History UsefulNotes / Lebanon

6th May '18 7:47:25 AM AntonF
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Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is a Western Asian country and one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and boy did it is very sectarian. Particularly, the three highest posts in the country are reserved for each members of the religious: a Maronite Catholic President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shia Muslim Speaker of Parliament. ''No exceptions''.

One of the few nations in which the people who live outside the country far outweighs those who live inside it. The total population of Lebanon is (as of 2006) slightly more than 4 million. The diaspora? ''[[HolyShitQuotient 14 million]]''. And this is all made very, very, recently, so you can bet that the country's population would be much higher had the wars not happened.

Was originally a Christian country, and the only one in the Arab world. Because of all the commotion in the late 20th century, a great deal of the Christians, who are historically wealthier than their Muslim neighbors, emigrated and settled in various countries, particularly Brazil, creating the aforementioned humongous diaspora. Many have done very ''well'' for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with Bill Gates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes[[note]]Though if the violence hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up, so wait for a few years after each one apparently ends...[[/note]]. That's not to say that the Christians disappear altogether, though; estimates count that 40% the population still identify as Christians, and they mostly settle on the Mount Lebanon/Anti Lebanon highlands, together with the Druze[[note]]A religious community descended from Shia Islam[[/note]] while the Muslims live on the coast, with the exception of costal Jouneih which is mostly Christian.

It should be noted however, that the Shia and Sunni populations are evenly split and far more sectarian (this is Lebanon after all) than the splits between Christian sects. This division may as well give Christians a plurality anyway.

A population of jews lived in Lebanon for a quite a while, but most have obviously moved. It is still estimated a few dozen live in the country under a low profile.

!! History

to:

Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is a Western Asian country and one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 18 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths.faiths[[note]]To wit: Alawite, Armenian Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Assyrian Church, Chaldean Catholic, Copts, Druze, Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Ismaili, Jewish, Latin Catholic, Maronite Catholic, Protestant, Sunni, Shia, Syriac Catholic, and Syriac Orthodox[[/note]]. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and boy did it is very sectarian. Particularly, lines to (barely) hold together the extremely sectarian nature of the population. The three highest posts in the country are reserved for each members of the religious: a Maronite Catholic President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shia Muslim Speaker of Parliament. ''No exceptions''.

One of the few nations in which the people who live outside the country far outweighs outnumber those who live inside it. The total population of Lebanon is (as of 2006) 2017) slightly more than 4 6 million. The diaspora? ''[[HolyShitQuotient 14 million]]''. And this is all made very, very, recently, so you can bet that the country's population would be much higher had the wars not happened.

if there were no wars.

Was originally a Christian country, and the only one in the Arab world. Because of all the commotion in the late 20th century, a great deal of the Christians, who are historically wealthier than their Muslim neighbors, emigrated and settled in various countries, particularly Brazil, creating the aforementioned humongous diaspora. Many have done very ''well'' for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with Bill Gates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes[[note]]Though if the violence hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up, so wait for a few years after each one apparently ends...[[/note]]. That's not to say that the Christians disappear altogether, though; estimates count that 40% of the population still identify as Christians, and they mostly settle on the Mount Lebanon/Anti Lebanon highlands, together with the Druze[[note]]A religious community descended from Shia Islam[[/note]] while the Muslims live on the coast, with the exception of costal Jouneih which is mostly Christian.Christians.

It should be noted however, that Each confessional groups are segregated in different parts of the Shia and country, especially after the civil war. A rough breakdown for the larger ones are:

*
Sunni populations are evenly split Muslims live in the districts of Akkar, eastern Baalbek, West Beqaa, and far more sectarian (this is Lebanon after all) than northern Sidon, plus the splits between Christian sects. This division may as well give cities of Tripoli and Sidon.
* Maronite
Christians are the majority in the northern half of the Mount Lebanon and the southern half of the North Governorates, including the cities of Jounieh and Byblos, and some enclaves in the south (notably in Jezzine).
* Shia Muslims dominate the districts of Hermel, Nabatieh, Bent Jbeil, and Tyre, and has
a plurality anyway.

A population of jews lived
in Lebanon for a quite a while, but most Baalbek.
* Greek Orthodox
have obviously moved. It is still estimated wildly scattered distribution, although they have a few dozen majority in Koura district.
* Druze are concentrated in Aley, Chouf, and Rachaya districts.
* Greek Catholics
live in the country under northeastern Baalbek district and Zahle city.
* Beirut is nowadays divided into
a low profile.Sunni Muslim west, Christian east, and Shia Muslim south.

!! HistoryOther than the above, Lebanon also hosts an unusually diverse array of ethnic and religious minorities for such a small country, most of which are displayed in the 18 recognized confessionals (see above). The town of Bourj Hammound a few kilometers from the capital is heavily Armenian. Turks settled during colonial times and continue to live there today. Refugees from other Arab countries set up residences whenever their countries flare up in chaos, including Palestinians (from 1948), Iraqis (from 2003), and Syrians (from 2011). The last one has been a very contentious issue among civilians, the military, and politicians alike; with 2.2 million people as of 2015, they have added a whopping 35% into the population within the span of four years. Other than putting more pressure into the already exhausted resources, non-Sunnis are especially worried that their arrivals would jolt the fragile confessional balance and bring them crashing down, like it did when the second wave of Palestinians arrived forty years ago.

[[folder: History]]



You think it's over yet? Nope. While Syria moved back to the other side of the border, it was determined to keep its influence in-country. It had backed the Shia militia/political party Hezbullah in the 1980s, and continued to do so after the civil war was over. Hezbullah decided that now that its Syrian protectors were gone, it would focus its attention on making Israel miserable (ItMakesSenseInContext, which I haven't the time to give you). As a result, in July-August 2006 after Hezbullah kidnapped 2 Israeli soldiers and returned to rocketing Israel from Lebanon. In turn, Israel returned bombing the crap out of Lebanon in an attempt to destroy Hezbollah, but did not go beyond that because of internal politics and the hope that it would work enough. All of this contributed to Beirut getting torn up *again* just after the Lebanese had finished rebuilding it. It was never quite as intense as the civil war (a veritable bloodbath), but it was enough to give people nightmares until it more or less died down in 2009, though the country still remained divided. Hezbollah remains largely dominant in the country to the point where it threatens the independent Lebanese government, with supporting and opposing militias and paramilitaries all taking chunks of the country and threatening balkanization.

to:

You think it's over yet? Nope. While Syria moved back to the other side of the border, it was determined to keep its influence in-country. It had backed the Shia militia/political party Hezbullah Hezbollah in the 1980s, and continued to do so after the civil war was over. Hezbullah Hezbollah decided that now that its Syrian protectors were gone, it would focus its attention on making Israel miserable (ItMakesSenseInContext, which I haven't the time to give you). As a result, in July-August 2006 after Hezbullah Hezbollah kidnapped 2 Israeli soldiers and returned to rocketing Israel from Lebanon. In turn, Israel returned bombing the crap out of Lebanon in an attempt to destroy Hezbollah, but did not go beyond that because of internal politics and the hope that it would work enough. All of this contributed to Beirut getting torn up *again* just after the Lebanese had finished rebuilding it. It was never quite as intense as the civil war (a veritable bloodbath), but it was enough to give people nightmares until it more or less died down in 2009, though the country still remained divided. Hezbollah remains largely dominant in the country to the point where it threatens the independent Lebanese government, with supporting and opposing militias and paramilitaries all taking chunks of the country and threatening balkanization.


Added DiffLines:

[[/folder]]
2nd Dec '17 1:33:07 PM Wariolander
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Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and boy did it is very sectarian. Particularly, the three highest posts in the country are reserved for each members of the religious: a Maronite Catholic President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shia Muslim Speaker of Parliament. ''No exceptions''.

to:

Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is a Western Asian country and one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and boy did it is very sectarian. Particularly, the three highest posts in the country are reserved for each members of the religious: a Maronite Catholic President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shia Muslim Speaker of Parliament. ''No exceptions''.
16th Sep '17 5:09:02 PM nombretomado
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Outside the camps, however, things seemed to run smoothly. A political crisis in 1958 (pitting mostly Christian pro-Westerners against mostly-Muslim pro-Syrians for reasons related to [[UsefulNotes/ArabIsraeliConflict the Suez War]] two years earlier) that threatened to turn into a civil war was defused when UsefulNotes/DwightEisenhower, on the request of the Lebanese president, sent the U.S. [[YanksWithTanks Army]] and [[SemperFi Marines]] to keep anything from happening. For a time, Lebanon was reasonably stable and prosperous; UsefulNotes/{{Beirut}} continued to live up to its reputation as the "Paris of the Middle East."

to:

Outside the camps, however, things seemed to run smoothly. A political crisis in 1958 (pitting mostly Christian pro-Westerners against mostly-Muslim pro-Syrians for reasons related to [[UsefulNotes/ArabIsraeliConflict the Suez War]] two years earlier) that threatened to turn into a civil war was defused when UsefulNotes/DwightEisenhower, on the request of the Lebanese president, sent the U.S. [[YanksWithTanks [[UsefulNotes/YanksWithTanks Army]] and [[SemperFi Marines]] to keep anything from happening. For a time, Lebanon was reasonably stable and prosperous; UsefulNotes/{{Beirut}} continued to live up to its reputation as the "Paris of the Middle East."
13th Sep '17 5:05:50 PM nombretomado
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TheArabSpring sucked Lebanon into its vortex just a few years later; as you might expect for a country that has faced considerable occupation from a larger, authoritarian neighbor. Like before, Lebanon would again face major shock waves because of events and decisions in Syria. This time, however, the event in question was not the expansion of Syrian power but the explosion of the Syrian Civil War against the Assad government. As a result, both Pro and Anti Syrian/Baathist/Assad factions have gone across the border in large numbers to fight in what is almost a larger proxy war, even as internally the country suffers from a sort of smaller "proxy cold war", with both sides maneuvering for advantage.

to:

TheArabSpring UsefulNotes/TheArabSpring sucked Lebanon into its vortex just a few years later; as you might expect for a country that has faced considerable occupation from a larger, authoritarian neighbor. Like before, Lebanon would again face major shock waves because of events and decisions in Syria. This time, however, the event in question was not the expansion of Syrian power but the explosion of the Syrian Civil War against the Assad government. As a result, both Pro and Anti Syrian/Baathist/Assad factions have gone across the border in large numbers to fight in what is almost a larger proxy war, even as internally the country suffers from a sort of smaller "proxy cold war", with both sides maneuvering for advantage.
28th Aug '17 7:30:54 PM karstovich2
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to:

* Most of the works of Creator/KhalilGibran, including ''The Prophet'', are set in or at least inspired by his native rural Lebanon.
15th Jul '17 2:27:34 AM Terran117
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Was originally a Christian country, and the only one in the Arab world. Because of all the commotion in the late 20th century, a great deal of the Christians, who are historically wealthier than their Muslim neighbors, emigrated and settled in various countries, particularly Brazil, creating the aforementioned humongous diaspora. Many have done very ''well'' for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with Bill Gates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes[[note]]Though if the violence hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up, so wait for a few years after each one apparently ends...[[/note]]. That's not to say that the Christians disappear altogether, though; estimates count that 40% the population still identify as Christians, and they mostly settle on the Mount Lebanon/Anti Lebanon highlands, together with the Druze[[note]]A religious community descended from Shia Islam[[/note]] while the Muslims live on the coast.

to:

Was originally a Christian country, and the only one in the Arab world. Because of all the commotion in the late 20th century, a great deal of the Christians, who are historically wealthier than their Muslim neighbors, emigrated and settled in various countries, particularly Brazil, creating the aforementioned humongous diaspora. Many have done very ''well'' for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with Bill Gates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes[[note]]Though if the violence hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up, so wait for a few years after each one apparently ends...[[/note]]. That's not to say that the Christians disappear altogether, though; estimates count that 40% the population still identify as Christians, and they mostly settle on the Mount Lebanon/Anti Lebanon highlands, together with the Druze[[note]]A religious community descended from Shia Islam[[/note]] while the Muslims live on the coast.coast, with the exception of costal Jouneih which is mostly Christian.

It should be noted however, that the Shia and Sunni populations are evenly split and far more sectarian (this is Lebanon after all) than the splits between Christian sects. This division may as well give Christians a plurality anyway.

A population of jews lived in Lebanon for a quite a while, but most have obviously moved. It is still estimated a few dozen live in the country under a low profile.

10th Jun '16 11:10:14 AM Doug86
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Lebanon was under a French Mandate from the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne until 1943, leaving a deep impression in language and culture - for the Lebanese mostly, but also for the French. If you ever see French people greet each other with kisses on the cheeks, that's a Lebanese tradition. On the other hand, even today, Lebanese dialects of Arabic contain strong traces of French, and French is officially a national language. Lebanese cooking is famous throughout the Middle East and beyond: hummus, falafel, tabbouleh, and pastries unrivaled in taste (although an Egyptian would dispute that for the falafel and some of the pastries and Greeks would make a similar point about the baklava; Food is SeriousBusiness). An Egyptian restaurant opening abroad might call itself 'Lebanese' to get more customers.

to:

Lebanon was under a French Mandate from the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne UsefulNotes/WorldWarI until 1943, leaving a deep impression in language and culture - for the Lebanese mostly, but also for the French. If you ever see French people greet each other with kisses on the cheeks, that's a Lebanese tradition. On the other hand, even today, Lebanese dialects of Arabic contain strong traces of French, and French is officially a national language. Lebanese cooking is famous throughout the Middle East and beyond: hummus, falafel, tabbouleh, and pastries unrivaled in taste (although an Egyptian would dispute that for the falafel and some of the pastries and Greeks would make a similar point about the baklava; Food is SeriousBusiness). An Egyptian restaurant opening abroad might call itself 'Lebanese' to get more customers.
24th May '16 10:40:01 PM Dimas28
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Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and the Christians--who were a slim majority in 1932--were outpaced by the Muslims in the decades that followed.

to:

Lebanon ('''Arabic:''' لبنان‎ Libnān or Lubnān), officially known as the Lebanese Republic ('''Arabic:''' الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-Libnānīyah) is one of the world's only two multiconfessional countries, with 17 official religions made up of various sects of the three monotheist faiths. However, it's unclear how many people follow what religion in the country; a full census has not been conducted since 1932. This is because the Lebanese Constitution divvies up power along religious lines, and boy did it is very sectarian. Particularly, the Christians--who were a slim majority three highest posts in 1932--were outpaced by the country are reserved for each members of the religious: a Maronite Catholic President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shia Muslim Speaker of Parliament. ''No exceptions''.

One of the few nations in which the people who live outside the country far outweighs those who live inside it. The total population of Lebanon is (as of 2006) slightly more than 4 million. The diaspora? ''[[HolyShitQuotient 14 million]]''. And this is all made very, very, recently, so you can bet that the country's population would be much higher had the wars not happened.

Was originally a Christian country, and the only one in the Arab world. Because of all the commotion in the late 20th century, a great deal of the Christians, who are historically wealthier than their Muslim neighbors, emigrated and settled in various countries, particularly Brazil, creating the aforementioned humongous diaspora. Many have done very ''well'' for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with Bill Gates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes[[note]]Though if the violence hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up, so wait for a few years after each one apparently ends...[[/note]]. That's not to say that the Christians disappear altogether, though; estimates count that 40% the population still identify as Christians, and they mostly settle on the Mount Lebanon/Anti Lebanon highlands, together with the Druze[[note]]A religious community descended from Shia Islam[[/note]] while
the Muslims in live on the decades that followed.
coast.

!! History



Thanks to the bloody civil war, the Lebanese left their home country in larger numbers than might be expected from a country Lebanon's size. Christians in particular packed up and went, being generally a bit richer than the Muslims (particularly the Shia). There are now three to five times as many Lebanese living outside Lebanon as within it, and many have done ''very'' well for themselves indeed (for instance, Carlos Slim, a Mexican telecom magnate who trades places with BillGates for the title "richest man in the world", is of Lebanese descent). This has some benefits--whenever bad things go on in Lebanon, the Diaspora sends back aid and often invests in rebuilding schemes. Even when the violence gets nasty, you often can't tell a few years after it dies down. Of course, if it hasn't died down yet, nobody bothers patching things up...



''ComicBook/MalaakAngelOfPeace'' is the one Lebanese comic series to date, set in a warring Lebanon that criss-crosses with a mythological one.

to:

* ''Literature/TheEpicOfGilgamesh'': Gilgamesh went to the cedar forests of Lebanon to get to...[[ArtisticLicenseGeography the Persian Gulf]]. Though do take note that the tale is mostly exploits of fun and glory; it's not like UsefulNotes/{{Homer}} or UsefulNotes/{{Virgil}} got perfectly correct with their writings anyway.
* Features quite a bit in Myth/ClassicalMythology, courtesy of the Phoenicians. Europa, who inspired the name for the continent of Europe, was a Phoenician princess who [[ImmortalityImmorality got abducted by Zeus in bull form]]. One of the Twelve Olympians, Dionysus, also had a (mortal) Phoenician grandfather.
* Mentioned a ''lot'' in ''Literature/TheBible'', because of the aforementioned cedar trees and a certain reason *cough* CreatorProvincialism *cough* in part of the Bible writers, who mostly came from Israel. According to [[https://www.openbible.info/topics/lebanon this website]], it's mentioned 73 times, and that's not including the indirect references.
*
''ComicBook/MalaakAngelOfPeace'' is the one Lebanese comic series to date, set in a warring Lebanon that criss-crosses with a mythological one.
24th May '16 2:23:45 AM The_Glorious_SOB
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A force of American, British, French, and Italian peacekeepers were deployed to the country in the early 1980s to try and bring a stop to the civil war or at least to restrain the warring sides. However, they soon got sucked into the frenzied fighting and soon became a target of Syrian and Iranian intelligence, as well as their Islamist paramilitary proxies. As a result, one enterprising group picked two volunteer with the know how to drive, loaded trucks up with high explosives, and on October 23rd of 1983 [[SuicideAttack sent it careening into the Peacekeeping compounds.]] By far the more infamous and deadly attack was that on the USMC barracks, which killed 241 American servicemen and a Lebanese civilian and was basically the TropeCodifier for modern suicide bombing; less well known is that there was another attack on the French Para barracks not far, which killed an additional 58 Frenchmen and a Lebanese janitor's wife and four children. All in all, the death total wracked up to 299 peacekeepers, 305 total including civilians, and the two perpetrators. The event was one of the most devastating attacks any of the countries had suffered, and led to the decision to remove the Peacekeepers and leave Lebanon to the paramilitaries.

to:

A force of American, British, French, and Italian peacekeepers were deployed to the country in the early 1980s to try and bring a stop to the civil war or at least to restrain the warring sides. However, they soon got sucked into the frenzied fighting and soon became a target of Syrian and Iranian intelligence, as well as their Islamist paramilitary proxies. As a result, one enterprising group picked two volunteer volunteers with the know how to drive, loaded trucks up with high explosives, and on October 23rd of 1983 [[SuicideAttack sent it careening into the Peacekeeping compounds.]] By far the more infamous and deadly attack was that on the USMC barracks, which killed 241 American servicemen and a Lebanese civilian and was basically the TropeCodifier for modern suicide bombing; less well known is that there was another attack on the French Para barracks not far, which killed an additional 58 Frenchmen and a Lebanese janitor's wife and four children. All in all, the death total wracked up to 299 peacekeepers, 305 total including civilians, and the two perpetrators. The event was one of the most devastating attacks any of the countries had suffered, and led to the decision to remove the Peacekeepers and leave Lebanon to the paramilitaries.
24th May '16 2:22:17 AM The_Glorious_SOB
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However, by 1975, the Palestinians had organized themselves into the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which more or less became a "state within a state" in Lebanon. The Palestinians used southern Lebanon as a base for attacks on Israel, which screwed up everything most massively. Various groups within Lebanon took different positions on the issue (Christians generally frowning on it, Sunnis generally supportive, Shias generally too poor to be noticed). In retaliation for the PLO bombing the crap out of them from Lebanon, Israel started bombing the crap out of the Palestinians on Lebanese soil, driving the subject came much closer to home and pushing things to get much nastier. By April of 1975, it had turned into an all-out civil war. Pro-PLO militias controlled the south of the country; Anti-PLO controlled the center and west; and to top it off, the north and east were invaded by UsefulNotes/{{Syria}}. Beirut itself was divided in two: the PLO and its allied militias controlled West Beirut, their enemies controlled East Beirut, and various people whose religious background did not match the militias' generally fled to the other side before they were shot. Oh, and did we mention that Syria and Israel decided to invade?

to:

However, by 1975, the Palestinians had organized themselves into the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which more or less became a "state within a state" in Lebanon. The Palestinians used southern Lebanon as a base for attacks on Israel, which screwed up everything most massively. Various groups within Lebanon took different positions on the issue (Christians generally frowning on it, Sunnis generally supportive, Shias generally too poor to be noticed). In retaliation for the PLO bombing the crap out of them from Lebanon, Israel started bombing the crap out of the Palestinians on Lebanese soil, driving the subject came much closer to home and pushing things to get much nastier. By April of 1975, it had turned into an all-out civil war. Pro-PLO militias controlled the south of the country; Anti-PLO controlled the center and west; and to top it off, the north and east were invaded by UsefulNotes/{{Syria}}. Beirut itself was divided in two: the PLO and its allied militias controlled West Beirut, their enemies controlled East Beirut, and various people whose religious background did not match the militias' generally fled to the other side before they were shot. Oh, and did we mention that Syria and Israel decided to invade?
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