History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLifeSauropods

19th Jul '15 8:43:19 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


This dinosaur was as enormous as the former, and shared their same habitat in which other two popular dinosaurs lived, ''[[StockDinosaurs Stegosaurus]]'' and ''[[StockDinosaurs Allosaurus]]''; and yet, when was the last time you’ve heard “Camarasaurus” in a film/cartoon/comic? Even the famous SpeculativeDocumentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' has totally ignored it, preferring its stock cousins instead. The misfortune of ''Camarasaurus'' is probably due to not detaining any size-record among sauropods: it has never been either “the longest” like ''Diplodocus'', or “the tallest/heaviest” like ''Brachiosaurus''.

to:

This dinosaur was as enormous as the former, and shared their same habitat in which other two popular dinosaurs lived, ''[[StockDinosaurs Stegosaurus]]'' and ''[[StockDinosaurs Allosaurus]]''; and yet, when was the last time you’ve heard “Camarasaurus” in a film/cartoon/comic? Even the famous SpeculativeDocumentary ''WalkingWithDinosaurs'' has totally ignored it, preferring its stock cousins instead. The misfortune of ''Camarasaurus'' is probably due to not detaining any size-record among sauropods: it has never been either “the longest” like ''Diplodocus'', or “the tallest/heaviest” like ''Brachiosaurus''.
''Brachiosaurus''. Furthermore, its first complete skeleton (found in the early XX century in the Dinosaur National Monument between Utah and Colorado) was from a juvenile, leading some books telling the camarasaur was "one of the smallest sauropods". On the other hand, other dino-book have said this dinosaur was 40 m (130 ft long) long and that was "one of the biggest dinosaurs"!
5th May '15 10:39:07 AM nombretomado
Is there an issue? Send a Message


An almost-forgotten-today but very-important-once sauropod is "Atlantosaurus" (“Atlas lizard”); the first sauropod discovered within American Bone-Wars, initially classified by Marsh as "Titanosaurus" -- the word was just used few months before for the valid ''Titanosaurus''! [[note]]Both Atlas and the Titans were immense-sized GreekMythology goddities: Atlas has traditionally been portrayed bearing the world on his arms. The name of the geographical "Atlas" comes just from this character.[[/note]]. However, most "Atlantosaurus" material was based on ''Apatosaurus'' remains, while the original "Atlantosaurus" is so incomplete to be regarded dubious genus. To understand how much our atlantosaur was kept in consideration in the past, think this: it used to ben often cited in old books as [[UpToEleven the biggest creature ever appeared on Earth]] -- one of the very first examples of dinosaur-related sensationalism. A tradition that still continues today: see an exhaustive list in the StockDinosaurs page.

to:

An almost-forgotten-today but very-important-once sauropod is "Atlantosaurus" (“Atlas lizard”); the first sauropod discovered within American Bone-Wars, initially classified by Marsh as "Titanosaurus" -- the word was just used few months before for the valid ''Titanosaurus''! [[note]]Both Atlas and the Titans were immense-sized GreekMythology Myth/GreekMythology goddities: Atlas has traditionally been portrayed bearing the world on his arms. The name of the geographical "Atlas" comes just from this character.[[/note]]. However, most "Atlantosaurus" material was based on ''Apatosaurus'' remains, while the original "Atlantosaurus" is so incomplete to be regarded dubious genus. To understand how much our atlantosaur was kept in consideration in the past, think this: it used to ben often cited in old books as [[UpToEleven the biggest creature ever appeared on Earth]] -- one of the very first examples of dinosaur-related sensationalism. A tradition that still continues today: see an exhaustive list in the StockDinosaurs page.
4th May '15 12:10:28 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Discovered in 1954, ''Mamenchisaurus'' lived in the same age of the stock sauropods (Late Jurassic). Initially believed a close ''Diplodocus'' relative, now is thought a more archaic kind of sauropod which incidentally reached a similar shape, though with a much shorter tail [[ScienceMarchesOn ending with a small club]] (the "club" is a very recent discovery, and almost every mamenchisaur depiction show it clubless). Since the head of ''Mamenchisaurus'' has long been unknown, the most classic portraits show it with an inaccurate ''Diplodocus''-like head; actually ''Mamenchisaurus'' head was more similar to ''Camarasaurus''. In short, the polar opposite of what has happened to the allegedly boxy ''Apatosaurus'' head.

to:

Discovered in 1954, ''Mamenchisaurus'' lived in the same age of the stock sauropods (Late Jurassic). Initially believed a close ''Diplodocus'' relative, now is thought a more archaic kind of sauropod which incidentally reached a similar shape, though with a much shorter tail not ending with a "whip" but with [[ScienceMarchesOn ending with a small club]] (the "club" is a very recent discovery, and almost every mamenchisaur depiction show it clubless). Since the head of ''Mamenchisaurus'' has long been unknown, the most classic portraits show it with an inaccurate ''Diplodocus''-like head; actually ''Mamenchisaurus'' head was more similar to ''Camarasaurus''. In short, the polar opposite of what has happened to the allegedly boxy ''Apatosaurus'' head.
4th May '15 12:08:46 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Discovered during the Bone Wars, ''Camarasaurus'' is considered by some a rather unsauropod-like sauropod, because of its relatively large head and its much-shorter neck compared to most other sauropods. It tended to be confused with the so-called “Brontosaurus” in the past, because the classic brontosaur portraits have a round head and a short, blunt tail, just like RealLife camarasaurs.

to:

Discovered during the Bone Wars, ''Camarasaurus'' is considered by some a rather unsauropod-like sauropod, because of its relatively large head and its much-shorter neck compared to most other sauropods. It tended to be confused with the so-called “Brontosaurus” in the past, because the classic brontosaur portraits have a round head and a short, blunt tail, just like RealLife camarasaurs. Until few years ago, the head and tail of the skeleton at the base of the popular "brontosaur" image were believed belonging ''actually'' to a specimen of the "cama", so in old books it's classically said "The brontosaur's traditional pictures have the head of ''Camarasaurus''". [[note]]We now know this fossil pieces came from a specimen of the north-american Brachiosaurus.[[/note]]
24th Jan '15 8:17:07 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Together, Brachiosaurids, Camarasaurids, Titanosaurians, and others make the Macronarians, one of the two great sauropod subgroups together with Diplodocoids. One example of macronarian which do not pertain to the aforementioned subgroups is ''Euhelopus''. The first-found sauropod in China (and one of the very first found Chinese dinosaurs, in the 1920s), it had long neck and short tail which made it looking lik a miniaturized ''Mamenchisaurus'' (its contemporaneous relative ''Erketu'' would have looked the same). ''Euhelopus'' was once believed related with the mamenchisaur; but now is considered a more evolved sauropod, closely related with titanosaurians. Being the most classic among Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, ''Euhelopus'' could have been the model for [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Prehistoric Park]]’s “titanosaurs” seen in the early Cretaceous episode about "Dino-birds". Another interesting macronarian is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europasaurus Europasaurus]]'' [ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin from Europe]]; living in the Late Jurassic islets in which is today Germany, it was one of the smallest (6 m) sauropods ever, but should have appeared a true giant to its two neighbors ''Compsognathus'' and ''Archaeopteryx''.

to:

Together, Brachiosaurids, Camarasaurids, Titanosaurians, and others make the Macronarians, one of the two great sauropod subgroups together with Diplodocoids. One example of macronarian which do not pertain to the aforementioned subgroups is ''Euhelopus''. The first-found sauropod in China (and one of the very first found Chinese dinosaurs, in the 1920s), it had long neck and short tail which made it looking lik a miniaturized ''Mamenchisaurus'' (its contemporaneous relative ''Erketu'' would have looked the same). ''Euhelopus'' was once believed related with the mamenchisaur; but now is considered a more evolved sauropod, closely related with titanosaurians. Being the most classic among Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, ''Euhelopus'' could have been the model for [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Prehistoric Park]]’s “titanosaurs” seen in the early Cretaceous episode about "Dino-birds". Another interesting macronarian is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europasaurus Europasaurus]]'' [ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin from Europe]]; living in the Late Jurassic islets in which is today Germany, it was one of the smallest (6 m) sauropods ever, but should have appeared a true giant to its two neighbors ''Compsognathus'' and ''Archaeopteryx''.
1st Jul '14 7:04:20 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Not every sauropod is either Diplodocoid or Macronarian (Diplodocoid+Macronarian =Neosauropod, "new sauropod"). Many were more primitive than both. ''Cetiosaurus'' and ''Mamenchisaurus'' have already been mentioned: another relevant basal sauropod is ''Shunosaurus'', from Chinese Middle Jurassic. Rather small (10 m long) and short-necked, it’s worthy of note for two things: its bony-club on its tailtip surrounded by four short spikes, resembling a combination between a Stegosaurian and Ankylosaurian tail; and the fact that, with its 20 or more skeletons known, ''Shunosaurus'' is one of the most common sauropod in fossil record, rivalling ''Camarasaurus''. Similar but not related, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinophorosaurus Spinophorosaurus]]'' ("spike-bearing lizard") discovered in 2009 in Jurassic Africa had also a similar armored tail.

to:

Not every sauropod is either Diplodocoid or Macronarian (Diplodocoid+Macronarian =Neosauropod, "new sauropod"). Many were more primitive than both. ''Cetiosaurus'' and ''Mamenchisaurus'' have already been mentioned: another relevant basal sauropod is ''Shunosaurus'', from Chinese Middle Jurassic. Rather small (10 m long) and short-necked, it’s worthy of note for two things: its bony-club on its tailtip surrounded by four short spikes, resembling a combination between a Stegosaurian and Ankylosaurian tail; tail [[note]]though several portraits and museum-mounts show it spike-less and even club-less[[/note]]; and the fact that, with its 20 or more skeletons known, ''Shunosaurus'' is one of the most common sauropod in fossil record, rivalling ''Camarasaurus''. Similar but not related, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinophorosaurus Spinophorosaurus]]'' ("spike-bearing lizard") discovered in 2009 in Jurassic Africa had also a similar armored tail.
26th Jun '14 6:39:17 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Sauropods include about two hundreds of kinds described so far. Other than the stock ones, the five most common sauropods in documentary-media have been ''Camarasaurus'', ''Mamenchisaurus'', ''Barosaurus'', ''Saltasaurus'', and ''Cetiosaurus''. Each one is listed in its own paragraph at the top of the page. Other sauropods have been relatively common as well either because of their historical relevance (ex. ''Titanosaurus''), for their distinctiveness (ex. ''Shunosaurus'', ''Amargasaurus''), because they're the prototypes of their own sauropod family (ex. ''Dicraeosaurus'', ''Vulcanodon''), or for other reasons -- ex. ''Hypselosaurus'' has been thought the owner of the possible "biggest eggs" known from non-bird dinosaurs.

to:

Sauropods include about two hundreds of kinds described so far. Other than the stock ones, the five most common sauropods in documentary-media have been ''Camarasaurus'', ''Mamenchisaurus'', ''Barosaurus'', ''Saltasaurus'', ''Camarasaurus'' (mid-sized, short-necked, quite like a middle between an apatosaur and ''Cetiosaurus''.a brachiosaur), ''Cetiosaurus'' (a mid-sized, primitive and generic-looking kind from Europe), ''Barosaurus'' (similar to ''Diplodocus'' but with a longer neck), ''Mamenchisaurus'' (found in Asia and with an even longer neck than the former), and ''Saltasaurus'' (South-American, Cretaceous, and with an unusually armored body). Each one is listed in its own paragraph at the top of the page. Other sauropods have been relatively common as well either because of their historical relevance (ex. ''Titanosaurus''), for their distinctiveness (ex. ''Shunosaurus'', ''Amargasaurus''), because they're the prototypes of their own sauropod family (ex. ''Dicraeosaurus'', ''Vulcanodon''), or for other reasons -- ex. ''Hypselosaurus'' has been thought the owner of the possible "biggest eggs" known from non-bird dinosaurs.



Unfortunately for ''Cetiosaurus'', these sauropods were discovered in North America just in the period of the former’s correct interpretation, Their bigger size and/or their greater completeness meant ''Cetiosaurus'' was progressively put under the table. Making things worse, the cetiosaur has also a very generic look with no external traits that would make it recognizable. In short, this “whale of dinosaur” was predestined to become an only-book animal.

to:

Unfortunately for ''Cetiosaurus'', these sauropods were discovered in North America just in the period of the former’s correct interpretation, Their bigger size and/or their greater completeness meant ''Cetiosaurus'' was progressively put under the table. Making things worse, the cetiosaur has also a very generic look with no external traits that would make it recognizable. In short, this “whale of dinosaur” was predestined to become an only-book animal.animal - expecially British books, as it could be qualified the "national" UK sauropod.
15th Apr '14 7:24:29 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


'''Titanic lizards:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanosaurus Titanosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opisthocoelicaudia Opisthocoelicaudia]]''

to:

'''Titanic lizards:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanosaurus Titanosaurus]]'' Titanosaurus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctosaurus Antarctosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opisthocoelicaudia Opisthocoelicaudia]]''



Not all titanosaurs were true titans: among colossi such as ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]'', ''Puertasaurus'', ''Futalognkosaurus'', ''Paralititan'', or ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctosaurus Antarctosaurus]]'', there was also an animal like ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magyarosaurus Magyarosaurus]]'', a [[OxymoronicBeing dwarf sauropod]] ''only 6 m long'', which reduced its size to survive in small European islands. About ''Antarctosaurus'', this has been one of the first dinosaurs found in South America (since the start of the XX century: hence its generic name “Southern Lizard”), but is very poorly-known. Some alleged antarctosaur remains have been described in Africa and even India other than South America (the Indian one is now called ''Jainosaurus''); some of these are nearly as big as those of ''Argentinosaurus'' found several decades later (see StockDinosaurs), as well as the equally-fragmentary remains of another early-discovered South-American kind, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argyrosaurus Argyrosaurus]]'' [[note]]Interestingly, the latter's name has the same meaning of ''Argentinosaurus'', "lizard from Argentina", but the two titanosaurs are distinct animals. Both prefixes mean "silver" (Argentina means "the silver land"), but ''Argentino-'' is Latin word, ''Argyro-'' is Greek.[[/note]] Most titanosaurs, however, were far from the two extremes. The armoured ''Saltasaurus'' and the [[TheUnpronounceable almost unutterable]] ''Opisthocoelicaudia'', for example, were 12 m long--- still half the size of an apatosaur.

to:

Not all titanosaurs were true titans: among colossi such as ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]'', ''Puertasaurus'', ''Futalognkosaurus'', ''Paralititan'', or ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctosaurus Antarctosaurus]]'', ''Antarctosaurus'', there was also an animal like ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magyarosaurus Magyarosaurus]]'', a [[OxymoronicBeing dwarf sauropod]] ''only 6 m long'', which reduced its size to survive in small European islands. About ''Antarctosaurus'', this has been one of the first dinosaurs found in South America (since the start of the XX century: hence its generic name “Southern Lizard”), but is very poorly-known. Some alleged antarctosaur remains have been described in Africa and even India other than South America (the Indian one is now called ''Jainosaurus''); some of these are nearly as big as those of ''Argentinosaurus'' found several decades later (see StockDinosaurs), as well as the equally-fragmentary remains of another early-discovered South-American kind, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argyrosaurus Argyrosaurus]]'' [[note]]Interestingly, the latter's name has the same meaning of ''Argentinosaurus'', "lizard from Argentina", but the two titanosaurs are distinct animals. Both prefixes mean "silver" (Argentina means "the silver land"), but ''Argentino-'' is Latin word, ''Argyro-'' is Greek.[[/note]] Most titanosaurs, however, were far from the two extremes. The armoured ''Saltasaurus'' and the [[TheUnpronounceable almost unutterable]] ''Opisthocoelicaudia'', for example, were 12 m long--- still half the size of an apatosaur.



'''Titanic lizards 2:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alamosaurus Alamosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypselosaurus Hypselosaurus]]''

to:

'''Titanic lizards 2:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alamosaurus Alamosaurus]]'' & Alamosaurus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypselosaurus Hypselosaurus]]''
Hypselosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isisaurus Isisaurus]]''



Among titanosaurs which fell in the ''Titanosaurus''-Wastebasket, the most astonishing is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isisaurus Isisaurus]]'' from India. With its thick neck, short tail and strongly sloping backbone, it was the most giraffe-like sauropod known to date, even more than the well-known brachiosaurids. Just as strange were its forelimbs, with extremely reduced "feet". The very fragmentary ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegyptosaurus Aegyptosaurus]]'' has received its name from the country it was found, Egypt; it lived in Cretaceous Northern Africa near another famous egyptian guy, ''Spinosaurus aegyptiacus''. Other African countries which have left important dinosaur remains are: Tanzania (with the famous Tendaguru site full of Late Jurassic specimens [[note]]When the Tendaguru fossils were found, Tanzania was still a German colony: that explains why the famous "Brachiosaurus" (''Giraffatitan'') discovered here ended in the Berlin Museum. Other famed Tendaguru dinosaurs are the stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', the small theropod ''Elaphrosaurus'', and the diplodocoid sauropod ''Dicraeosaurus''.[[/note]]); South Africa (home for several Early Jurassic dinosaurs [[note]] Classic examples are the prosauropod ''Massospondylus'' and the basal ornithischians ''Heterodontosaurus'' & ''Lesothosaurus'', though technically the latest one was found in a tiny State surrounded by the South African Republic: the Lesotho indeed. Zimbabwe has left some dinosaurs as well (''Vulcanodon'', "Syntarsus").[[/note]]), and several saharian countries other than Egypt, expecially Niger (home for ''Ouranosaurus'' and other Cretaceous animals).

to:

Among titanosaurs which fell in the ''Titanosaurus''-Wastebasket, the most astonishing is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isisaurus Isisaurus]]'' ''Isisaurus'' from India. With its thick neck, short tail and strongly sloping backbone, it was the most giraffe-like sauropod known to date, even more than the well-known brachiosaurids. Just as strange were its forelimbs, with extremely reduced "feet". The very fragmentary ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegyptosaurus Aegyptosaurus]]'' has received its name from the country it was found, Egypt; it lived in Cretaceous Northern Africa near another famous egyptian guy, ''Spinosaurus aegyptiacus''. Other African countries which have left important dinosaur remains are: Tanzania (with the famous Tendaguru site full of Late Jurassic specimens [[note]]When the Tendaguru fossils were found, Tanzania was still a German colony: that explains why the famous "Brachiosaurus" (''Giraffatitan'') discovered here ended in the Berlin Museum. Other famed Tendaguru dinosaurs are the stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', the small theropod ''Elaphrosaurus'', and the diplodocoid sauropod ''Dicraeosaurus''.[[/note]]); South Africa (home for several Early Jurassic dinosaurs [[note]] Classic examples are the prosauropod ''Massospondylus'' and the basal ornithischians ''Heterodontosaurus'' & ''Lesothosaurus'', though technically the latest one was found in a tiny State surrounded by the South African Republic: the Lesotho indeed. Zimbabwe has left some dinosaurs as well (''Vulcanodon'', "Syntarsus").[[/note]]), and several saharian countries other than Egypt, expecially Niger (home for ''Ouranosaurus'' and other Cretaceous animals).



'''Diplodocus' kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicraeosaurus Dicraeosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amargasaurus Amargasaurus]]''

to:

'''Diplodocus' kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicraeosaurus Dicraeosaurus]]'' & Dicraeosaurus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amargasaurus Amargasaurus]]''
Amargasaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebbachisaurus Rebbachisaurus]]''



Other diplodocoids were still more primitive than the above: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebbachisaurus Rebbachisaurus]]'' from Cretaceous Sahara maybe still hadn’t a whip-like tail. This sauropod was found in several African countries, but its remains are sparse; some alleged ''Rebbachisaurus''es were described in South America, but now are classified in other genera within the Rebbachisaurids. This family also contains ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigersaurus Nigersaurus]]'' from [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Niger]], whose well-preserved skull shows strange grinding teeth.

to:

Other diplodocoids were still more primitive than the above: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebbachisaurus Rebbachisaurus]]'' ''Rebbachisaurus'' from Cretaceous Sahara maybe still hadn’t a whip-like tail. This sauropod was found in several African countries, but its remains are sparse; some alleged ''Rebbachisaurus''es were described in South America, but now are classified in other genera within the Rebbachisaurids. This family also contains ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigersaurus Nigersaurus]]'' from [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Niger]], whose well-preserved skull shows strange grinding teeth.



'''Brachiosaur’s kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelorosaurus Pelorosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euhelopus Euhelopus]]''

While diplodocoids are abundant, brachiosaurids are much rarer. Most described species are fragmentary, and with their appearance unknown. We can mention, because of their historical relevance, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrodon Astrodon]]'' and ''Pelorosaurus''. The former ("starry tooth") is the first sauropod found in North America (even before the Bone Wars), but is known mainly from teeth; other incomplete remains found within the "wars" were once referred as "Pleurocoelus". ''Astrodon'' is considered a “small” sauropod about 10 m long, which lived in Early Cretaceous along ''Deinonychus'' and the much larger ''[[StockDinosaurs Sauroposeidon]]''. Some analyses, however, suggest ''Astrodon'' is not a brachiosaurid, but is closer to titanosaurs. Curiously, the synonym "Pleurocoelus" used to be described as a much bigger brachiosaurid than ''Astrodon''.

to:

'''Brachiosaur’s kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrodon Astrodon]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelorosaurus Pelorosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euhelopus Euhelopus]]''

While diplodocoids are abundant, brachiosaurids are much rarer. Most described species are fragmentary, and with their appearance unknown. We can mention, because of their historical relevance, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrodon Astrodon]]'' ''Astrodon'' and ''Pelorosaurus''. The former ("starry tooth") is the first sauropod found in North America (even before the Bone Wars), but is known mainly from teeth; other incomplete remains found within the "wars" were once referred as "Pleurocoelus". ''Astrodon'' is considered a “small” sauropod about 10 m long, which lived in Early Cretaceous along ''Deinonychus'' and the much larger ''[[StockDinosaurs Sauroposeidon]]''. Some analyses, however, suggest ''Astrodon'' is not a brachiosaurid, but is closer to titanosaurs. Curiously, the synonym "Pleurocoelus" used to be described as a much bigger brachiosaurid than ''Astrodon''.



'''Nobody's kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shunosaurus Shunosaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patagosaurus Patagosaurus]]''

to:

'''Nobody's kin:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shunosaurus Shunosaurus]]'' Shunosaurus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omeisaurus Omeisaurus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patagosaurus Patagosaurus]]''



The shunosaur lived alongside members of a mostly Asian sauropod subgroup (the mamenchisaurids) which included also ''Mamenchisaurus'' and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omeisaurus Omeisaurus]]''. The latter lived in Late Jurassic like the mamenchisaur, was smaller (20 m long) but with a very long neck as well, and is also known to have had a tail-club (but without "spikes"). Several species are known from ''Omeisaurus'', and yet is not a common sight in books. Other mamenchisaurids were more generic-looking, for example the medium-sized ''Datousaurus'' and the smaller ''Bellusaurus''. Interestingly, a mamenchisaurid appears to be present in the African Tendaguru formation.

to:

The shunosaur lived alongside members of a mostly Asian sauropod subgroup (the mamenchisaurids) which included also ''Mamenchisaurus'' and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omeisaurus Omeisaurus]]''.''Omeisaurus''. The latter lived in Late Jurassic like the mamenchisaur, was smaller (20 m long) but with a very long neck as well, and is also known to have had a tail-club (but without "spikes"). Several species are known from ''Omeisaurus'', and yet is not a common sight in books. Other mamenchisaurids were more generic-looking, for example the medium-sized ''Datousaurus'' and the smaller ''Bellusaurus''. Interestingly, a mamenchisaurid appears to be present in the African Tendaguru formation.
31st Jan '14 12:33:19 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Sauropods include about two hundreds of kinds described so far. Other than the stock ones, the five most common sauropods in documentary-media have been ''Camarasaurus'', ''Mamenchisaurus'', ''Barosaurus'', ''Saltasaurus'', and ''Cetiosaurus''. Each one is listed in its own paragraph at the top of the page. Other sauropods have been relatively common as well either because of their historical relevance (ex. ''Titanosaurus''), for their distinctiveness (ex. ''Shunosaurus'', ''Amargasaurus''), because they're the prototypes of their own sauropod family (ex. ''Dicraeosaurus'', ''Vulcanodon''), or for other reasons -- ex. ''Barapasaurus'' was the "first giant sauropod" to have appeared, ''Alamosaurus'' was "the last North-American sauropod" (and the only one living alongside T. rex); ''Hypselosaurus'' has been thought the owner of the possible "biggest eggs" known from non-bird dinosaurs, and so on.

to:

Sauropods include about two hundreds of kinds described so far. Other than the stock ones, the five most common sauropods in documentary-media have been ''Camarasaurus'', ''Mamenchisaurus'', ''Barosaurus'', ''Saltasaurus'', and ''Cetiosaurus''. Each one is listed in its own paragraph at the top of the page. Other sauropods have been relatively common as well either because of their historical relevance (ex. ''Titanosaurus''), for their distinctiveness (ex. ''Shunosaurus'', ''Amargasaurus''), because they're the prototypes of their own sauropod family (ex. ''Dicraeosaurus'', ''Vulcanodon''), or for other reasons -- ex. ''Barapasaurus'' was the "first giant sauropod" to have appeared, ''Alamosaurus'' was "the last North-American sauropod" (and the only one living alongside T. rex); ''Hypselosaurus'' has been thought the owner of the possible "biggest eggs" known from non-bird dinosaurs, and so on.dinosaurs.
18th Jan '14 10:31:59 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


''Saltasaurus'' armor was different-looking than ''Ankylosaurus'' armor. It had no spikes, and was made by several small bony scutes of different size, covering all the upper parts of its torso like a mosaic. Though apparently much lighter than an ankylosaur’s, it would have been enough to defend the sauropod against predators like the contemporary “horned” ''Carnotaurus''. The scientific importance of ''Saltasaurus'' raised up even more after the discovery (made at the end of the 1990s) of a fossilized breeding-site full of nests and hatchlings, the very first known from a sauropod. These remains were attributed to ''Saltasaurus'', but we are not sure if they pertain to its genus.

to:

''Saltasaurus'' armor was different-looking than ''Ankylosaurus'' armor. It had no spikes, and was made by several small bony scutes of different size, covering all the upper parts of its torso like a mosaic. [[note]]Some portraits wrongly show this armor covering also the upper neck and tail.[[/note]] Though apparently much lighter than an ankylosaur’s, it would have been enough to defend the sauropod against predators like the contemporary “horned” ''Carnotaurus''. The scientific importance of ''Saltasaurus'' raised up even more after the discovery (made at the end of the 1990s) of a fossilized breeding-site full of nests and hatchlings, the very first known from a sauropod. These remains were attributed to ''Saltasaurus'', but we are not sure if they pertain to its genus.
This list shows the last 10 events of 91. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.PrehistoricLifeSauropods