History UsefulNotes / LetatCestMoi

1st Nov '16 1:53:21 PM Morgenthaler
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* ''Charles V [[MagnificentBastard the Wise]]'' (reigned 1364-1380) was Jean's son. Through a combination of pluck, bribery, and dirty fighting (often performed by the Constable [[BadAss Bertrand du Guesclin]], who once conquered a castle by [[MagnificentBastard dressing his soldiers like the opponent]]), he managed to recover much of the territory the English had seized from the French crown. He died in 1380, leaving the throne to his [[AChildShallLeadThem 12-year-old son]].

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* ''Charles V [[MagnificentBastard the Wise]]'' (reigned 1364-1380) was Jean's son. Through a combination of pluck, bribery, and dirty fighting (often performed by the Constable [[BadAss Bertrand du Guesclin]], Guesclin, who once conquered a castle by [[MagnificentBastard dressing his soldiers like the opponent]]), he managed to recover much of the territory the English had seized from the French crown. He died in 1380, leaving the throne to his [[AChildShallLeadThem 12-year-old son]].
5th Oct '16 10:00:13 AM nanshe
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* ''Robert II the Pious'' (reigned 996-1031) was Hugues' son, and [[IronicNickname best known for his marital problems]]. His first wife was a much older Italian princess, Rozala, whom he dumped as soon as his father died. His second wife was Berthe de Bourgogne, a marriage that got him excommunicated for consanguinity (marriage within forbidden bounds of kinship). He finally divorced her in 999 after their only child was born deformed, and remarried to [[GodSaveUsFromTheQueen Constança d'Arle]]. Constança was known to be vicious, to say the least, and had a friend of Robert's murdered right in front of him when she suspected the man of getting between her and Robert. Enraged, Robert tried to divorce her and remarry Berthe, but was unable, and finally took Constança back. She incited wars between him and three of their sons, and he died in 1031 while fighting his children. Robert got his sobriquet due to his devout Catholicism, which unfortunately extended to reviving the Roman Imperial practice of burning heretics at the stake (and otherwise treating heresy harshly), and encouraging pogroms against the Jews.

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* ''Robert II the Pious'' (reigned 996-1031) was Hugues' son, and [[IronicNickname best known for his marital problems]]. His first wife was a much older Italian princess, Rozala, whom he dumped as soon as his father died. His second wife was Berthe de Bourgogne, a marriage that got him excommunicated for consanguinity (marriage within forbidden bounds of kinship). He finally divorced her in 999 after their only child was born deformed, and remarried to [[GodSaveUsFromTheQueen Constança d'Arle]]. Constança was known to be vicious, to say the least, and had her cousin murder a friend of Robert's murdered right in front of him when she suspected the man of getting between her and Robert. Enraged, Robert tried to divorce her and remarry Berthe, but was unable, and finally took Constança back. She incited wars between him and three of their sons, and he died in 1031 while fighting his children. Robert got his sobriquet due to his devout Catholicism, which unfortunately extended to reviving the Roman Imperial practice of burning heretics at the stake (and otherwise treating heresy harshly), and encouraging pogroms against the Jews.



* ''Louis VII the Young'' (reigned 1137-1180) was Louis VI's son. Originally intended for the clergy, he was plucked from his monastery and made heir after his elder brother was killed when his horse was tripped by a "diabolical pig". He married the beautiful heiress Alienòr d'Aquitània but she found him 'more monk than king'. After several childless years, a war sparked by her sister running off with his cousin, a disastrous trip on the [[UsefulNotes/TheCrusades Second Crusade]] (because he felt guilty after [[KillItWithFire burning down a church and all the inhabitants of a little town called Vitry-en-Perthois]]), and accusations that [[IncestIsRelative Alienòr was cheating on him with her own uncle]], Louis and Alienòr divorced. She married the future king of England; he remarried twice and finally got his long-desired son and heir in 1165. He died in 1180.

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* ''Louis VII the Young'' (reigned 1137-1180) was Louis VI's son. Originally intended for the clergy, he was plucked from his monastery and made heir after his elder brother was killed when his horse was tripped by a "diabolical pig". pig." He married the beautiful heiress Alienòr d'Aquitània but she found him 'more monk than king'. king.' After several childless years, a war sparked by her sister running off with his cousin, a disastrous trip on the [[UsefulNotes/TheCrusades Second Crusade]] (because he felt guilty after [[KillItWithFire burning down a church and all the inhabitants of a little town called Vitry-en-Perthois]]), and accusations that [[IncestIsRelative Alienòr was cheating on him with her own uncle]], Louis and Alienòr divorced. She married the future king of England; he remarried twice and finally got his long-desired son and heir in 1165. He died in 1180.



* ''Louis X'' (reigned 1314-1316) was the eldest of Philippe IV's three sons by his wife, Queen Jeanne de Navarre. His nickname (''le Hutin'') meant that he was always looking for conflict. In 1305 [[YourCheatingHeart he accused his wife, Marguerite de Bourgogne, of adultery and had her imprisoned and her alleged lover killed]]. After Marguerite died mysteriously in 1315, Louis remarried five days later to a Hungarian princess, Klemencia. He died suddenly in 1316 following a game of tennis.

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* ''Louis X'' (reigned 1314-1316) was the eldest of Philippe IV's three sons by his wife, Queen Jeanne Jehanne de Navarre. His nickname (''le Hutin'') meant that he was always looking for conflict. In 1305 [[YourCheatingHeart he accused his wife, Marguerite de Bourgogne, of adultery and had her imprisoned and her alleged lover killed]]. After Marguerite died mysteriously in 1315, Louis remarried five days later to a Hungarian princess, Klemencia. He died suddenly in 1316 following a game of tennis.



* ''Charles IV the Fair'' (reigned 1322-1328) was the last surviving son of Philippe IV, and succeeded both of his brothers. His first wife, Blanche de Bourgogne (a sister of Jeanne II de Bourgogne who was married to Philippe V; they were no relation to Marguerite, however) was accused of adultery and imprisoned in 1314. After he became king Charles refused to free her, and she died in captivity. He remarried twice before dying in 1328, leaving a pregnant wife who then gave birth to a daughter, and so the throne passed from the senior branch of the Capetians to the junior branch, the Valois. Inherited his father's handsomeness, hence his nickname.

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* ''Charles IV the Fair'' (reigned 1322-1328) was the last surviving son of Philippe IV, and succeeded both of his brothers. His first wife, Blanche de Bourgogne (a sister of Jeanne II de Bourgogne who was married to Philippe V; they were no relation only distantly related to Marguerite, however) was accused of adultery and imprisoned in 1314. After he became king Charles refused to free her, and she died in captivity. He remarried twice before dying in 1328, leaving a pregnant wife who then gave birth to a daughter, and so the throne passed from the senior branch of the Capetians to the junior branch, the Valois. Inherited his father's handsomeness, hence his nickname.



* ''Jean II the Good'' (reigned 1350-1364) was Philippe's son and heir. His nickname [[HaveAGayOldTime doesn't mean]] he was TheGoodKing, it's more akin to ''[[LeeroyJenkins the Brave]]''. In 1356 he was captured during the Battle of Poitiers and taken to England as a hostage. He stayed in the Tower of London until 1360. He died in 1364. Usually viewed as one of the worst king France ever had.

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* ''Jean II the Good'' (reigned 1350-1364) was Philippe's son and heir. His nickname [[HaveAGayOldTime doesn't mean]] he was TheGoodKing, it's more akin to ''[[LeeroyJenkins the Brave]]''. Brave]].'' In 1356 he was captured during the Battle of Poitiers and taken to England as a hostage. He stayed in the Tower of London until 1360. He died in 1364. Usually viewed as one of the worst king France ever had.



* ''Charles VI the Beloved'' or ''the Mad'' (reigned 1380-1422) was Charles's son by his queen, Jeanne de Bourbon. Insanity ran in his mother's family, and throughout his life [[AxCrazy Charles suffered bouts of psychosis]]. He would randomly murder men out of paranoia, believed he was made of glass, and even underwent an exorcism. His grandson Henry VI of England was also insane. When the English invaded France, he signed a treaty disinheriting the dauphin and recognizing Henry V of England as his successor. The people of France thought Charles VI was cursed and suffered insanity because of their sins, hence the ''Beloved'' nickname. He died in 1422.
* ''Charles VII'' (reigned 1422/1429-1461) Called "The Victorious" by his supporters, as the English were finally driven out during his reign, and ''Le bien-servi'' (the Well-Served) by his detractors, to indicate that most of the work was done for him. He was officially Charles VI's son, but his own mother, the beautiful Isabeau of Bavaria, claimed that [[HeroicBastard he'd been fathered by Charles' brother, Louis d'Orléans]]. He's best known for his alliance with UsefulNotes/JoanOfArc. He had a [[WhyDidItHaveToBeSnakes phobia of bridges]] after watching Jean the Fearless murdered on a bridge. His later years were marred by a feud with his eldest son and the growth of a tumor on his jaw that prevented him from eating. He starved to death in 1461.

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* ''Charles VI the Beloved'' or ''the Mad'' (reigned 1380-1422) was Charles's son by his queen, Jeanne Jehanne de Bourbon. Insanity ran in his mother's family, and throughout his life [[AxCrazy Charles suffered bouts of psychosis]]. He would randomly murder men out of paranoia, believed he was made of glass, and even underwent an exorcism. His grandson Henry VI of England was also insane. When the English invaded France, he signed a treaty disinheriting the dauphin and recognizing Henry V of England as his successor. The people of France thought Charles VI was cursed and suffered insanity because of their sins, hence the ''Beloved'' nickname. He died in 1422.
* ''Charles VII'' (reigned 1422/1429-1461) Called "The Victorious" by his supporters, as the English were finally driven out during his reign, and ''Le bien-servi'' (the Well-Served) by his detractors, to indicate that most of the work was done for him. He was officially Charles VI's son, but his own mother, the beautiful Isabeau of Bavaria, claimed there were rumors that [[HeroicBastard he'd been fathered by Charles' brother, Louis d'Orléans]]. He's best known for his alliance with UsefulNotes/JoanOfArc. He had a [[WhyDidItHaveToBeSnakes phobia of bridges]] after watching Jean the Fearless murdered on a bridge. His later years were marred by a feud with his eldest son and the growth of a tumor on his jaw that prevented him from eating. He starved to death in 1461.



* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henri le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre (through female succession), and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610. Starting with Henri IV, the Bourbon kings' official title was that of a King of France and Navarra.

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* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henri le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre (through female succession), and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Maria de' Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610. Starting with Henri IV, the Bourbon kings' official title was that of a King of France and Navarra.
17th Sep '16 9:32:59 AM GerardM
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* ''Louis VIII the Lion'' (reigned 1223-1226) was Philippe's only surviving son by his first queen, Isabelle d'Artois. He died in 1226 at age 39, having ruled France for only three years. His widow, the able and intelligent Blanca de Castilla, served as regent for their young son.

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* ''Louis VIII the Lion'' (reigned 1223-1226) was Philippe's only surviving son by his first queen, Isabelle d'Artois. He died in 1226 at age 39, having ruled France for only three years. His widow, the able and intelligent Blanca de Castilla, served as regent for their young son. Note : He was also (even more briefly) King of England during the First Barons' War.
6th Sep '16 2:40:16 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Theudebert I'' (reigned 534-548). Son of Theuderic I. Gained a warrior-prince reputation while heir to the throne. As a King, participated in the Gothic War (535554) and helped ravage Italy. Nominally allied to the ByzantineEmpire (one side of the war), but frequently fought against both the Byzantines and the Ostrogoths.

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* ''Theudebert I'' (reigned 534-548). Son of Theuderic I. Gained a warrior-prince reputation while heir to the throne. As a King, participated in the Gothic War (535554) and helped ravage Italy. Nominally allied to the ByzantineEmpire UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire (one side of the war), but frequently fought against both the Byzantines and the Ostrogoths.
3rd Sep '16 11:03:07 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Charlemagne'' (reigned 768-814). Son of Pepin I. In French pop history, he's credited with inventing school, earning him the enmity of French children forever after. Also extended the borders of the kingdom through the conquest of the Lombards, Saxons, Avars etc. and created the first version of the HolyRomanEmpire. The battle that would eventually become fictionalized as ''Literature/TheSongOfRoland'' took place under his watch, and the musical ''{{Pippin}}'' is also set in Charlemagne's court. Charles also appears in the lists of German kings and emperors under his German name Karl der Große, which like Charlemagne (and the Latin form it is based on, Carolus Magnus) means Charles the Great.

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* ''Charlemagne'' (reigned 768-814). Son of Pepin I. In French pop history, he's credited with inventing school, earning him the enmity of French children forever after. Also extended the borders of the kingdom through the conquest of the Lombards, Saxons, Avars etc. and created the first version of the HolyRomanEmpire.UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire. The battle that would eventually become fictionalized as ''Literature/TheSongOfRoland'' took place under his watch, and the musical ''{{Pippin}}'' is also set in Charlemagne's court. Charles also appears in the lists of German kings and emperors under his German name Karl der Große, which like Charlemagne (and the Latin form it is based on, Carolus Magnus) means Charles the Great.
8th Aug '16 3:08:58 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Louis XI'' (reigned 1461-1483), called 'l'universelle araignée', the universal spider, [[TheChessmaster because he had everyone caught in his webs]]. He was the eldest son of Charles VII but despised his father and after a failed rebellion, was banished from court. His distant cousin Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne, was his main opponent during the main part of his reign (and was initially far more powerful than him), but a combination of [[ManipulativeBastard treachery and bribery]] - he ''never'' fought a battle against Charles - made him win, the Duke being finally killed after a defeat against the [[SwissWithArmyKnives Swiss army]].[[note]]According to [[Series/{{Connections}} James Burke]], Charles the Bold's unfortunate encounter with the Swiss--itself the result of the invention of banking, as Charles was invading Switzerland to get a more direct route to his Italian bankers' HQ--gave us (among other things) [[ForWantOfANail the modern concept of the army, canning, refrigeration, the thermos, and orbital rocketry]].[[/note]] He engineered his cousin Henry VI's return to the English throne, and ended the Hundred Years War once and for all by bribing and charming the English into leaving the country. Not altogether an attractive character -- he called his daughter [[BrainyBrunette Anne de Beaujeu]] "the least stupid woman alive" -- he united a wartorn country, dealt cleverly with anyone who got in his way, and left France stronger and healthier than he found it.

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* ''Louis XI'' (reigned 1461-1483), called 'l'universelle araignée', the universal spider, [[TheChessmaster because he had everyone caught in his webs]]. He was the eldest son of Charles VII but despised his father and after a failed rebellion, was banished from court. His distant cousin Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne, was his main opponent during the main part of his reign (and was initially far more powerful than him), but a combination of [[ManipulativeBastard treachery and bribery]] - he ''never'' fought a battle against Charles - made him win, the Duke being finally killed after a defeat against the [[SwissWithArmyKnives [[UsefulNotes/SwissWithArmyKnives Swiss army]].[[note]]According to [[Series/{{Connections}} James Burke]], Charles the Bold's unfortunate encounter with the Swiss--itself the result of the invention of banking, as Charles was invading Switzerland to get a more direct route to his Italian bankers' HQ--gave us (among other things) [[ForWantOfANail the modern concept of the army, canning, refrigeration, the thermos, and orbital rocketry]].[[/note]] He engineered his cousin Henry VI's return to the English throne, and ended the Hundred Years War once and for all by bribing and charming the English into leaving the country. Not altogether an attractive character -- he called his daughter [[BrainyBrunette Anne de Beaujeu]] "the least stupid woman alive" -- he united a wartorn country, dealt cleverly with anyone who got in his way, and left France stronger and healthier than he found it.
14th Jun '16 11:50:42 PM Random888
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Added DiffLines:

** Louis-Philippe's wife, Queen Maria Amalia, is [[NoNameGiven possibly]] the blackmailed party in the Creator/EdgarAllanPoe short story "[[Literature/CAugusteDupin The Purloined Letter]]".
24th May '16 11:21:52 PM Doug86
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* ''Charibert'' (reigned 561-567). Son of Clotaire I. Ruled from Paris. Legendary brutal. Had several wives, concubines, and daughters, but no male heirs. His early death resulted in the spilitting of his areas among his brothers. His daughter Bertha married king Æthelberh of Kent (reigned c.590-616) and is credited with bringing Frankish culture and Christianity to Anglo-Saxon areas.

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* ''Charibert'' (reigned 561-567). Son of Clotaire I. Ruled from Paris. Legendary brutal. Had several wives, concubines, and daughters, but no male heirs. His early death resulted in the spilitting of his areas among his brothers. His daughter Bertha married king Æthelberh [=Æ=]thelberh of Kent (reigned c.590-616) and is credited with bringing Frankish culture and Christianity to Anglo-Saxon areas.
12th May '16 9:25:26 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.

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* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[TheKnightsTemplar [[UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.
21st Feb '16 6:38:02 AM Menshevik
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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.

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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars with his arch-rival Charles V of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (Carlos I of Spain) and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.



* ''Henri III'' (reigned 1574-1589) was the last surviving son of Henri II and Catherine de Medici, and his mother's favorite. He loved [[CampStraight fashion and crossdressing]], and famously attempted to court Queen [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth I of England]]. His two most famous rivals were [[OneSteveLimit also both named Henri]]: his cousin Henri de Guise, known as 'le balafre', meaning [[RedBaron Scarface]]; and his other cousin ([[KissingCousins and brother-in-law]]) Henri de Navarre. In 1588, Henri had Scarface assassinated, and was himself murdered a year later by a monk, uttering "''[[FamousLastWords Ah, le méchant moine ! Il m'a tué !]]''" ("''Ah! The evil monk! He killed me!''"). He had no children, and the throne passed to Henri de Navarre.

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* ''Henri III'' (reigned 1574-1589) was the last surviving son of Henri II and Catherine de Medici, and his mother's favorite. He loved [[CampStraight fashion and crossdressing]], and famously attempted to court Queen [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth I of England]]. His two most famous rivals were [[OneSteveLimit also both named Henri]]: his cousin Henri de Guise, known as 'le balafre', balafré', meaning [[RedBaron Scarface]]; and his other cousin ([[KissingCousins and brother-in-law]]) Henri de Navarre. In 1588, Henri had Scarface assassinated, and was himself murdered a year later by a monk, uttering "''[[FamousLastWords Ah, le méchant moine ! Il m'a tué !]]''" ("''Ah! The evil monk! He killed me!''"). He had no children, and the throne passed to Henri de Navarre.



* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henre le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre, and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIII'' (reigned 1610-1643) was Henri and Marie's eldest son, and became king at the age of eight. His marriage to Anne, daughter of King Felipe III of Spain, was childless for an astonishing 23 years before Anne surprised everyone by giving birth to two sons. The elder, of course, was heir apparent; the younger was given the title ''Duke of Orléans'' and founded a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon that proved to be very important about 200 years later. Cardinal Richelieu became his lawful first minister, even if fictions [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade often portray him as a traitor]] - to be fair, he could be [[EvilChancellor very evil]] with his opponents. At the end of his reign, Louis had a [[HoYay passionate relationship]] with the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, who tried to stir up shit with Richelieu and got beheaded for his trouble. Louis XIII and his queen appear as characters in Dumas' ''Literature/TheThreeMusketeers'' and the movies based on the novel. He died in 1643.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIV'' (reigned 1643-1715) , known as "The Sun King", is the one French king almost everyone knows the name of, mostly due to his love of having portraits and statues made of himself, naming places after himself, and his remarkable 72-year-long reign, a record for a European monarch. Came to the throne at a time when France was suffering from noble rebellions and a long-running war with Spain, both of which Mazarin skilfully ended before proceeding to vastly expand France's cultural, military and territorial power, although he almost bankrupted the country in doing so. The title of this page is derived from a quote attributed to him, but probably [[BeamMeUpScotty not something he ever actually said]] (Though it does illustrate his view of power). When he appears in media, expect references to ''The ManInTheIronMask'' (who may or may not have been his identical twin brother) and [[EveryoneLooksSexierIfFrench lots of hot chicks in low-cut ballgowns]]. By the time he died in 1715, just short of his 77th birthday, he had outlived his eldest son, grandson, and great-grandson, and was succeeded by a five-year-old great-grandson.

to:

* ''Henri IV'' (reigned 1589-1610), also called ''Henre ''Henri le grand'' ("Henry the Great") in French historiography, was the king of Navarre, Navarre (through female succession), and the cousin and brother-in-law of the three last Valois-Orleans kings. His claim to the throne came through being the senior, male-line descendant of Louis IX; by the Salic Law, he had been the heir-presumptive to the throne since the death of Charles IX, and it was mostly politics that clouded the question of his succession. Specifically, he was a Protestant, which the powerful Catholic League led by Henri de Guise found distinctly disturbing. However, Henri de Navarre proved to be a ''politique''--in the parlance of the time, a pragmatist more interested in the stability and power of the state than in religious purity, and thus willing to change religious affiliation for political reasons. Henri did so, converting to Catholicism, twice: once to save his skin during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and once when he was about to take the throne, famously saying ''Paris vaut bien une messe'': "Paris is well worth a Mass." He had his first childless marriage with the infamous Marguerite de Valois annulled, and then married an Italian princess, Marie de Medici. He had a firm grasp of the concept that the power of the kings and nobles came from the people, and concerned himself with the prosperity and well-being of the common folk of France; he famously proclaimed that if God kept him, he would make sure that every peasant in the realm had "a chicken in his pot every Sunday" (coining the phrase "a chicken in every pot" as a synonym for "national prosperity"). As a result, he was remembered quite fondly by the French people and is also known to this day as ''le bon roi Henri'' ("[[TheGoodKing Good King Henry]]"). The Good King was also a big fan of good food, encouraging the development of [[UsefulNotes/SnailsAndSoOn French cuisine]] (a process his Italian wife helped, introducing techniques from the then-best-in-Europe Italian kitchen), and according to tradition introducing ''sauce béarnaise'' (named after his home province of Béarn). He also really, [[LoveableSexManiac really loved women]], being nicknamed ''Le Vert-Galant'' because he was very energetic with his mistresses - before his death, he was about to start a war against Spain to [[DisproportionateRetribution free a young woman he wanted in his bed]]. He was assassinated by the [[ActivistFundamentalistAntics Catholic fanatic]] François Ravaillac, who stabbed him [[ConspicuouslyPublicAssassination while stuck in traffic during the Queen's coronation ceremony]] in 1610.
1610. Starting with Henri IV, the Bourbon kings' official title was that of a King of France and Navarra.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIII'' (reigned 1610-1643) was Henri and Marie's eldest elder son, and became king at the age of eight. His marriage to Anne, daughter of King Felipe III of Spain, was childless for an astonishing 23 years before Anne surprised everyone by giving birth to two sons. The elder, of course, was heir apparent; the younger was given the title ''Duke of Orléans'' and founded a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon that proved to be very important about 200 years later. Cardinal Richelieu became his lawful first minister, even if fictions [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade often portray him as a traitor]] - to be fair, he could be [[EvilChancellor very evil]] with his opponents. At the end of his reign, Louis had a [[HoYay passionate relationship]] with the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, who tried to stir up shit with Richelieu and got beheaded for his trouble. Louis XIII and his queen appear as characters in Dumas' ''Literature/TheThreeMusketeers'' and the movies based on the novel. He died in 1643.
* ''UsefulNotes/LouisXIV'' (reigned 1643-1715) , known as "The "Louis le Grand" (Louis the Great) and "le Roi-Soleil" (The Sun King", King), is the one French king almost everyone knows the name of, mostly due to his love of having portraits and statues made of himself, naming places after himself, and his remarkable 72-year-long reign, a record for a European monarch. Came to the throne at a time when France was suffering from noble rebellions and a long-running war with Spain, both of which Mazarin skilfully ended before proceeding to vastly expand France's cultural, military and territorial power, although he almost bankrupted the country in doing so. The title of this page is derived from a quote attributed to him, but probably [[BeamMeUpScotty not something he ever actually said]] (Though it does illustrate his view of power). When he appears in media, expect references to ''The ManInTheIronMask'' (who may or may not have been his identical twin brother) and [[EveryoneLooksSexierIfFrench lots of hot chicks in low-cut ballgowns]]. By the time he died in 1715, just short of his 77th birthday, he had outlived his eldest son, grandson, and great-grandson, and was succeeded by a five-year-old great-grandson.



** The phrase "Après moi, le déluge" (After me, the Flood) is attributed to him, suggesting he foresaw the Revolution after his death. In modern parlance, the expression is usually used to criticize politicians who favour short-term gains regardless of future hardships -- basically, "after I'm gone, anything that happens won't be my problem anyway".

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** The phrase "Après moi, le déluge" (After me, the Flood) is attributed to him, him (or the Marquise de Pompadour), suggesting he foresaw the Revolution after his death. In modern parlance, the expression is usually used to criticize politicians who favour short-term gains regardless of future hardships -- basically, "after I'm gone, anything that happens won't be my problem anyway".



* ''[[TheWoobie Napoléon II]]'' (reigned 1815) was Napoléon's son by his second wife, a Habsburg princess. After his father's death, he lived at his maternal grandfather's palace in Austria and never really ruled in France. He died in 1832, aged twenty-one. The ill-fated Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was rumored to be his biological son.

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* ''[[TheWoobie Napoléon II]]'' (reigned 1815) 1814 and 1815[[note]] Both in 1814 and in 1815 Napoleon I first tried to abdicate in favour of his son, but the Allies would have none of it, the first time he was made to abdicate again unconditionally, the second time they did not even bother. [[/note]]), better known as the King of Rome (the title his father gave him in 1811 in analogy to that of the Prince of Wales (England and the United Kingdom) and of the Prince of Asturias (Spain) and which he lost in 1814) or the Duke of Reichstadt (since 1818) was Napoléon's son by his second wife, a Habsburg princess. the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria (a niece of Queen Marie-Antoinette). After his father's death, first abdication, he lived at his maternal grandfather's palace in Austria and never really ruled in France. He died in 1832, aged twenty-one. The ill-fated Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was rumored to be his biological son.
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