History UsefulNotes / Pillarisation

15th Oct '16 12:43:55 PM karstovich2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


By the 19th century, Enlightenment ideals about liberty and equality had spread into society, and the long-suffering Catholics began demanding equal economic, social, and political rights in the Netherlands. Those same Enlightenment ideals also led to a small but significant number of Dutch Protestants to question the (Protestant) official Church, which they gradually but surely abandoned; they particularly targeted the role of the Church in providing education, which they felt should be the responsibility of the secular state. Moreover, as the Industrial Revolution rolled along, working-class people of both Catholic and Protestant background began to decide that neither religion's leaders was really addressing their needs, and they began to turn to the newfangled ideology of socialism. And finally, as the Protestant ruling class was gradually persuaded to grant or even just consider these reforms, a small but significant of conservative (and largely rural) Protestants broke away from the official church and founded their own to protest the supposed decay of the "Godly" order that had previously existed. These groups began to organise themselves: they started political parties to have a say in the running of the country, schools to educate their children in accordance with their own principles, newspapers to tell each other what was happening in the world from their own perspective... The Moderate Protestants reacted by setting up their own organisations as well, and [[IncrediblyLamePun Pillarity]] [[HilarityEnsues Ensued]].

to:

By the 19th century, Enlightenment ideals about liberty and equality had spread into society, and the long-suffering Catholics began demanding equal economic, social, and political rights in the Netherlands. Netherlands, as well as government funding for Catholic schools on an equal footing with Protestant ones. Those same Enlightenment ideals also led to a small but significant number of Dutch Protestants to question the (Protestant) more-or-less official Church, church, which they gradually but surely abandoned; abandoned in all but name; they particularly targeted the role of the Church in providing education, which they felt should be the responsibility of the secular state. Moreover, as the Industrial Revolution rolled along, working-class people of both Catholic and Protestant background began to decide that neither religion's leaders was really addressing their needs, and they began to turn to the newfangled ideology of socialism. And finally, as the Protestant ruling class was gradually persuaded to grant or even just consider these reforms, a small but significant of conservative (and largely rural) Protestants broke away from the official church and founded their own to protest the supposed decay of the "Godly" order that had previously existed.existed, creating the Orthodox Protestant movement. These groups began to organise themselves: they started political parties to have a say in the running of the country, schools to educate their children in accordance with their own principles, newspapers to tell each other what was happening in the world from their own perspective... The Moderate Protestants reacted by setting up their own organisations as well, and [[IncrediblyLamePun Pillarity]] [[HilarityEnsues Ensued]].
15th Oct '16 9:42:15 AM karstovich2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Socialists:''' Usually lumped together in one pillar, the "Socialists" included everyone from Communists to Social Democrats. Of course, there weren't many upper-class people in this pillar. Viewed by the other pillars as [[RedScare dangerous revolutionaries]] who wanted to do away with everything people held dear (including Christianity, the monarchy, and private property).
* '''Liberals:''' [[labelnote:Note for readers lacking political education]]In European countries, 'liberal' means something entirely different than it does in the US. See the description of 'classical liberalism' in UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies - that's the kind of 'liberals' we're talking about here.[[/labelnote]] Not considered a separate pillar by some, due to their small numbers. The Liberals were in many respects the polar opposite of the Socialists: they were more or less aligned with the interests of big business and the upper class, which is why there were hardly any working-class Liberals. Viewed by the other pillars as cynical hedonists who didn't care for morality or religion, but all the more for money.

to:

* '''Socialists:''' Usually lumped together in one pillar, the "Socialists" included everyone from Communists to Social Democrats. Of course, there weren't many upper-class people in this pillar. Viewed by the other pillars as [[RedScare dangerous revolutionaries]] who wanted to do away with everything people held dear (including Christianity, the monarchy, and private property).
property), but many were nominally Catholic or Protestant.
* '''Liberals:''' [[labelnote:Note for readers lacking political education]]In European countries, 'liberal' means something entirely different than it does in the US. See the description of 'classical liberalism' in UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies - that's the kind of 'liberals' we're talking about here.[[/labelnote]] Not considered a separate pillar by some, due to their small numbers. The Liberals were in many respects the polar opposite of the Socialists: they were more or less aligned with the interests of big business and the upper class, which is why there were hardly any working-class Liberals. Viewed by the other pillars as cynical hedonists who didn't care for morality or religion, religion (though most were nominally Protestant), but all the more for money.



Pillarisation was the result of a number of 19th-century emancipatory movements. Fed up with the dominant position of Moderate Protestants, other groups in society began to organise themselves: they started political parties to have a say in the running of the country, schools to educate their children in accordance with their own principles, newspapers to tell each other what was happening in the world from their own perspective... The Moderate Protestants reacted by setting up their own organisations as well, and [[IncrediblyLamePun Pillarity]] [[HilarityEnsues Ensued]].

to:

Pillarisation was Because noting in the world is simple, we need to begin in the 16th century. Up until the middle of the 16th century, the Netherlands (a geographical expression referring to the low-lying, largely Dutch-speaking territories lying along the northwestern frontier of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire, including at the time what is now Belgium) was, like all of Western Europe, a Catholic country, and practically all Dutch people were Catholic. However, when the Protestant Reformation happened, Protestantism--and in particular its "Reformed" Calvinist/Presbyterian form--took root in the northern part of the Netherlands, and became dominant there. This, along with a long list of other longstanding grievances the people of the northern Netherlands had with their rulers, led to tension with the ardently-Catholic Spanish, who, as a result of a number of 19th-century emancipatory movements. Fed up with dynastic history, ruled the dominant position of Netherlands at that time, and in 1568, the UsefulNotes/EightyYearsWar broke out, eventually leading to the seven northernmost provinces--which were also the most Protestant provinces--being recognized as independent in 1648. The newly independent Netherlands was therefore dominated by Protestants, and particularly by Moderate Protestants, other but they were not the only game in town; large numbers of Dutch people across the country remained true to the Catholic Church, particularly near the southern border with the ten provinces of the Netherlands that did not win their independence from Spain (and were eventually handed off to Austria), i.e. Belgium. These Dutch Catholics remained an occasionally-persecuted minority well into the 19th century, and they were consistently denied access to real economic and political power.

By the 19th century, Enlightenment ideals about liberty and equality had spread into society, and the long-suffering Catholics began demanding equal economic, social, and political rights in the Netherlands. Those same Enlightenment ideals also led to a small but significant number of Dutch Protestants to question the (Protestant) official Church, which they gradually but surely abandoned; they particularly targeted the role of the Church in providing education, which they felt should be the responsibility of the secular state. Moreover, as the Industrial Revolution rolled along, working-class people of both Catholic and Protestant background began to decide that neither religion's leaders was really addressing their needs, and they began to turn to the newfangled ideology of socialism. And finally, as the Protestant ruling class was gradually persuaded to grant or even just consider these reforms, a small but significant of conservative (and largely rural) Protestants broke away from the official church and founded their own to protest the supposed decay of the "Godly" order that had previously existed. These
groups in society began to organise themselves: they started political parties to have a say in the running of the country, schools to educate their children in accordance with their own principles, newspapers to tell each other what was happening in the world from their own perspective... The Moderate Protestants reacted by setting up their own organisations as well, and [[IncrediblyLamePun Pillarity]] [[HilarityEnsues Ensued]].
30th Oct '14 7:07:09 PM SamCurt
Is there an issue? Send a Message


For example, suppose you were a boy born around 1900 to Dutch Catholic parents. You would go to a Catholic primary school, and join a Catholic youth club with which you would go on Catholic summer camps. You would go to a Catholic secondary school, as well; if you wanted to take up a sport - say, football - you would join a Catholic football club [[note]]school sports teams never really caught on in the Netherlands[[/note]]. If your parents could afford to send you to university, it would probably be a Catholic one (i.e. Nijmegen or Tilburg), and if it wasn't, you would at least join a Catholic fraternity. Having completed your education and found a job somewhere, you would join a Catholic trade union; if your boss was also a Catholic, he would be a member of a Catholic employers' organisation. You would marry a Catholic girl (there was an old saying, ''twee geloven op één kussen, daar slaapt de duivel tussen'' - 'if two faiths are on one pillow, the Devil sleeps between them', expressing the taboo on inter-pillar marriage amongst the religious pillars), read a Catholic newspaper, listen to a Catholic radio station, vote for a Catholic party, buy from Catholic shopkeepers, and visit your Catholic friends. If you ever did something outrageous like listening to a Socialist radio station, buying from a Liberal shopkeeper or voting for a Protestant party, you faced social stigma and isolation.

to:

For example, suppose you were a boy born around 1900 to Dutch Catholic parents. You would go to a Catholic primary school, and join a Catholic youth club with which you would go on Catholic summer camps. You would go to a Catholic secondary school, as well; if you wanted to take up a sport - say, football - you would join a Catholic football club [[note]]school sports teams never really caught on in the Netherlands[[/note]].Netherlands. Also, Protestants play amateur football on Saturdays while the Catholics, Socialists and Liberals play on Sunday.[[/note]]. If your parents could afford to send you to university, it would probably be a Catholic one (i.e. Nijmegen or Tilburg), and if it wasn't, you would at least join a Catholic fraternity. Having completed your education and found a job somewhere, you would join a Catholic trade union; if your boss was also a Catholic, he would be a member of a Catholic employers' organisation. You would marry a Catholic girl (there was an old saying, ''twee geloven op één kussen, daar slaapt de duivel tussen'' - 'if two faiths are on one pillow, the Devil sleeps between them', expressing the taboo on inter-pillar marriage amongst the religious pillars), read a Catholic newspaper, listen to a Catholic radio station, station[[note]]This explains the very unique structure of the Dutch public broadcaster NPO. Unlike in other countries, NPO has no role on content. Rather, it is basically an organization that holds bandwidth and production facilities, and allocates public funds and airtime to broadcasting organizations owned by members of respective pillars. It is the responsibility of these organizations to produce their own content.[[/note]], vote for a Catholic party, buy from Catholic shopkeepers, and visit your Catholic friends. If you ever did something outrageous like listening to a Socialist radio station, buying from a Liberal shopkeeper or voting for a Protestant party, you faced social stigma and isolation.
8th Aug '14 10:07:11 AM MidnightRambler
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Pillarisation means that society was divided into a number of political and religious groups, called ''zuilen'' ("pillars"), and that there was a considerable degree of segregation between these pillars. Each pillar had its own institutions (schools, newspapers, political parties...) and members of different pillars rarely interacted with each other socially. Members of one pillar usually viewed the other pillars as different kinds of ScaryDogmaticAliens, although the political leaders got along fine behind the screens. Depending on which historian you ask, there were three to five pillars in the Netherlands:

to:

Pillarisation means that society was divided into a number of political and religious groups, called ''zuilen'' ("pillars"), and that there was a considerable degree of segregation between these pillars. Each pillar had its own institutions (schools, newspapers, political parties...) and members of different pillars rarely interacted with each other socially. Members of one pillar usually viewed the other pillars as different kinds of ScaryDogmaticAliens, although the political leaders got along fine behind the screens.scenes. Depending on which historian you ask, there were three to five pillars in the Netherlands:
11th Jun '14 4:23:23 PM Quag15
Is there an issue? Send a Message


A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in [[UsefulNotes/TheNetherlands the Netherlands]] approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium and UsefulNotes/WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).

to:

A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in [[UsefulNotes/TheNetherlands the Netherlands]] approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium UsefulNotes/{{Belgium}} and UsefulNotes/WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).
10th Jun '14 11:31:19 PM Quag15
Is there an issue? Send a Message


A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in the Netherlands approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium and UsefulNotes/WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).

to:

A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in [[UsefulNotes/TheNetherlands the Netherlands Netherlands]] approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium and UsefulNotes/WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).
8th May '14 11:29:17 AM LongLiveHumour
Is there an issue? Send a Message


A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in the Netherlands approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium and WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).

to:

A rather literal translation of the Dutch word ''verzuiling'', pillarisation was a curious social phenomenon that occurred in the Netherlands approximately from the late 19th century to TheSixties of the 20th. (It happened in some other places as well, most notably Belgium and WeimarGermany; UsefulNotes/WeimarGermany; in yet other places, it is still alive and kicking. However, this article will focus on the Netherlands, as that is where pillarisation was most pronounced).



In short, pillarisation, at its worst, took away most choices you had in life, and severely limited your options in the choices it did leave you. On the plus side, it was a way for very different groups to coexist peacefully without one group being worse off than another - and as mentioned, the political leaders got along fine, which was necessary in order to run the country as no one pillar had anything approaching a majority. In less civilised places, these political and religious differences would probably have led to [[TheTroubles violence]].

to:

In short, pillarisation, at its worst, took away most choices you had in life, and severely limited your options in the choices it did leave you. On the plus side, it was a way for very different groups to coexist peacefully without one group being worse off than another - and as mentioned, the political leaders got along fine, which was necessary in order to run the country as no one pillar had anything approaching a majority. In less civilised places, these political and religious differences would probably have led to [[TheTroubles [[UsefulNotes/TheTroubles violence]].
29th Jan '14 12:00:23 AM karstovich2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Pillarisation gradually [[StealthPun eroded]] during TheSixties. The baby-boom generation, known for their individualism and questioning of authority, didn't like being told how to live their lives by parents, politicians, preachers and teachers. New institutions appeared which had no ties to any pillar, and some of the existing institutions got rid of their ties with one [[ArtifactTitle (without changing their names, though)]]. However, the pillars didn't just vanish overnight. For example, it took until TheNoughties for traditional, pillarisation-era voter preferences to really wear away, leading to a much more fragmented and dynamic political landscape. And some groups, particularly the ''really'' Orthodox Protestants,[[note]]The ones, that is, who didn't get fed up and leave: the Afrikaners of South Africa and Holland Dutch of [[UsefulNotes/{{Michigan}} Western Michigan]] are both largely descended from the ''gereformeerden'' who thought that the Netherlands was a lost cause and decided to start new lives where they could be as strict and isolated as they liked.[[/note]] are still rather isolated and inward-looking today.

to:

Pillarisation gradually [[StealthPun eroded]] during TheSixties. The baby-boom generation, known for their individualism and questioning of authority, didn't like being told how to live their lives by parents, politicians, preachers and teachers. New institutions appeared which had no ties to any pillar, and some of the existing institutions got rid of their ties with one [[ArtifactTitle (without changing their names, though)]]. However, the pillars didn't just vanish overnight. For example, it took until TheNoughties for traditional, pillarisation-era voter preferences to really wear away, leading to a much more fragmented and dynamic political landscape. And some groups, particularly the ''really'' Orthodox Protestants,[[note]]The ones, that is, who didn't get fed up and leave: the Afrikaners of South Africa UsefulNotes/SouthAfrica and Holland Dutch of [[UsefulNotes/{{Michigan}} Western Michigan]] are both largely descended from the ''gereformeerden'' who thought that the Netherlands was a lost cause and decided to start new lives where they could be as strict and isolated as they liked.[[/note]] are still rather isolated and inward-looking today.
28th Jan '14 11:58:48 PM karstovich2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Protestants:''' The dominant group before pillarisation, who still had considerable influence but not as much as in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were divided into two groups, considered separate pillars by some: ''hervormden'' and ''gereformeerden''. Both words mean "reformed" and are impossible to tell apart in any language except Dutch. For the purpose of this discussion, "Moderate Protestants" (the ''hervormden'') and "Orthodox Protestants" (the ''gereformeerden'') will do. Both, especially the latter, were viewed by the other pillars as strait-laced Puritans who wanted to impose their idea of morality on the entire country.

to:

* '''Protestants:''' The dominant group before pillarisation, who still had considerable influence but not as much as in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were divided into two groups, considered separate pillars by some: ''hervormden'' and ''gereformeerden''. Both words mean "reformed" and are impossible to tell apart in any language except Dutch. For the purpose of this discussion, "Moderate Protestants" (the ''hervormden'') and "Orthodox Protestants" (the ''gereformeerden'') will do. Both, especially the latter, were viewed by the other pillars as strait-laced straitlaced Puritans who wanted to impose their idea of morality on the entire country.
1st Aug '13 3:36:55 AM SeptimusHeap
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Liberals:''' [[hottip:Note for readers lacking political education:In European countries, 'liberal' means something entirely different than it does in the US. See the description of 'classical liberalism' in UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies - that's the kind of 'liberals' we're talking about here.]] Not considered a separate pillar by some, due to their small numbers. The Liberals were in many respects the polar opposite of the Socialists: they were more or less aligned with the interests of big business and the upper class, which is why there were hardly any working-class Liberals. Viewed by the other pillars as cynical hedonists who didn't care for morality or religion, but all the more for money.

to:

* '''Liberals:''' [[hottip:Note [[labelnote:Note for readers lacking political education:In education]]In European countries, 'liberal' means something entirely different than it does in the US. See the description of 'classical liberalism' in UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies - that's the kind of 'liberals' we're talking about here.]] [[/labelnote]] Not considered a separate pillar by some, due to their small numbers. The Liberals were in many respects the polar opposite of the Socialists: they were more or less aligned with the interests of big business and the upper class, which is why there were hardly any working-class Liberals. Viewed by the other pillars as cynical hedonists who didn't care for morality or religion, but all the more for money.



For example, suppose you were a boy born around 1900 to Dutch Catholic parents. You would go to a Catholic primary school, and join a Catholic youth club with which you would go on Catholic summer camps. You would go to a Catholic secondary school, as well; if you wanted to take up a sport - say, football - you would join a Catholic football club [[hottip:*:school sports teams never really caught on in the Netherlands]]. If your parents could afford to send you to university, it would probably be a Catholic one (i.e. Nijmegen or Tilburg), and if it wasn't, you would at least join a Catholic fraternity. Having completed your education and found a job somewhere, you would join a Catholic trade union; if your boss was also a Catholic, he would be a member of a Catholic employers' organisation. You would marry a Catholic girl (there was an old saying, ''twee geloven op één kussen, daar slaapt de duivel tussen'' - 'if two faiths are on one pillow, the Devil sleeps between them', expressing the taboo on inter-pillar marriage amongst the religious pillars), read a Catholic newspaper, listen to a Catholic radio station, vote for a Catholic party, buy from Catholic shopkeepers, and visit your Catholic friends. If you ever did something outrageous like listening to a Socialist radio station, buying from a Liberal shopkeeper or voting for a Protestant party, you faced social stigma and isolation.

to:

For example, suppose you were a boy born around 1900 to Dutch Catholic parents. You would go to a Catholic primary school, and join a Catholic youth club with which you would go on Catholic summer camps. You would go to a Catholic secondary school, as well; if you wanted to take up a sport - say, football - you would join a Catholic football club [[hottip:*:school [[note]]school sports teams never really caught on in the Netherlands]].Netherlands[[/note]]. If your parents could afford to send you to university, it would probably be a Catholic one (i.e. Nijmegen or Tilburg), and if it wasn't, you would at least join a Catholic fraternity. Having completed your education and found a job somewhere, you would join a Catholic trade union; if your boss was also a Catholic, he would be a member of a Catholic employers' organisation. You would marry a Catholic girl (there was an old saying, ''twee geloven op één kussen, daar slaapt de duivel tussen'' - 'if two faiths are on one pillow, the Devil sleeps between them', expressing the taboo on inter-pillar marriage amongst the religious pillars), read a Catholic newspaper, listen to a Catholic radio station, vote for a Catholic party, buy from Catholic shopkeepers, and visit your Catholic friends. If you ever did something outrageous like listening to a Socialist radio station, buying from a Liberal shopkeeper or voting for a Protestant party, you faced social stigma and isolation.
This list shows the last 10 events of 25. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.Pillarisation