History UsefulNotes / LetatCestMoi

24th May '16 11:21:52 PM Doug86
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* ''Charibert'' (reigned 561-567). Son of Clotaire I. Ruled from Paris. Legendary brutal. Had several wives, concubines, and daughters, but no male heirs. His early death resulted in the spilitting of his areas among his brothers. His daughter Bertha married king Æthelberh of Kent (reigned c.590-616) and is credited with bringing Frankish culture and Christianity to Anglo-Saxon areas.

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* ''Charibert'' (reigned 561-567). Son of Clotaire I. Ruled from Paris. Legendary brutal. Had several wives, concubines, and daughters, but no male heirs. His early death resulted in the spilitting of his areas among his brothers. His daughter Bertha married king Æthelberh [=Æ=]thelberh of Kent (reigned c.590-616) and is credited with bringing Frankish culture and Christianity to Anglo-Saxon areas.
12th May '16 9:25:26 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.

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* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[TheKnightsTemplar [[UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.
21st Feb '16 6:38:02 AM Menshevik
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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.

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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars with his arch-rival Charles V of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (Carlos I of Spain) and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.



* ''Henri III'' (reigned 1574-1589) was the last surviving son of Henri II and Catherine de Medici, and his mother's favorite. He loved [[CampStraight fashion and crossdressing]], and famously attempted to court Queen [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth I of England]]. His two most famous rivals were [[OneSteveLimit also both named Henri]]: his cousin Henri de Guise, known as 'le balafre', meaning [[RedBaron Scarface]]; and his other cousin ([[KissingCousins and brother-in-law]]) Henri de Navarre. In 1588, Henri had Scarface assassinated, and was himself murdered a year later by a monk, uttering "''[[FamousLastWords Ah, le méchant moine ! Il m'a tué !]]''" ("''Ah! The evil monk! He killed me!''"). He had no children, and the throne passed to Henri de Navarre.

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* ''Henri III'' (reigned 1574-1589) was the last surviving son of Henri II and Catherine de Medici, and his mother's favorite. He loved [[CampStraight fashion and crossdressing]], and famously attempted to court Queen [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth I of England]]. His two most famous rivals were [[OneSteveLimit also both named Henri]]: his cousin Henri de Guise, known as 'le balafre', balafré', meaning [[RedBaron Scarface]]; and his other cousin ([[KissingCousins and brother-in-law]]) Henri de Navarre. In 1588, Henri had Scarface assassinated, and was himself murdered a year later by a monk, uttering "''[[FamousLastWords Ah, le méchant moine ! Il m'a tué !]]''" ("''Ah! The evil monk! He killed me!''"). He had no children, and the throne passed to Henri de Navarre.



* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henre le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre, and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIII'' (reigned 1610-1643) was Henri and Marie's eldest son, and became king at the age of eight. His marriage to Anne, daughter of King Felipe III of Spain, was childless for an astonishing 23 years before Anne surprised everyone by giving birth to two sons. The elder, of course, was heir apparent; the younger was given the title ''Duke of Orléans'' and founded a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon that proved to be very important about 200 years later. Cardinal Richelieu became his lawful first minister, even if fictions [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade often portray him as a traitor]] - to be fair, he could be [[EvilChancellor very evil]] with his opponents. At the end of his reign, Louis had a [[HoYay passionate relationship]] with the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, who tried to stir up shit with Richelieu and got beheaded for his trouble. Louis XIII and his queen appear as characters in Dumas' ''Literature/TheThreeMusketeers'' and the movies based on the novel. He died in 1643.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIV'' (reigned 1643-1715) , known as "The Sun King", is the one French king almost everyone knows the name of, mostly due to his love of having portraits and statues made of himself, naming places after himself, and his remarkable 72-year-long reign, a record for a European monarch. Came to the throne at a time when France was suffering from noble rebellions and a long-running war with Spain, both of which Mazarin skilfully ended before proceeding to vastly expand France's cultural, military and territorial power, although he almost bankrupted the country in doing so. The title of this page is derived from a quote attributed to him, but probably [[BeamMeUpScotty not something he ever actually said]] (Though it does illustrate his view of power). When he appears in media, expect references to ''The ManInTheIronMask'' (who may or may not have been his identical twin brother) and [[EveryoneLooksSexierIfFrench lots of hot chicks in low-cut ballgowns]]. By the time he died in 1715, just short of his 77th birthday, he had outlived his eldest son, grandson, and great-grandson, and was succeeded by a five-year-old great-grandson.

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* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henre ''Henri le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre, Navarre (through female succession), and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610.
1610. Starting with Henri IV, the Bourbon kings' official title was that of a King of France and Navarra.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIII'' (reigned 1610-1643) was Henri and Marie's eldest elder son, and became king at the age of eight. His marriage to Anne, daughter of King Felipe III of Spain, was childless for an astonishing 23 years before Anne surprised everyone by giving birth to two sons. The elder, of course, was heir apparent; the younger was given the title ''Duke of Orléans'' and founded a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon that proved to be very important about 200 years later. Cardinal Richelieu became his lawful first minister, even if fictions [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade often portray him as a traitor]] - to be fair, he could be [[EvilChancellor very evil]] with his opponents. At the end of his reign, Louis had a [[HoYay passionate relationship]] with the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, who tried to stir up shit with Richelieu and got beheaded for his trouble. Louis XIII and his queen appear as characters in Dumas' ''Literature/TheThreeMusketeers'' and the movies based on the novel. He died in 1643.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIV'' (reigned 1643-1715) , known as "The "Louis le Grand" (Louis the Great) and "le Roi-Soleil" (The Sun King", King), is the one French king almost everyone knows the name of, mostly due to his love of having portraits and statues made of himself, naming places after himself, and his remarkable 72-year-long reign, a record for a European monarch. Came to the throne at a time when France was suffering from noble rebellions and a long-running war with Spain, both of which Mazarin skilfully ended before proceeding to vastly expand France's cultural, military and territorial power, although he almost bankrupted the country in doing so. The title of this page is derived from a quote attributed to him, but probably [[BeamMeUpScotty not something he ever actually said]] (Though it does illustrate his view of power). When he appears in media, expect references to ''The ManInTheIronMask'' (who may or may not have been his identical twin brother) and [[EveryoneLooksSexierIfFrench lots of hot chicks in low-cut ballgowns]]. By the time he died in 1715, just short of his 77th birthday, he had outlived his eldest son, grandson, and great-grandson, and was succeeded by a five-year-old great-grandson.



** The phrase "Après moi, le déluge" (After me, the Flood) is attributed to him, suggesting he foresaw the Revolution after his death. In modern parlance, the expression is usually used to criticize politicians who favour short-term gains regardless of future hardships -- basically, "after I'm gone, anything that happens won't be my problem anyway".

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** The phrase "Après moi, le déluge" (After me, the Flood) is attributed to him, him (or the Marquise de Pompadour), suggesting he foresaw the Revolution after his death. In modern parlance, the expression is usually used to criticize politicians who favour short-term gains regardless of future hardships -- basically, "after I'm gone, anything that happens won't be my problem anyway".



* ''[[TheWoobie Napoléon II]]'' (reigned 1815) was Napoléon's son by his second wife, a Habsburg princess. After his father's death, he lived at his maternal grandfather's palace in Austria and never really ruled in France. He died in 1832, aged twenty-one. The ill-fated Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was rumored to be his biological son.

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* ''[[TheWoobie Napoléon II]]'' (reigned 1815) 1814 and 1815[[note]] Both in 1814 and in 1815 Napoleon I first tried to abdicate in favour of his son, but the Allies would have none of it, the first time he was made to abdicate again unconditionally, the second time they did not even bother. [[/note]]), better known as the King of Rome (the title his father gave him in 1811 in analogy to that of the Prince of Wales (England and the United Kingdom) and of the Prince of Asturias (Spain) and which he lost in 1814) or the Duke of Reichstadt (since 1818) was Napoléon's son by his second wife, a Habsburg princess. the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria (a niece of Queen Marie-Antoinette). After his father's death, first abdication, he lived at his maternal grandfather's palace in Austria and never really ruled in France. He died in 1832, aged twenty-one. The ill-fated Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was rumored to be his biological son.
7th Feb '16 10:24:39 AM nombretomado
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* ''Louis VII the Young'' (reigned 1137-1180) was Louis VI's son. Originally intended for the clergy, he was plucked from his monastery and made heir after his elder brother was killed when his horse was tripped by a "diabolical pig". He married the beautiful heiress Alienòr d'Aquitània but she found him 'more monk than king'. After several childless years, a war sparked by her sister running off with his cousin, a disastrous trip on the [[TheCrusades Second Crusade]] (because he felt guilty after [[KillItWithFire burning down a church and all the inhabitants of a little town called Vitry-en-Perthois]]), and accusations that [[IncestIsRelative Alienòr was cheating on him with her own uncle]], Louis and Alienòr divorced. She married the future king of England; he remarried twice and finally got his long-desired son and heir in 1165. He died in 1180.

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* ''Louis VII the Young'' (reigned 1137-1180) was Louis VI's son. Originally intended for the clergy, he was plucked from his monastery and made heir after his elder brother was killed when his horse was tripped by a "diabolical pig". He married the beautiful heiress Alienòr d'Aquitània but she found him 'more monk than king'. After several childless years, a war sparked by her sister running off with his cousin, a disastrous trip on the [[TheCrusades [[UsefulNotes/TheCrusades Second Crusade]] (because he felt guilty after [[KillItWithFire burning down a church and all the inhabitants of a little town called Vitry-en-Perthois]]), and accusations that [[IncestIsRelative Alienòr was cheating on him with her own uncle]], Louis and Alienòr divorced. She married the future king of England; he remarried twice and finally got his long-desired son and heir in 1165. He died in 1180.
28th Jan '16 5:42:19 PM MarkLungo
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* ''Napoléon III'' (reigned 1852-1870) was both the first president and last emperor of France. A nephew of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte I, he got himself elected president in 1848, and then Emperor of the French in 1852. In 1870 he was deposed and died in exile three years later. Was a successful domestic leader, building a lot of important public works and infrastructure, but proved to be an international blusterer and sometimes blunderer. He more than any other French monarch helped catalyze its' rise as a modern colonial power. He won wars from Tunisia to Vietnam and annexing Indochina, Tunisia, much of sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific islands to the French Empire. In addition, [[GambitPileup he willingly allowed himself into being manipulated into allowing Sardinia to support France and Britain in the CrimeanWar, paving the way for Count Camillo Benso di Cavour]] (MagnificentBastard No. 1) to "you owe me one" that led to the crushing of their mutual enemy the Habsburg Empire and allowing the unification of Italy, giving Austria a kneecap it would never recover from. However, he fumbled into a long-lasting war in Mexico after trying to conquer it by installing a puppet ruler, giving that country CincoDeMayo as a national holiday. Also proved to be ridiculously susceptible to [[MagnificentBastard Magnificent Bastardry]], falling for the bait that UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck (Magnificent Bastard No. 2) had laid, starting the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar and allowing for the establishment of the bane of France... [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany a united Germany]].

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* ''Napoléon III'' (reigned 1852-1870) was both the first president and last emperor of France. A nephew of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte I, he got himself elected president in 1848, and then Emperor of the French in 1852. In 1870 he was deposed and died in exile three years later. Was a successful domestic leader, building a lot of important public works and infrastructure, but proved to be an international blusterer and sometimes blunderer. He more than any other French monarch helped catalyze its' rise as a modern colonial power. He won wars from Tunisia to Vietnam and annexing Indochina, Tunisia, much of sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific islands to the French Empire. In addition, [[GambitPileup he willingly allowed himself into being manipulated into allowing Sardinia to support France and Britain in the CrimeanWar, paving the way for Count Camillo Benso di Cavour]] (MagnificentBastard No. 1) to "you owe me one" that led to the crushing of their mutual enemy the Habsburg Empire and allowing the unification of Italy, UsefulNotes/{{Italy}}, giving Austria UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} a kneecap it would never recover from. However, he fumbled into a long-lasting war in Mexico UsefulNotes/{{Mexico}} after trying to conquer it by installing a puppet ruler, giving that country CincoDeMayo UsefulNotes/CincoDeMayo as a national holiday. Also proved to be ridiculously susceptible to [[MagnificentBastard Magnificent Bastardry]], falling for the bait that UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck (Magnificent Bastard No. 2) had laid, starting the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar and allowing for the establishment of the bane of France... [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany a united Germany]].



* UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte: Too much to count.

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* UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte: Too much to count.count.
----
14th Nov '15 3:24:01 PM karstovich2
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* ''Robert II the Pious'' (reigned 996-1031) was Hugues' son, and [[IronicNickname best known for his marital problems]]. His first wife was a much older Italian princess, Rozala, whom he dumped as soon as his father died. His second wife was Berthe de Bourgogne, a marriage that got him excommunicated for consanguinity (marriage within forbidden bounds of kinship). He finally divorced her in 999 after their only child was born deformed, and remarried to [[GodSaveUsFromTheQueen Constança d'Arle]]. Constança was known to be vicious, to say the least, and had a friend of Robert's murdered right in front of him when she suspected the man of getting between her and Robert. Enraged, Robert tried to divorce her and remarry Berthe, but was unable, and finally took Constança back. She incited wars between him and three of their sons, and he died in 1031 while fighting his children.
* ''Henri I'' (reigned 1031-1060) was Robert's son, and began his reign in open warfare with his own mother. His most notable achievement was marrying the exotic and cultured Russian princess Anna of Kiev (famously, she signed their marriage contract in neat Cyrillic letters, while her illiterate husband signed with an 'X'.) He died in 1060. He is the only french king named Henri to die peacefully.

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* ''Robert II the Pious'' (reigned 996-1031) was Hugues' son, and [[IronicNickname best known for his marital problems]]. His first wife was a much older Italian princess, Rozala, whom he dumped as soon as his father died. His second wife was Berthe de Bourgogne, a marriage that got him excommunicated for consanguinity (marriage within forbidden bounds of kinship). He finally divorced her in 999 after their only child was born deformed, and remarried to [[GodSaveUsFromTheQueen Constança d'Arle]]. Constança was known to be vicious, to say the least, and had a friend of Robert's murdered right in front of him when she suspected the man of getting between her and Robert. Enraged, Robert tried to divorce her and remarry Berthe, but was unable, and finally took Constança back. She incited wars between him and three of their sons, and he died in 1031 while fighting his children.
children. Robert got his sobriquet due to his devout Catholicism, which unfortunately extended to reviving the Roman Imperial practice of burning heretics at the stake (and otherwise treating heresy harshly), and encouraging pogroms against the Jews.
* ''Henri I'' (reigned 1031-1060) was Robert's son, and began his reign in open warfare with his own mother. His most notable achievement was marrying the exotic and cultured Russian princess Anna of Kiev (famously, she signed their marriage contract in neat Cyrillic letters, while her illiterate husband signed with an 'X'.) He died in 1060. He is the only french French king named Henri to die peacefully.
14th Nov '15 1:07:37 PM karstovich2
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* ''Hugues Capet'' (reigned 987-996). Grandson of Robert I. He had been a major mover-and-shaker in France from the reign of Louis IV until his own election as king in 987. His dynasty, the Capetians, is the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in European history; Capetians still sit on the thrones of modern-day Spain and Luxembourg. Something of a MagnificentBastard; although the powers of the French King had been weak (Capet himself risked being held for ransom if he left his bailiwick of the Ile-De-France), he was able to have his son Robert crowned as co-monarch during his own rule; this practice (which continued for quite some time) kept the Crown lands away from the Frankish partible-inheritance laws and enabled his successors to gradually centralize power (if there is one king, and he dies, then the royal land[[note]]''Not'', by this point, the royal title or the kingdom; the land at issue was the royal demesne, i.e. the land the king owned/ruled as local lord without any great nobles in the way. The smaller the demesne, the poorer the king, the harder it is to keep the nobles in line. On the other hand, keep your demesne intact, and you can expand the demesne by making strategic marriages to heiresses, figuring out ways to take land from nobles by force, and sometimes just outright buying it.[[/note]] is divided among his sons; but if there are ''two'' kings, and one dies, the surviving one keeps the whole thing--talk about LoopholeAbuse!). His nickname comes from the fact that he often wore a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cope cope]] (''chape'' in French) because he was lay abbot of Saint-Martin-de-Tours.

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* ''Hugues Capet'' (reigned 987-996). Grandson of Robert I. He had been a major mover-and-shaker in France from the reign of Louis IV until his own election as king in 987. His dynasty, the Capetians, is the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in European history; Capetians still sit on the thrones of modern-day Spain and Luxembourg. Something of a MagnificentBastard; although the powers of the French King had been weak (Capet himself risked being held for ransom if he left his bailiwick of the Ile-De-France), he was able to have his son Robert crowned as co-monarch during his own rule; this practice (which continued for quite some time) kept the Crown lands away from the Frankish partible-inheritance laws and enabled his successors to gradually centralize power (if there is one king, and he dies, then the royal land[[note]]''Not'', by this point, the royal title or the kingdom; the land at issue was the royal demesne, i.e. the land the king owned/ruled as local lord without any great nobles in the way.way; the demesne was the source of a disproportionately large part of the royal income, as the king could (1) be more certain that tax revenue would be assessed and sent to his treasury, and (2) much of the wealth in the demesne, like the land, was his personal property. The smaller the demesne, the poorer the king, the harder it is to keep the nobles in line. On the other hand, keep your demesne intact, and you can expand the demesne by making strategic marriages to heiresses, figuring out ways to take land from nobles by force, and sometimes just outright buying it.[[/note]] is divided among his sons; but if there are ''two'' kings, and one dies, the surviving one keeps the whole thing--talk about LoopholeAbuse!). His nickname comes from the fact that he often wore a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cope cope]] (''chape'' in French) because he was lay abbot of Saint-Martin-de-Tours.
11th Nov '15 7:57:39 PM karstovich2
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* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), known to this day in France as ''le bon roi Henri'' (Good King Henry), was the king of Navarre, and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He was stabbed to death by a fanatic in 1610. He really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]].

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* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), known to this day also called ''Henre le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in France as ''le bon roi Henri'' (Good King Henry), French historiography, was the king of Navarre, and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was stabbed remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to death by this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a fanatic in 1610. big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]].ceremony]] in 1610.
4th Sep '15 7:54:01 PM nombretomado
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* NapoleonBonaparte: Too much to count.

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* NapoleonBonaparte: UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte: Too much to count.
6th Aug '15 8:18:18 PM karstovich2
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''For the five French republics and other regimes, see UsefulNotes/FrenchPoliticalSystem.''

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''For the five French republics and republics, as well as all the other regimes, French regimes since Louis XVI lost his head in 1793, see UsefulNotes/FrenchPoliticalSystem.''''
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