History UsefulNotes / NoMoreEmperors

26th Nov '17 5:42:56 PM nombretomado
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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai Yuan Shikai]], called out of retirement to lead the Beiyang Army against the forces of the Revolutionaries in 1911, turned on the Emperor and used his clout as a military leader to declare an end to the Manchu Empire of the Qing. He went on to use his influence to secure his appointment to the Presidency of the Republic of China. Yuan was, though more popular than the Manchu, still not a particularly popular leader as he conceded most of the '21 Demands' made by ImperialJapan upon threat of war (which asked for economic concessions in North China/Manchuria) and later ''tried to declare himself Emperor''. Both moves were to be expected - in Chinese history, those who overthrew the previous dynasty often started their own. However, most of the country's middle classes wanted a Republic, and a democratic one at that. Yuan was forced to resign as Emperor in 1916, and died soon after. His rule undid many of the successes of the 1911 Revolution, most notably all hope of a central and stable government, let alone a democratic one. Under his rule the different regions of China slowly drifted apart, and upon his death the country fragmented.

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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai Yuan Shikai]], called out of retirement to lead the Beiyang Army against the forces of the Revolutionaries in 1911, turned on the Emperor and used his clout as a military leader to declare an end to the Manchu Empire of the Qing. He went on to use his influence to secure his appointment to the Presidency of the Republic of China. Yuan was, though more popular than the Manchu, still not a particularly popular leader as he conceded most of the '21 Demands' made by ImperialJapan UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan upon threat of war (which asked for economic concessions in North China/Manchuria) and later ''tried to declare himself Emperor''. Both moves were to be expected - in Chinese history, those who overthrew the previous dynasty often started their own. However, most of the country's middle classes wanted a Republic, and a democratic one at that. Yuan was forced to resign as Emperor in 1916, and died soon after. His rule undid many of the successes of the 1911 Revolution, most notably all hope of a central and stable government, let alone a democratic one. Under his rule the different regions of China slowly drifted apart, and upon his death the country fragmented.
25th Nov '17 11:12:56 AM TheWildWestPyro
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** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Peifu Wu Peifu]], 'the Philosopher General'.

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** [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Peifu Wu Peifu]], 'the Philosopher General'. Known for regularly outflanking his enemies in battle and such an ardent nationalist that he ''refused'' to enter any foreign concessions, even when his clique fell to the Kuomintang army.
15th Sep '17 2:34:55 PM TheWildWestPyro
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Sun Yat-sen (also known as Sun Yixian [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen among other names]], based on the current Pinyin scheme of transcribing the Chinese language into the Latin alphabet) failed (1911-)revolutionary and 'Father of the (Chinese) Nation', set up the Chinese Guomindang ([[UsefulNotes/WhyMaoChangedHisName GMD for Guomindang or KMT for Kuomintang]]) or National(ist) Party in Guangzhou in 1919. The old 'Guomindang' still existed, but the Warlords had made it irrelevant in most of China. This new KMT was more of a coalition, with various wings possessing different ideas on how a Chinese republic should be run. Political leanings ranged from liberal to staunchly conservative, while other wings focused on styles of government, ranging from authoritarian to democratic. As Sun and Chiang took advice from ''all'' the different wings at certain points, the KMT was effectively politically centre as a party for many decades. Sun Yat-sen had been elected President of the Republic in 1917, but the post had become meaningless by that point. The Kuomintang accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisers like [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Borodin Borodin]], at whose insistence socialists were also allowed into the KMT. In 1923, UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek, by now, brother-in-law of Sun and likely successor (also known as Jiang Jieshi) became the director of Whampoa Military Academy, the core of Sun's vision for a China unified by force. Sun died in 1925.

to:

Sun Yat-sen (also known as Sun Yixian [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen among other names]], based on the current Pinyin scheme of transcribing the Chinese language into the Latin alphabet) failed (1911-)revolutionary and 'Father of the (Chinese) Nation', set up the Chinese Guomindang ([[UsefulNotes/WhyMaoChangedHisName GMD for Guomindang or KMT for Kuomintang]]) or National(ist) Party in Guangzhou in 1919. The old 'Guomindang' still existed, but the Warlords had made it irrelevant in most of China. This new KMT was more of a coalition, with various wings possessing different ideas on how a Chinese republic should be run. Political leanings ranged from liberal to staunchly conservative, while other wings focused on styles of government, ranging from authoritarian to democratic. As Sun and Chiang took advice from ''all'' the different wings at certain points, the KMT was effectively politically centre centrist as a political party for many decades. Sun Yat-sen had been elected President of the Republic in 1917, but the post had become meaningless by that point. The Kuomintang accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisers like [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Borodin Borodin]], at whose insistence socialists were also allowed into the KMT. In 1923, UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek, by now, brother-in-law of Sun and likely successor (also known as Jiang Jieshi) became the director of Whampoa Military Academy, the core of Sun's vision for a China unified by force. Sun died in 1925.
15th Sep '17 2:33:58 PM TheWildWestPyro
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Sun Yat-sen (also known as Sun Yixian [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen among other names]], based on the current Pinyin scheme of transcribing the Chinese language into the Latin alphabet) failed (1911-)revolutionary and 'Father of the (Chinese) Nation', set up the Chinese Guomindang ([[UsefulNotes/WhyMaoChangedHisName GMD Guomindang or KMT for Kuomintang]]) or National(ist) Party in Guangzhou in 1919. The old 'Guomindang' still existed, but the Warlords had made it irrelevant in most of China. This new KMT was more of a coalition, with various wings possessing different ideas on how a Chinese republic should be run. Political leanings ranged from liberal to staunchly conservative, while other wings focused on styles of government, ranging from authoritarian to democratic. As Sun and Chiang took advice from ''all'' the different wings at certain points, the KMT was effectively non-aligned as a political party for many decades. Sun Yat-sen had been elected President of the Republic in 1917, but the post had become meaningless by that point. The Kuomintang accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisers like [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Borodin Borodin]], at whose insistence socialists were also allowed into the KMT. In 1923, UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek, by now, brother-in-law of Sun and likely successor (also known as Jiang Jieshi) became the director of Whampoa Military Academy, the core of Sun's vision for a China unified by force. Sun died in 1925.

to:

Sun Yat-sen (also known as Sun Yixian [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen among other names]], based on the current Pinyin scheme of transcribing the Chinese language into the Latin alphabet) failed (1911-)revolutionary and 'Father of the (Chinese) Nation', set up the Chinese Guomindang ([[UsefulNotes/WhyMaoChangedHisName GMD for Guomindang or KMT for Kuomintang]]) or National(ist) Party in Guangzhou in 1919. The old 'Guomindang' still existed, but the Warlords had made it irrelevant in most of China. This new KMT was more of a coalition, with various wings possessing different ideas on how a Chinese republic should be run. Political leanings ranged from liberal to staunchly conservative, while other wings focused on styles of government, ranging from authoritarian to democratic. As Sun and Chiang took advice from ''all'' the different wings at certain points, the KMT was effectively non-aligned politically centre as a political party for many decades. Sun Yat-sen had been elected President of the Republic in 1917, but the post had become meaningless by that point. The Kuomintang accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisers like [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Borodin Borodin]], at whose insistence socialists were also allowed into the KMT. In 1923, UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek, by now, brother-in-law of Sun and likely successor (also known as Jiang Jieshi) became the director of Whampoa Military Academy, the core of Sun's vision for a China unified by force. Sun died in 1925.
16th Aug '17 3:00:06 AM ddyingle
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* VillainProtagonist: No matter what, no side in the conflict could be called "good". Both Nationalists and Communists commited absurd amount of atrocities, combined with vantom corruption and constant backstabbing in respective parties.

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* VillainProtagonist: No matter what, no side in the conflict could be called "good". Both Nationalists and Communists commited absurd amount of atrocities, combined with vantom wanton corruption and constant backstabbing in respective parties.
16th Aug '17 2:58:06 AM ddyingle
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* AStormIsComing: The short period between Japanese surrender and the resumption of the civil war was relatively peaceful (at least when compared with the slaughter going for past 12 years), but everyone was aware it won't last for long. GMD used that time to desperately storage as much supplies and conscript as many people as they could, fully knowing they will have to abandon certain areas pretty soon. Meanwhile, Communists were forming entire divisions using Japanese hardware handled over by Soviets.

to:

* AStormIsComing: The short period between Japanese surrender and the resumption of the civil war was relatively peaceful (at least when compared with the slaughter going for past 12 years), but everyone was aware it won't last for long. GMD used that time to desperately storage as much supplies and conscript as many people as they could, fully knowing they will have to abandon certain areas pretty soon. Meanwhile, Communists were forming entire divisions using Japanese hardware handled handed over by Soviets.
16th Aug '17 2:55:49 AM ddyingle
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* ScrewThisImOuttaHere: The KMT could probably fight for another decade, if not even get another cease-fire, but then the [[DisasterDominoes Liaoshen Campaign happend]]. The entire North collapsed, taken over by Communists, in the process wiping out the GMD's American-trained [[BadassArmy New 1st Army]]. It hit morale so bad, the biggest enemy of KMT became widespread desertion. Entire brigades were either outright disappearing or, which was far worse, switching sides and joining the PLA, thus providing Communists with well-trained soldiers, capable of using tanks and heavy ordnance.

to:

* ScrewThisImOuttaHere: The KMT could probably fight for another decade, if not even get another cease-fire, but then the [[DisasterDominoes Liaoshen Campaign happend]].happened]]. The entire North collapsed, taken over by Communists, in the process wiping out the GMD's American-trained [[BadassArmy New 1st Army]]. It hit hitted morale so bad, the biggest enemy of KMT became widespread desertion. Entire brigades were either outright disappearing or, which was far worse, switching sides and joining the PLA, thus providing Communists with well-trained soldiers, capable of using tanks and heavy ordnance.
16th Aug '17 2:52:57 AM ddyingle
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* ReassignedToAntarctica: Being send to China was considered as a dead-end for military career in US Army. General Joseph Stilwell took it [[{{Understatement}} really, really bad]] when instead of commanding [[WorldWarII/WarInEuropeAndAfrica North African campaign]], we was personally selected by Roosevelt to keep China fighting with Japan. It ended up with open and irrational disdain for Jiang Jieshi and Claire Lee Chennault (commander of the Flying Tigers and the USAAF in China), ''seriously'' hampering support for the KMT with slanderous reports sent back to the US.

to:

* ReassignedToAntarctica: Being send to China was considered as a dead-end for military career in US Army. General Joseph Stilwell took it [[{{Understatement}} really, really bad]] when instead of commanding [[WorldWarII/WarInEuropeAndAfrica North African campaign]], we he was personally selected by Roosevelt to keep China fighting with Japan. It ended up with open and irrational disdain for Jiang Jieshi and Claire Lee Chennault (commander of the Flying Tigers and the USAAF in China), ''seriously'' hampering support for the KMT with slanderous reports sent back to the US.
16th Aug '17 2:45:19 AM ddyingle
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** The party initially had less than few dozens of members and that situation kept going for few initial years. With zero public support, badly organised, fully dependend on Soviet advisors and monetary support, and worst of them all, completely detatched ideologically from Chinese reality, the party was barely functional. Cue few years later being the main and almost obsessive target of Jiang Jieshi's expeditions and then anything after the Long March is pretty much a legend. Currently the Party is still rulling continental China and it will stay around for at least a while longer.

to:

** The party initially had less than few dozens of members and that situation kept going for few initial years. With zero public support, badly organised, fully dependend dependent on Soviet advisors and monetary support, and worst of them all, completely detatched ideologically from Chinese reality, the party was barely functional. Cue few years later being the main and almost obsessive target of Jiang Jieshi's expeditions and then anything after the Long March is pretty much a legend. Currently the Party is still rulling continental China and it will stay around for at least a while longer.
11th Aug '17 8:11:54 PM TheWildWestPyro
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* AttackAttackAttack: One of the biggest problems of the KMT's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Revolutionary_Army National Revolutionary Army]]. Jiang Jieshi was adamant on constant offensives. While this worked against barely cohesive warlord armies, it was suicide to pull against Japanese, who had clear technological superiority, greater discipline and were far better-supplied. Those killed in the opening months were most of the KMT's best, German-trained divisions, wasted on unwinnable battles. It took another few months of constant defeats for Jiang to finally wise up a bit. But at that point the NRA was a pale shadow its former self, worsening an already dire situation from the first day of the war. However, it should be noted the fierce, almost fanatical defense forced the IJA to commit much more troops that they wanted or could supply in China. This helped the KMT to bargain for Allied support once [=WW2=] started and the Chinese interests of the UK and the USA were in danger.

to:

* AttackAttackAttack: One of the biggest problems of the KMT's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Revolutionary_Army National Revolutionary Army]]. Jiang Jieshi was adamant on constant offensives. While this worked against barely cohesive warlord armies, it was suicide to pull against Japanese, who had clear technological superiority, greater discipline and were far better-supplied. Those killed in the opening months were most of the KMT's best, German-trained divisions, wasted on unwinnable battles. It took another few months of constant defeats for Jiang to finally wise up a bit. But at that point point, the NRA was a pale shadow of its former self, worsening an already dire situation from the first day of the war. However, it should be noted the fierce, almost fanatical defense forced the IJA to commit much more troops that they wanted or could supply in China. This helped the KMT to bargain for Allied support once [=WW2=] started and the Chinese interests of the UK and the USA were in danger.
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