History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles

21st Oct '16 5:07:12 PM Berrenta
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* On the other hand, the very un-ichthyosaur-like ''Cymbospondylus'' has received a "better" treatment, showing up as the "[[TheyJustDidntCare biggest ichthyosaur]]" in the Triassic seas in ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs Sea Monsters]]''. Even though it was large as well, reaching 9m, it was far smaller than ''Shonisaurus'' and ''Shastasaurus'' (the series' accompanying book got this right). Unlike the latest two, ''Cymbospondylus'' was one of the most basal ichthyosaurs known, being similar to a mosasaur, with only a hint of caudal fin and a very elongated body: it may have even been too primitive to be an ichthyosaur proper. However, its head was already ichthyosaurian, and had no visible neck.

to:

* On the other hand, the very un-ichthyosaur-like ''Cymbospondylus'' has received a "better" treatment, showing up as the "[[TheyJustDidntCare biggest ichthyosaur]]" "biggest ichthyosaur" in the Triassic seas in ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs Sea Monsters]]''. Even though it was large as well, reaching 9m, it was far smaller than ''Shonisaurus'' and ''Shastasaurus'' (the series' accompanying book got this right). Unlike the latest two, ''Cymbospondylus'' was one of the most basal ichthyosaurs known, being similar to a mosasaur, with only a hint of caudal fin and a very elongated body: it may have even been too primitive to be an ichthyosaur proper. However, its head was already ichthyosaurian, and had no visible neck.



* Even though are often nicknamed "gliding lizards", these reptiles ''were not'' lizards. They were small and lizard-shaped nonetheless, except for one thing: they were able to ''glide'', just like a modern lizard species called "flying dragon". They weren't related to each other, and adopted several different gliding structures and mechanisms: North American ''[[VideoGame/KidIcarus Icarosaurus]]'' and European ''Kuehneosaurus'' had elongated ribs which sustained a skin membrane acting as a parachute, just like that of the "flying dragon"; Asian ''Sharovipteryx'' had membranes extending from limbs to the body, in a way rather similar to pterosaurs. [[note]]Some thought ''Sharovipteryx'' was the ''actual'' ancestor of pterosaurs, but this is not accepted by most experts.[[/note]] While the most enigmatic of all, ''Longisquama'' (its name means "long scale") had two rows of [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin long scales]] protruding from each side of its body. However, nobody knows what these things exactly were (Real scales? Proto-feathers? Or a simple fossilization artefact as it seems according to recent research?) Despite this, ''Longisquama'' is perhaps the most portrayed "gliding lizard" in documentary media, and has even made an apparition in Disney's Dinosaur, [[TheyJustDidntCare wrongly shows as an active flier capable to flap its "wings"]]. Another "gliding lizard" appeared in ''Series/{{Primeval}}'': ''Coelurosauravus'' (see below).

to:

* Even though are often nicknamed "gliding lizards", these reptiles ''were not'' lizards. They were small and lizard-shaped nonetheless, except for one thing: they were able to ''glide'', just like a modern lizard species called "flying dragon". They weren't related to each other, and adopted several different gliding structures and mechanisms: North American ''[[VideoGame/KidIcarus Icarosaurus]]'' and European ''Kuehneosaurus'' had elongated ribs which sustained a skin membrane acting as a parachute, just like that of the "flying dragon"; Asian ''Sharovipteryx'' had membranes extending from limbs to the body, in a way rather similar to pterosaurs. [[note]]Some thought ''Sharovipteryx'' was the ''actual'' ancestor of pterosaurs, but this is not accepted by most experts.[[/note]] While the most enigmatic of all, ''Longisquama'' (its name means "long scale") had two rows of [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin long scales]] protruding from each side of its body. However, nobody knows what these things exactly were (Real scales? Proto-feathers? Or a simple fossilization artefact as it seems according to recent research?) Despite this, ''Longisquama'' is perhaps the most portrayed "gliding lizard" in documentary media, and has even made an apparition in Disney's Dinosaur, [[TheyJustDidntCare wrongly shows as an active flier capable to flap its "wings"]]."wings". Another "gliding lizard" appeared in ''Series/{{Primeval}}'': ''Coelurosauravus'' (see below).
8th Oct '16 10:47:12 PM DustSnitch
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Since the late 1990s ''Quetzalcoatlus'' has not been the only azdharchid with its size. Several others were discovered with a similar wingspan, ex. ''Arambourgiania'' and ''Montanazdharcho''. But with a whopping 39-foot wingspan, ''Hatzegopteryx'' was the biggest of them, and quite possibly ''the'' [[GiantFlyer biggest pterosaur (and flying animal in general) of all time]]. Hatzegopteryx lived on the Hateg Basin Island in Romania (after which it was named). It's a peculiar creature for many reasons; while the island was home to dinosaurs that were subject to island dwarfism, ''Hatzegopteryx'' went the opposite direction and was subject to island gigantism. This would have put ''Hatzegopteryx'' on the top of the island's food chain and it was the apex predator of the area. Additionally, unlike the lankier pterosaurs in the Azhdarchid family (its American cousin ''Quetzalcoatlus'' for example), ''Hatzegopteryx'' would likely have had an extremely thick and muscular build and a relatively short neck. This likely means that ''Hatzegopteryx'', rather than eating and swallowing tiny animals off the ground, likely [[{{Badass}} chased animals the size of cows]] and [[NightmareFuel ripped them apart for sustenance]]. Despite all this, ''Hatzegopteryx'' hasn't become [[StockDinosaurs stock]] just yet. However, as its existence is being advertised more and more, it's edging ever closer to that point. Its current claim to fame is a memorable appearance in the documentary ''Series/PlanetDinosaur'', which was made [[ScienceMarchesOn before the species' robust body plan was known]].

to:

* Since the late 1990s ''Quetzalcoatlus'' has not been the only azdharchid with its size. Several others were discovered with a similar wingspan, ex. ''Arambourgiania'' and ''Montanazdharcho''. But with a whopping 39-foot wingspan, ''Hatzegopteryx'' was the biggest of them, and quite possibly ''the'' [[GiantFlyer biggest pterosaur (and flying animal in general) of all time]]. Hatzegopteryx lived on the Hateg Basin Island in Romania (after which it was named). It's a peculiar creature for many reasons; while the island was home to dinosaurs that were subject to island dwarfism, ''Hatzegopteryx'' went the opposite direction and was subject to island gigantism. This would have put ''Hatzegopteryx'' on the top of the island's food chain and it was the apex predator of the area. Additionally, unlike the lankier pterosaurs in the Azhdarchid family (its American cousin ''Quetzalcoatlus'' for example), ''Hatzegopteryx'' would likely have had an extremely thick and muscular build and a relatively short neck. This likely means that ''Hatzegopteryx'', rather than eating and swallowing tiny animals off the ground, likely [[{{Badass}} chased animals the size of cows]] cows and [[NightmareFuel ripped them apart for sustenance]]. Despite all this, ''Hatzegopteryx'' hasn't become [[StockDinosaurs stock]] just yet. However, as its existence is being advertised more and more, it's edging ever closer to that point. Its current claim to fame is a memorable appearance in the documentary ''Series/PlanetDinosaur'', which was made [[ScienceMarchesOn before the species' robust body plan was known]].



* All mosasaurs lived in the Late Cretaceous, and thus were short-lived compared to other sea reptiles. The gigantic ''[[StockDinosaurs Tylosaurus]]'' and ''Mosasaurus'' are the two stock genera, often confused each other in paleo-art. Among other mosasaurs, we can mention: the rather ichthyosaur-like ''Plotosaurus'', a specialized mosasaur which was as large as ''Tylosaurus''; the much smaller, more traditional-looking ''Platecarpus'' and ''Clidastes'', both very common in the famous inland sea that covered central North America at the time (which was also home to ''Tylosaurus''), the unusual ammonite eater ''Globidens'', with a typical mosasaur shape but uniquely blunt teeth, and the first mosasaur: the amphibious ''Dallasaurus'', which had ''functioning legs''. While some scientists speculated that mosasaurs evolved from the same ancestor as snakes, the discovery of legless snakes predating ''Dallasaurus'' has debunked that, and it is now known that they are varanoids, making them the BadAss [[SuperNotDrowningSkills marine]] cousins of monitor lizards such as the Komodo dragon and ''Megalania''. More recently a freshwater mosasaur been discovered, named ''Pannoniasaurus'' and it wasn't a small animal like ''Dallasaurus'', it had a length considerable to the largest living crocodilians and likely took a niche similar to them, ambushing dinosaurs as they came to drink.

to:

* All mosasaurs lived in the Late Cretaceous, and thus were short-lived compared to other sea reptiles. The gigantic ''[[StockDinosaurs Tylosaurus]]'' and ''Mosasaurus'' are the two stock genera, often confused each other in paleo-art. Among other mosasaurs, we can mention: the rather ichthyosaur-like ''Plotosaurus'', a specialized mosasaur which was as large as ''Tylosaurus''; the much smaller, more traditional-looking ''Platecarpus'' and ''Clidastes'', both very common in the famous inland sea that covered central North America at the time (which was also home to ''Tylosaurus''), the unusual ammonite eater ''Globidens'', with a typical mosasaur shape but uniquely blunt teeth, and the first mosasaur: the amphibious ''Dallasaurus'', which had ''functioning legs''. While some scientists speculated that mosasaurs evolved from the same ancestor as snakes, the discovery of legless snakes predating ''Dallasaurus'' has debunked that, and it is now known that they are varanoids, making them the BadAss badass [[SuperNotDrowningSkills marine]] cousins of monitor lizards such as the Komodo dragon and ''Megalania''. More recently a freshwater mosasaur been discovered, named ''Pannoniasaurus'' and it wasn't a small animal like ''Dallasaurus'', it had a length considerable to the largest living crocodilians and likely took a niche similar to them, ambushing dinosaurs as they came to drink.



* Let's start with giant freshwater crocodylomorphs, [[RuleOfCool for obvious reasons]]. ''Sarcosuchus'' ("meat-eating croc") was not an Eusuchian but only a crocodylomorph distantly related with true crocodilians. Its shape was that of a gigantic gharial, with long thin jaws and numerous needle-like teeth. First found in Cretaceous Northern Africa in the same habitat of ''Spinosaurus'', it was recently found also in South America, where ''Giganotosaurus'' roamed. 15 m long, ''Sarcosuchus'' was basically the same bulk of these giant theropods. Recently CGI documentaries have popularized the ''Deino-'' and the ''Sarco-'' ''-suchus'' with the nickname “supercrocs”. Given their size they could have eaten giant dinosaurs if they’d the chance, and some portraits show them [[BadAss defeating even the biggest theropods]]. In RealLife, it's more likely such powerful predators tried to avoid each other, but ''Deinosuchus'' (who can be found [[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs here]]) is known to have attacked living tyrannosaurs (shown by a leg bone that healed after the bite). Few of us know, however, that two enormous crocs lived just ''few million years ago'', in full Mammal Age, when the first hominids just started their evolutionary journey: the gharial-like ''Rhamphosuchus'' from India and the cayman-like ''Purussaurus'' from South America. And they were at least as big as (if not bigger than) the two dinosaur-eating docu-stars. The recently (2012) discovered ''Aegisuchus'' might have been even larger: measurements of its skull (which was larger than a human by itself) suggest an animal over 20 metres long, making ''Aegisuchus'' [[UpToEleven the longest predator to ever live]]. Although it's much more probable that its skull was larger in comparison to its body than other crocodylomorphs.

to:

* Let's start with giant freshwater crocodylomorphs, [[RuleOfCool for obvious reasons]]. ''Sarcosuchus'' ("meat-eating croc") was not an Eusuchian but only a crocodylomorph distantly related with true crocodilians. Its shape was that of a gigantic gharial, with long thin jaws and numerous needle-like teeth. First found in Cretaceous Northern Africa in the same habitat of ''Spinosaurus'', it was recently found also in South America, where ''Giganotosaurus'' roamed. 15 m long, ''Sarcosuchus'' was basically the same bulk of these giant theropods. Recently CGI documentaries have popularized the ''Deino-'' and the ''Sarco-'' ''-suchus'' with the nickname “supercrocs”. Given their size they could have eaten giant dinosaurs if they’d the chance, and some portraits show them [[BadAss defeating even the biggest theropods]].theropods. In RealLife, it's more likely such powerful predators tried to avoid each other, but ''Deinosuchus'' (who can be found [[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs here]]) is known to have attacked living tyrannosaurs (shown by a leg bone that healed after the bite). Few of us know, however, that two enormous crocs lived just ''few million years ago'', in full Mammal Age, when the first hominids just started their evolutionary journey: the gharial-like ''Rhamphosuchus'' from India and the cayman-like ''Purussaurus'' from South America. And they were at least as big as (if not bigger than) the two dinosaur-eating docu-stars. The recently (2012) discovered ''Aegisuchus'' might have been even larger: measurements of its skull (which was larger than a human by itself) suggest an animal over 20 metres long, making ''Aegisuchus'' [[UpToEleven the longest predator to ever live]]. Although it's much more probable that its skull was larger in comparison to its body than other crocodylomorphs.



* Contrary to turtles and crocodilians, lizards' fossil record is extremely poor: their gracile skeletons do not usually fossilize. Ironically, the best preserved lizard remains known so far were discovered... into other creatures' rib cages. It's particularly famous the case of ''Bavarisaurus'', a small Jurassic lizard found into the first discovered ''Compsognathus'' skeleton. We don't know exactly which kind of modern lizards lived already in the Age of Dinosaurs: we're sure there were at least geckos, monitors, and proto-iguanas; while chameleons seem to be a recent evolution, after the non-avian dinosaur extinction, derived from iguana-like ancestors. Lizards occupied the same niche ruled by mammals and the apparently similar land crocs, as small insectivores or omnivores. Many modern lizards are still compared with dinosaurs, or even passed off as "mini-dinosaurs", in documentaries and pop books; ironically, just because they were used in the past as a model for the early dinosaur paintings and models. This spread the popular notion that ''all'' prehistoric reptiles were nothing but "giant lizards": a notion then adopted by films, comics and whatnot, which has given to us the {{Slurpasaur}} trope. But lizards actually pertain to a ''very different'' group of reptiles than dinosaurs and even crocodiles (both archosaurs); this group is called the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squamata squamates]] (literally "the scaly ones"). Together with the sphenodonts (see below), squamates form in turn the lepidosaurs. One may even hear the largest modern lizards ''literally'' passed off as dinosaurs in documentaries or other non-fictional works; the predestined victim is, obviously, the large monitor lizard called [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komodo_dragon Komodo dragon]]. The astonishing thing is, our Indonesian "dragon" did have in the recent past a close Australian relative much, much larger than itself: ''Megalania'' was 20 ft long, ''twice as long as its Komodo kin''; like its contemporary (this was a modern animal that lived with and was wipe rout by humans) it was highly intelligent, as smart as most carnivorous mammals, was a fast runner, had shark-like teeth, produced venom, and lived ''just 50000 years ago''. It was, arguably, one of the most powerful predators of its habitat (but don't forget the contemporary marsupial lion: though not larger than a lion, some scientists think it was the most efficient mammalian predator ever, maybe even capable to [[BadAss kill a fully-grown Megalania if it was lucky!]]). ''Megalania'' is by far the largest lizard that ever lived. But wait... have we forgotten something? Yeah, the mosasaurs. It's so easy to forget this, but they ''were'' true lizards, and evolved from monitors to boot; with more than 30 ft in total length, the ultimate size-record belongs definitively to them. Along with ''Megalania'' and the Komodo dragon, mosasaurs are the only "giant lizards" which are TruthInTelevision. But wait… we've still forgotten something: yeah, anacondas and reticulated pythons. See below.

to:

* Contrary to turtles and crocodilians, lizards' fossil record is extremely poor: their gracile skeletons do not usually fossilize. Ironically, the best preserved lizard remains known so far were discovered... into other creatures' rib cages. It's particularly famous the case of ''Bavarisaurus'', a small Jurassic lizard found into the first discovered ''Compsognathus'' skeleton. We don't know exactly which kind of modern lizards lived already in the Age of Dinosaurs: we're sure there were at least geckos, monitors, and proto-iguanas; while chameleons seem to be a recent evolution, after the non-avian dinosaur extinction, derived from iguana-like ancestors. Lizards occupied the same niche ruled by mammals and the apparently similar land crocs, as small insectivores or omnivores. Many modern lizards are still compared with dinosaurs, or even passed off as "mini-dinosaurs", in documentaries and pop books; ironically, just because they were used in the past as a model for the early dinosaur paintings and models. This spread the popular notion that ''all'' prehistoric reptiles were nothing but "giant lizards": a notion then adopted by films, comics and whatnot, which has given to us the {{Slurpasaur}} trope. But lizards actually pertain to a ''very different'' group of reptiles than dinosaurs and even crocodiles (both archosaurs); this group is called the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squamata squamates]] (literally "the scaly ones"). Together with the sphenodonts (see below), squamates form in turn the lepidosaurs. One may even hear the largest modern lizards ''literally'' passed off as dinosaurs in documentaries or other non-fictional works; the predestined victim is, obviously, the large monitor lizard called [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komodo_dragon Komodo dragon]]. The astonishing thing is, our Indonesian "dragon" did have in the recent past a close Australian relative much, much larger than itself: ''Megalania'' was 20 ft long, ''twice as long as its Komodo kin''; like its contemporary (this was a modern animal that lived with and was wipe rout by humans) it was highly intelligent, as smart as most carnivorous mammals, was a fast runner, had shark-like teeth, produced venom, and lived ''just 50000 years ago''. It was, arguably, one of the most powerful predators of its habitat (but don't forget the contemporary marsupial lion: though not larger than a lion, some scientists think it was the most efficient mammalian predator ever, maybe even capable to [[BadAss kill a fully-grown Megalania if it was lucky!]]).lucky!). ''Megalania'' is by far the largest lizard that ever lived. But wait... have we forgotten something? Yeah, the mosasaurs. It's so easy to forget this, but they ''were'' true lizards, and evolved from monitors to boot; with more than 30 ft in total length, the ultimate size-record belongs definitively to them. Along with ''Megalania'' and the Komodo dragon, mosasaurs are the only "giant lizards" which are TruthInTelevision. But wait… we've still forgotten something: yeah, anacondas and reticulated pythons. See below.
9th Jun '16 7:36:54 PM CJCroen1393
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Supercrocs weren't only Cretaceous things: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcosuchus Sarcosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinosuchus Deinosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhamphosuchus Rhamphosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purussaurus Purussaurus]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegisuchus Aegisuchus]]''

* Let's start with giant freshwater crocodylomorphs, [[RuleOfCool for obvious reasons]]. ''Deinosuchus'' ("terrible croc", also called ''Phobosuchus'' "fearsome croc") belonged to the eusuchians, aka the “true crocodilians”. These gigantic gators appeared only in the Cretaceous but had the same anatomy we can still see today. More precisely, it was closer to alligators and caimans than to true crocodiles, hence the nickname "giant alligator". Like gators, the ''Deinosuchus''' skull had wide strong jaws and relatively blunt teeth. Its head was as long as a fully grown man, but the length of its body is unknown because the skull is the only left remain. Comparing with modern alligators, ''Deinosuchus'' could have reached 15m in length and weighed more than a ''Tyrannosaurus''. Its home were freshwater basins in Late Cretaceous North America, but could also have frequented the inland sea that divided the continent at the time. Since its fossil is from 75 mya, ''Deinosuchus'' could not have lived long enough to meet ''T. rex'' in RealLife, but only the latter's smaller relatives. ''Sarcosuchus'' ("meat-eating croc") was not an Eusuchian but only a crocodylomorph distantly related with true crocodilians. Its shape was that of a gigantic gharial, with long thin jaws and numerous needle-like teeth. First found in Cretaceous Northern Africa in the same habitat of ''Spinosaurus'', it was recently found also in South America, where ''Giganotosaurus'' roamed. 15 m long, ''Sarcosuchus'' was basically the same bulk of these giant theropods. Recently CGI documentaries have popularized the ''Deino-'' and the ''Sarco-'' ''-suchus'' with the nickname “supercrocs”. Given their size they could have eaten giant dinosaurs if they’d the chance, and some portraits show them [[BadAss defeating even the biggest theropods]]. In RealLife, it's more likely such powerful predators tried to avoid each other, but Deinosuchus is known to have attacked living tyrannosaurs (shown by a leg bone that healed after the bite). Few of us know, however, that two enormous crocs lived just ''few million years ago'', in full Mammal Age, when the first hominids just started their evolutionary journey: the gharial-like ''Rhamphosuchus'' from India and the cayman-like ''Purussaurus'' from South America. And they were at least as big as (if not bigger than) the two dinosaur-eating docu-stars. The recently (2012) discovered ''Aegisuchus'' might have been even larger: measurements of its skull (which was larger than a human by itself) suggest an animal over 20 metres long, making ''Aegisuchus'' [[UpToEleven the longest predator to ever live]]. Although it's much more probable that its skull was larger in comparison to its body than other crocodylomorphs.

to:

Supercrocs weren't only Cretaceous things: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcosuchus Sarcosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinosuchus Deinosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhamphosuchus Rhamphosuchus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purussaurus Purussaurus]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegisuchus Aegisuchus]]''

* Let's start with giant freshwater crocodylomorphs, [[RuleOfCool for obvious reasons]]. ''Deinosuchus'' ("terrible croc", also called ''Phobosuchus'' "fearsome croc") belonged to the eusuchians, aka the “true crocodilians”. These gigantic gators appeared only in the Cretaceous but had the same anatomy we can still see today. More precisely, it was closer to alligators and caimans than to true crocodiles, hence the nickname "giant alligator". Like gators, the ''Deinosuchus''' skull had wide strong jaws and relatively blunt teeth. Its head was as long as a fully grown man, but the length of its body is unknown because the skull is the only left remain. Comparing with modern alligators, ''Deinosuchus'' could have reached 15m in length and weighed more than a ''Tyrannosaurus''. Its home were freshwater basins in Late Cretaceous North America, but could also have frequented the inland sea that divided the continent at the time. Since its fossil is from 75 mya, ''Deinosuchus'' could not have lived long enough to meet ''T. rex'' in RealLife, but only the latter's smaller relatives. ''Sarcosuchus'' ("meat-eating croc") was not an Eusuchian but only a crocodylomorph distantly related with true crocodilians. Its shape was that of a gigantic gharial, with long thin jaws and numerous needle-like teeth. First found in Cretaceous Northern Africa in the same habitat of ''Spinosaurus'', it was recently found also in South America, where ''Giganotosaurus'' roamed. 15 m long, ''Sarcosuchus'' was basically the same bulk of these giant theropods. Recently CGI documentaries have popularized the ''Deino-'' and the ''Sarco-'' ''-suchus'' with the nickname “supercrocs”. Given their size they could have eaten giant dinosaurs if they’d the chance, and some portraits show them [[BadAss defeating even the biggest theropods]]. In RealLife, it's more likely such powerful predators tried to avoid each other, but Deinosuchus ''Deinosuchus'' (who can be found [[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs here]]) is known to have attacked living tyrannosaurs (shown by a leg bone that healed after the bite). Few of us know, however, that two enormous crocs lived just ''few million years ago'', in full Mammal Age, when the first hominids just started their evolutionary journey: the gharial-like ''Rhamphosuchus'' from India and the cayman-like ''Purussaurus'' from South America. And they were at least as big as (if not bigger than) the two dinosaur-eating docu-stars. The recently (2012) discovered ''Aegisuchus'' might have been even larger: measurements of its skull (which was larger than a human by itself) suggest an animal over 20 metres long, making ''Aegisuchus'' [[UpToEleven the longest predator to ever live]]. Although it's much more probable that its skull was larger in comparison to its body than other crocodylomorphs.
6th May '16 3:07:16 PM Michal
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* One of the strangest marine reptiles ever discovered, this Triassic creature had a body structure similar to that of the aforementioned ''Placodus''. But that's not what so strange about this guy. The name means "Unusual dentation", and for good reason: the creature's upper mandible was [[http://scinews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Atopodentatus_unicus.jpg split into a strange zipper-like structure!]] Judging by its jaws and teeth, it was most likely a filter feeder instead of an active predator, swimming into shallow waters to prey on small microscopic organisms.

to:

* One of the strangest marine reptiles ever discovered, this Triassic creature had a body structure similar to that of the aforementioned ''Placodus''. But that's not what so strange about this guy. The name means "Unusual dentation", and for good reason: it was originally assumed that the creature's upper mandible was [[http://scinews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Atopodentatus_unicus.jpg split into a strange zipper-like structure!]] Judging by its jaws and teeth, structure.]] Two new specimens [[http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/5/e1501659 described in 2016]] showed that the processes of the mandible thought to form a zipper-like structure actually faced laterally, giving the animal's head a hammerhead-like shape. Before 2016 it was most interpreted as likely a filter feeder instead of an active predator, swimming into shallow waters to prey on small microscopic organisms.
organisms. The 2016 discoveries suggest it might have actually been a herbivore, scraping algae off the substrate underwater.
24th Apr '16 6:57:36 PM TVRulezAgain
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* After ''Dimetrodon'', ''Edaphosaurus'' is the only "pelycosaur" which has some possibilities to appear in non-documentary media - at least indirectly: sometimes ''Dimetrodon''s with a sail more similar to ''Edaphosaurus'' are seen in fictional works, ex. in TheLandBeforeTime movie. A bit larger than ''Dimetrodon'', ''Edaphosaurus'' was very similar to the latter, with a sail on its back, long tail and splayed legs. Its sail was bigger and more complex however: it had a more rounded shape and its spines had regularly-placed tubercles for uncertain purpose. ''Edaphosaurus'' head was much smaller than ''Dimetrodon'' and with round teeth all with the same shape. With this dentition, it was arguably herbivorous, but could also have eaten shellfish according to some. Living alongside ''Dimetrodon'' in Late Permian North America, ''Edaphosaurus'' is sometimes shown in paleo art as one of its possible preys. This could be realistic, even though ''Dimetrodon'' almost certainly hunted young ''Edaphosaurus'' more often than the powerful adults.

to:

* After ''Dimetrodon'', ''Edaphosaurus'' is the only "pelycosaur" which has some possibilities to appear in non-documentary media - at least indirectly: sometimes ''Dimetrodon''s with a sail more similar to ''Edaphosaurus'' are seen in fictional works, ex. in TheLandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime movie. A bit larger than ''Dimetrodon'', ''Edaphosaurus'' was very similar to the latter, with a sail on its back, long tail and splayed legs. Its sail was bigger and more complex however: it had a more rounded shape and its spines had regularly-placed tubercles for uncertain purpose. ''Edaphosaurus'' head was much smaller than ''Dimetrodon'' and with round teeth all with the same shape. With this dentition, it was arguably herbivorous, but could also have eaten shellfish according to some. Living alongside ''Dimetrodon'' in Late Permian North America, ''Edaphosaurus'' is sometimes shown in paleo art as one of its possible preys. This could be realistic, even though ''Dimetrodon'' almost certainly hunted young ''Edaphosaurus'' more often than the powerful adults.
23rd Apr '16 12:10:08 PM TVRulezAgain
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Among the most basal diapsids - that is, the group containing all reptiles ''sensu stricto'' (except anapsids and maybe turtles), most looked like simple lizards, for example the Permian ''Araeoscelis'' and the Early Triassic ''Youngina''. But other were more specialized. The small tree-specialists avicephalans for example, also living in Early Triassic (nowadays the word 'avicephalan' is generally disused as it's probably contains unrelated animals). Some avicephalans were gliding forms similar to those already mentioned above: ex. the deceptively dinosaur-sounding ''Coelurosauravus'' (literally "coelurosaur ancestor") had elongated ribs like those seen in ''Icarosaurus'', but was not related with the latter. Another subgroup, the drepanosaurs, was more similar to chameleons but with a neck of a bird, ex. ''Megalancosaurus'' and ''Hypuronector''. Even though they are very rarely portrayed [[note]]One of them could have appeared at the start of WesternAnimation/heLandBeforeTime original movie, but portrayed as a water-living creature: this would be ScienceMarchesOn, as originally ''Hypuronector'' was believed aquatic.[[/note]], drepanosaurs were among the most specialized and weird-looking reptiles ever; to give an example, ''Megalancosaurus'' had chameleon-like forearms, a bird-like beak, a large hump across its shoulders, and a prehensile tail with a claw at the end of it.


to:

* Among the most basal diapsids - that is, the group containing all reptiles ''sensu stricto'' (except anapsids and maybe turtles), most looked like simple lizards, for example the Permian ''Araeoscelis'' and the Early Triassic ''Youngina''. But other were more specialized. The small tree-specialists avicephalans for example, also living in Early Triassic (nowadays the word 'avicephalan' is generally disused as it's probably contains unrelated animals). Some avicephalans were gliding forms similar to those already mentioned above: ex. the deceptively dinosaur-sounding ''Coelurosauravus'' (literally "coelurosaur ancestor") had elongated ribs like those seen in ''Icarosaurus'', but was not related with the latter. Another subgroup, the drepanosaurs, was more similar to chameleons but with a neck of a bird, ex. ''Megalancosaurus'' and ''Hypuronector''. Even though they are very rarely portrayed [[note]]One of them could have appeared at the start of WesternAnimation/heLandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime original movie, but portrayed as a water-living creature: this would be ScienceMarchesOn, as originally ''Hypuronector'' was believed aquatic.[[/note]], drepanosaurs were among the most specialized and weird-looking reptiles ever; to give an example, ''Megalancosaurus'' had chameleon-like forearms, a bird-like beak, a large hump across its shoulders, and a prehensile tail with a claw at the end of it.

23rd Apr '16 12:09:13 PM TVRulezAgain
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Among the most basal diapsids - that is, the group containing all reptiles ''sensu stricto'' (except anapsids and maybe turtles), most looked like simple lizards, for example the Permian ''Araeoscelis'' and the Early Triassic ''Youngina''. But other were more specialized. The small tree-specialists avicephalans for example, also living in Early Triassic (nowadays the word 'avicephalan' is generally disused as it's probably contains unrelated animals). Some avicephalans were gliding forms similar to those already mentioned above: ex. the deceptively dinosaur-sounding ''Coelurosauravus'' (literally "coelurosaur ancestor") had elongated ribs like those seen in ''Icarosaurus'', but was not related with the latter. Another subgroup, the drepanosaurs, was more similar to chameleons but with a neck of a bird, ex. ''Megalancosaurus'' and ''Hypuronector''. Even though they are very rarely portrayed [[note]]One of them could have appeared at the start of the LandBeforeTime original movie, but portrayed as a water-living creature: this would be ScienceMarchesOn, as originally ''Hypuronector'' was believed aquatic.[[/note]], drepanosaurs were among the most specialized and weird-looking reptiles ever; to give an example, ''Megalancosaurus'' had chameleon-like forearms, a bird-like beak, a large hump across its shoulders, and a prehensile tail with a claw at the end of it.


to:

* Among the most basal diapsids - that is, the group containing all reptiles ''sensu stricto'' (except anapsids and maybe turtles), most looked like simple lizards, for example the Permian ''Araeoscelis'' and the Early Triassic ''Youngina''. But other were more specialized. The small tree-specialists avicephalans for example, also living in Early Triassic (nowadays the word 'avicephalan' is generally disused as it's probably contains unrelated animals). Some avicephalans were gliding forms similar to those already mentioned above: ex. the deceptively dinosaur-sounding ''Coelurosauravus'' (literally "coelurosaur ancestor") had elongated ribs like those seen in ''Icarosaurus'', but was not related with the latter. Another subgroup, the drepanosaurs, was more similar to chameleons but with a neck of a bird, ex. ''Megalancosaurus'' and ''Hypuronector''. Even though they are very rarely portrayed [[note]]One of them could have appeared at the start of the LandBeforeTime WesternAnimation/heLandBeforeTime original movie, but portrayed as a water-living creature: this would be ScienceMarchesOn, as originally ''Hypuronector'' was believed aquatic.[[/note]], drepanosaurs were among the most specialized and weird-looking reptiles ever; to give an example, ''Megalancosaurus'' had chameleon-like forearms, a bird-like beak, a large hump across its shoulders, and a prehensile tail with a claw at the end of it.

17th Apr '16 11:31:44 AM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


...snakes are lizards!: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Najash Najash]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinilysia Dinilysia]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantophis Gigantophis]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/Titanoboa Titanoboa]]''

* Snakes are the great exception among extant reptiles: they are a ''very'' recent thing, appeared only in the Late Cretaceous, just before the mass extinction. Their success was obtained only since the beginning of the Mammal Age 65 million years ago, and venomous species appeared even later, 30-20 million years ago. The most ancient extant snakes are probably boas and pythons, or at least their closest relatives: the most common kind of snakes, the colubrids (the garden snake and relatives), appeared in fully Cenozoic settings. As birds are nothing but winged dinosaurs, snakes are nothing but legless lizards. They descend from a still unknown kind of Cretaceous lizard which did elongate its body loosing the limbs at the same time. Curiously, the lizard group closer to snakes in phylogeny is not to be searched among the small slithering ones, like [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anguis_fragilis slow worms]] or [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphisbaenia amphisbaenians]]. One hypothesis suggests snakes evolved from burrowing monitor-like lizards, or shared an ancestor with the gigantic mosasaurs instead, although recent genetic analysis and the discovery of ''Najash'', a genus of two-legged snakes, is calling that relationship into question. The mosasaurs' reputation as the Cretaceous "sea serpents" is thus not totally appropriated. Prehistoric snakes are not much portrayed in books or paleo art: this is probably because their remains are very, very scant, ''even more'' than those of their lizard ancestors: all that we often have are few isolated vertebrae, which don't allow to understand even how long they were. Hence, speculation and exaggerations tend to be common. ''Gigantophis'' (which lived just after the dinosaur extinction) is a prime example: only known for fragmentary remains, it may get described as [[RuleOfCool twice the length of an anaconda]] despite it more probably was only a bit longer than the latter, if it was. If dealing with Cretaceous species, it'll probably be a ''Dinilysia''. A very recent discovery, right after the extinction of non-bird dinosaurs, has been the 50-foot long, one-ton ''Titanoboa'': its name means "titanic boa" for obvious reasons.

to:

...snakes are lizards!: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Najash Najash]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinilysia Dinilysia]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantophis Gigantophis]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/Titanoboa Titanoboa]]''

Titanoboa]]'', and ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palaeophis Palaeophis]]''

* Snakes are the great exception among extant reptiles: they are a ''very'' recent thing, appeared only in the Late Cretaceous, just before the mass extinction. Their success was obtained only since the beginning of the Mammal Age 65 million years ago, and venomous species appeared even later, 30-20 million years ago. The most ancient extant snakes are probably boas and pythons, or at least their closest relatives: the most common kind of snakes, the colubrids (the garden snake and relatives), appeared in fully Cenozoic settings. As birds are nothing but winged dinosaurs, snakes are nothing but legless lizards. They descend from a still unknown kind of Cretaceous lizard which did elongate its body loosing the limbs at the same time. Curiously, the lizard group closer to snakes in phylogeny is not to be searched among the small slithering ones, like [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anguis_fragilis slow worms]] or [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphisbaenia amphisbaenians]]. One hypothesis suggests snakes evolved from burrowing monitor-like lizards, or shared an ancestor with the gigantic mosasaurs instead, although recent genetic analysis and the discovery of ''Najash'', a genus of two-legged snakes, is calling that relationship into question. The mosasaurs' reputation as the Cretaceous "sea serpents" is thus not totally appropriated. Prehistoric snakes are not much portrayed in books or paleo art: this is probably because their remains are very, very scant, ''even more'' than those of their lizard ancestors: all that we often have are few isolated vertebrae, which don't allow to understand even how long they were. Hence, speculation and exaggerations tend to be common. ''Gigantophis'' (which lived just after the dinosaur extinction) is a prime example: only known for fragmentary remains, it may get described as [[RuleOfCool twice the length of an anaconda]] despite it more probably was only a bit longer than the latter, if it was. If dealing with Cretaceous species, it'll probably be a ''Dinilysia''. A very recent discovery, right after the extinction of non-bird dinosaurs, has been the 50-foot long, one-ton ''Titanoboa'': its name means "titanic boa" for obvious reasons.
reasons. Another interesting guy is ''Palaeophis'', a marine boa that, like the aforementioned champsosaurs, survived the Cretaceous mass extinction and made it up to the Eocene. A real life sea serpent, this creature has an estimated length of up to 30 feet, but is yet to be seen even in educational media.
13th Apr '16 4:09:22 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* One of the strangest marine reptiles ever discovered. This Triassic creature had a body structure similar to that of the aforementioned ''Placodus''. But that's not what so strange about this guy. The name means "Unusual dentation", and for good reason: the creature's upper mandible was [[http://scinews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Atopodentatus_unicus.jpg split into a strange zipper-like structure!]] Judging by its jaws and teeth, it was most likely a filter feeder instead of an active predator, swimming into shallow waters to prey on small microscopic organisms.

to:

* One of the strangest marine reptiles ever discovered. This discovered, this Triassic creature had a body structure similar to that of the aforementioned ''Placodus''. But that's not what so strange about this guy. The name means "Unusual dentation", and for good reason: the creature's upper mandible was [[http://scinews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Atopodentatus_unicus.jpg split into a strange zipper-like structure!]] Judging by its jaws and teeth, it was most likely a filter feeder instead of an active predator, swimming into shallow waters to prey on small microscopic organisms.
12th Apr '16 9:45:01 PM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message

Added DiffLines:


Split jaw: ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atopodentatus Atopodentatus]]''

* One of the strangest marine reptiles ever discovered. This Triassic creature had a body structure similar to that of the aforementioned ''Placodus''. But that's not what so strange about this guy. The name means "Unusual dentation", and for good reason: the creature's upper mandible was [[http://scinews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Atopodentatus_unicus.jpg split into a strange zipper-like structure!]] Judging by its jaws and teeth, it was most likely a filter feeder instead of an active predator, swimming into shallow waters to prey on small microscopic organisms.
This list shows the last 10 events of 231. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles