m long) soon made it the prototype of the ankylosaurians. But North America was home for other clubtails as well, which lived slightly earlier than the namesake of the group (though always in Late Cretaceous): the traditionally most-portrayed among them has been ''Euoplocephalus'' (NOT Eu-plocephalus please).

''Euoplocephalus'' lived 75 million years ago in Alberta (about eight m.y. earlier than ''Ankylosaurus''), was 6-7 meters long and weighed around 2-3 tons, about the same weight of the neighboring ceratopsids (''Centrosaurus'', ''Styracosaurus'', ''Chasmosaurus'' etc.), but noticeably smaller than the more recent ''Ankylosaurus''. [[note]]Just like ''Centrosaurus'' and so on which were smaller than their "younger" relative ''Triceratops''.[[/note]]. Like ''Ankylosaurus'', it too had armor plates arranged in rows along its back; but the euoplocephalus' armor was traditionally thought to be ''awesomely'' more complex, which may even be described as “artistic”. A couple of flat bumps were on the neck, and two pointed spikes protruded from the shoulders. Several other spikes were placed in regular, elegant lines along its back. Even the elbows had three small round scutes each. The head was similar to ''Ankylosaurus'', with mosaic-like scutes on its roof, four small horns, and ''bony eyelids''. Finally, the [[IncrediblyLamePun club]] was trefoil-shaped and almost resembled the [[IncrediblyLamePun club]] of French playing cards.

A really cool animal to draw: in fact, ''Euoplocephalus'' appears as the actual stock ankylosaur in many dinosaur books. It's also worth noting that several alleged ''Ankylosaurus'' seen in books, documentaries and maybe even films tend to have some euoplocephalic traits, with conical horns instead of triangular, trefoil clubs instead of oval, and sometimes even the elbow scutes and the flat bumps on the neck. Despite this, ''Euoplocephalus'' is typically [[OvershadowedByAwesome non-portrayed]] in CGI documentaries, which will always prefer its gigantic cousin – the fact that ''Ankylosaurus'' could fight T. rex while "Euply" could only battle Albertosaurs etc. doesn’t help.

''Ankylosaurus'' and the traditionally-intended ''Euoplocephalus'' have long been considered the only Late Cretaceous North-American members of the club-tailed family, Ankylosaurids. Recently, two brand new animals from New Mexico have been found; one of them has received the curious name ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nodocephalosaurus Nodocephalosaurus]]'' (resembling a {{Portmanteau}} of ''Nodo[saurus]'' and ''[Euoplo]cephalus'' plus the usual suffix -saurus).

# '''Entry Time:''' 1897
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''VideoGame/TheLostWorldJurassicPark''



Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Euoplocephalus'', ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Polacanthus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].

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Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Euoplocephalus'', ''Pinacosaurus'', ''Polacanthus'', ''Hylaeosaurus'', ''Scelidosaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].



# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Disney/{{Fantasia}}''

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# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Disney/{{Fantasia}}''
''Literature/{{Dinotopia}}''
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs