History UsefulNotes / LEtatCestMoi

20th May '18 6:48:14 PM costanton11
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Clovis's descendants were the Merovingian dynasty, France's first ruling family. Clovis was a great king, though a bit on the ManipulativeBastard side, but he had four sons to split the kingdom he left behind: four sub-realms, each headed by a king, with the High King hanging out in Paris. Naturally, all of Clovis' offspring saw themselves in the top spot. Bloody feuding ensued, even descending to [[EvilUncle nephew-murdering]], as the kings fought for power.

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Clovis's descendants were the Merovingian dynasty, France's first ruling family. Clovis was a great king, though a bit on the ManipulativeBastard manipulative side, but he had four sons to split the kingdom he left behind: four sub-realms, each headed by a king, with the High King hanging out in Paris. Naturally, all of Clovis' offspring saw themselves in the top spot. Bloody feuding ensued, even descending to [[EvilUncle nephew-murdering]], as the kings fought for power.



* ''Louis XI'' (reigned 1461-1483), called 'l'universelle araignée', the universal spider, [[TheChessmaster because he had everyone caught in his webs]]. He was the eldest son of Charles VII but despised his father and after a failed rebellion, was banished from court. His distant cousin Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne, was his main opponent during the main part of his reign (and was initially far more powerful than him), but a combination of [[ManipulativeBastard treachery and bribery]] - he ''never'' fought a battle against Charles - made him win, the Duke being finally killed after a defeat against the [[UsefulNotes/SwissWithArmyKnives Swiss army]].[[note]]According to [[Series/{{Connections}} James Burke]], Charles the Bold's unfortunate encounter with the Swiss--itself the result of the invention of banking, as Charles was invading Switzerland to get a more direct route to his Italian bankers' HQ--gave us (among other things) [[ForWantOfANail the modern concept of the army, canning, refrigeration, the thermos, and orbital rocketry]].[[/note]] He engineered his cousin Henry VI's return to the English throne, and ended the Hundred Years War once and for all by bribing and charming the English into leaving the country. Not altogether an attractive character -- he called his daughter [[BrainyBrunette Anne de Beaujeu]] "the least stupid woman alive" -- he united a wartorn country, dealt cleverly with anyone who got in his way, and left France stronger and healthier than he found it.

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* ''Louis XI'' (reigned 1461-1483), called 'l'universelle araignée', the universal spider, [[TheChessmaster because he had everyone caught in his webs]]. He was the eldest son of Charles VII but despised his father and after a failed rebellion, was banished from court. His distant cousin Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne, was his main opponent during the main part of his reign (and was initially far more powerful than him), but a combination of [[ManipulativeBastard treachery and bribery]] bribery - he ''never'' fought a battle against Charles - made him win, the Duke being finally killed after a defeat against the [[UsefulNotes/SwissWithArmyKnives Swiss army]].[[note]]According to [[Series/{{Connections}} James Burke]], Charles the Bold's unfortunate encounter with the Swiss--itself the result of the invention of banking, as Charles was invading Switzerland to get a more direct route to his Italian bankers' HQ--gave us (among other things) [[ForWantOfANail the modern concept of the army, canning, refrigeration, the thermos, and orbital rocketry]].[[/note]] He engineered his cousin Henry VI's return to the English throne, and ended the Hundred Years War once and for all by bribing and charming the English into leaving the country. Not altogether an attractive character -- he called his daughter [[BrainyBrunette Anne de Beaujeu]] "the least stupid woman alive" -- he united a wartorn country, dealt cleverly with anyone who got in his way, and left France stronger and healthier than he found it.
20th May '18 8:58:24 AM costanton11
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* ''Hugues Capet'' (reigned 987-996). Grandson of Robert I. He had been a major mover-and-shaker in France from the reign of Louis IV until his own election as king in 987. His dynasty, the Capetians, is the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in European history; Capetians still sit on the thrones of modern-day Spain and Luxembourg. Something of a MagnificentBastard; although the powers of the French King had been weak (Capet himself risked being held for ransom if he left his bailiwick of the Ile-De-France), he was able to have his son Robert crowned as co-monarch during his own rule; this practice (which continued for quite some time) kept the Crown lands away from the Frankish partible-inheritance laws and enabled his successors to gradually centralize power (if there is one king, and he dies, then the royal land[[note]]''Not'', by this point, the royal title or the kingdom; the land at issue was the royal demesne, i.e. the land the king owned/ruled as local lord without any great nobles in the way; the demesne was the source of a disproportionately large part of the royal income, as the king could (1) be more certain that tax revenue would be assessed and sent to his treasury, and (2) much of the wealth in the demesne, like the land, was his personal property. The smaller the demesne, the poorer the king, the harder it is to keep the nobles in line. On the other hand, keep your demesne intact, and you can expand the demesne by making strategic marriages to heiresses, figuring out ways to take land from nobles by force, and sometimes just outright buying it.[[/note]] is divided among his sons; but if there are ''two'' kings, and one dies, the surviving one keeps the whole thing--talk about LoopholeAbuse!). His nickname comes from the fact that he often wore a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cope cope]] (''chape'' in French) because he was lay abbot of Saint-Martin-de-Tours.

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* ''Hugues Capet'' (reigned 987-996). Grandson of Robert I. He had been a major mover-and-shaker in France from the reign of Louis IV until his own election as king in 987. His dynasty, the Capetians, is the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in European history; Capetians still sit on the thrones of modern-day Spain and Luxembourg. Something of a MagnificentBastard; although Although the powers of the French King had been weak (Capet himself risked being held for ransom if he left his bailiwick of the Ile-De-France), he was able to have his son Robert crowned as co-monarch during his own rule; this practice (which continued for quite some time) kept the Crown lands away from the Frankish partible-inheritance laws and enabled his successors to gradually centralize power (if there is one king, and he dies, then the royal land[[note]]''Not'', by this point, the royal title or the kingdom; the land at issue was the royal demesne, i.e. the land the king owned/ruled as local lord without any great nobles in the way; the demesne was the source of a disproportionately large part of the royal income, as the king could (1) be more certain that tax revenue would be assessed and sent to his treasury, and (2) much of the wealth in the demesne, like the land, was his personal property. The smaller the demesne, the poorer the king, the harder it is to keep the nobles in line. On the other hand, keep your demesne intact, and you can expand the demesne by making strategic marriages to heiresses, figuring out ways to take land from nobles by force, and sometimes just outright buying it.[[/note]] is divided among his sons; but if there are ''two'' kings, and one dies, the surviving one keeps the whole thing--talk about LoopholeAbuse!). His nickname comes from the fact that he often wore a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cope cope]] (''chape'' in French) because he was lay abbot of Saint-Martin-de-Tours.



* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.

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* ''Philippe IV the Fair'' (1285-1314) was Philippe III's eldest son by Isabel de Aragón. His mother was killed in 1271 after tumbling from her horse while pregnant. Philippe himself grew up to be good-looking (he was called ''le Bel'', the handsome) but cold and merciless -- his enemy the bishop of Pamiers declared he was neither man nor beast, but a statue. He is best known for arresting and otherwise humiliating the Pope (Boniface VIII at the time), [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome a feat the Holy German Emperors had previously failed to achieve despite trying for decades]]. He later [[MagnificentBastard got a French pope elected]], elected, who moved to France (Avignon). The other thing he is remembered for is ordering [[ThePurge the arrests, tortures, and executions of hundreds of]] [[UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar Templars]] in 1307 for heresy, [[{{Greed}} getting his hands on their fortune]] in the process. The pope Clement V was his pawn and conspirator in destroying the Knights Templar. The Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, was burnt to death in March 1314; according to legend, [[DyingCurse he cursed both Philippe and Clement and declared he'd meet them again before God before the year was out]]. Clement V died that April, followed by Philippe in November.



* ''Charles V [[MagnificentBastard the Wise]]'' (reigned 1364-1380) was Jean's son. Through a combination of pluck, bribery, and dirty fighting (often performed by the Constable Bertrand du Guesclin, who once conquered a castle by [[MagnificentBastard dressing his soldiers like the opponent]]), he managed to recover much of the territory the English had seized from the French crown. He died in 1380, leaving the throne to his [[AChildShallLeadThem 12-year-old son]].

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* ''Charles V [[MagnificentBastard the Wise]]'' Wise'' (reigned 1364-1380) was Jean's son. Through a combination of pluck, bribery, and dirty fighting (often performed by the Constable Bertrand du Guesclin, who once conquered a castle by [[MagnificentBastard dressing his soldiers like the opponent]]), opponent), he managed to recover much of the territory the English had seized from the French crown. He died in 1380, leaving the throne to his [[AChildShallLeadThem 12-year-old son]].



* ''Napoléon III'' (reigned 1852-1870) was both the first president and last emperor of France. A nephew of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte I, he got himself elected president in 1848, and then Emperor of the French in 1852. In 1870 he was deposed and died in exile three years later. Was a successful domestic leader, building a lot of important public works and infrastructure, but proved to be an international blusterer and sometimes blunderer. He more than any other French monarch helped catalyze its' rise as a modern colonial power. He won wars from Tunisia to Vietnam and annexing Indochina, Tunisia, much of sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific islands to the French Empire. In addition, [[GambitPileup he willingly allowed himself into being manipulated into allowing Sardinia to support France and Britain in the CrimeanWar, paving the way for Count Camillo Benso di Cavour]] (MagnificentBastard No. 1) to "you owe me one" that led to the crushing of their mutual enemy the Habsburg Empire and allowing the unification of UsefulNotes/{{Italy}}, giving UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} a kneecap it would never recover from. However, he fumbled into a long-lasting war in UsefulNotes/{{Mexico}} after trying to conquer it by installing a puppet ruler, giving that country UsefulNotes/CincoDeMayo as a national holiday. Also proved to be ridiculously susceptible to [[MagnificentBastard Magnificent Bastardry]], falling for the bait that UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck (Magnificent Bastard No. 2) had laid, starting the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar and allowing for the establishment of the bane of France... [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany a united Germany]].

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* ''Napoléon III'' (reigned 1852-1870) was both the first president and last emperor of France. A nephew of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte I, he got himself elected president in 1848, and then Emperor of the French in 1852. In 1870 he was deposed and died in exile three years later. Was a successful domestic leader, building a lot of important public works and infrastructure, but proved to be an international blusterer and sometimes blunderer. He more than any other French monarch helped catalyze its' rise as a modern colonial power. He won wars from Tunisia to Vietnam and annexing Indochina, Tunisia, much of sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific islands to the French Empire. In addition, [[GambitPileup he willingly allowed himself into being manipulated into allowing Sardinia to support France and Britain in the CrimeanWar, paving the way for Count Camillo Benso di Cavour]] (MagnificentBastard No. 1) to "you owe me one" that led to the crushing of their mutual enemy the Habsburg Empire and allowing the unification of UsefulNotes/{{Italy}}, giving UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} a kneecap it would never recover from. However, he fumbled into a long-lasting war in UsefulNotes/{{Mexico}} after trying to conquer it by installing a puppet ruler, giving that country UsefulNotes/CincoDeMayo as a national holiday. Also proved to be ridiculously susceptible to [[MagnificentBastard Magnificent Bastardry]], falling Fell for the bait that UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck (Magnificent Bastard No. 2) had laid, starting the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar and allowing for the establishment of the bane of France... [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany a united Germany]].
19th May '18 8:37:57 AM costanton11
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''For the rulers who were not monarchs, see UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance and the [[Characters/TheFrenchRevolution Characters page of the French Revolution]].''

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''For the rulers who were not monarchs, see UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance and the [[Characters/TheFrenchRevolution Characters page of the French Revolution]].''
UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance.
12th Apr '18 3:53:32 PM penguinist
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* ''Louis XVIII'' (claimant 1795-1814, reigned 1814-1815, 1815-1824) was Louis XVI's brother (it had become tradition for all princes to be given the name Louis). He escaped France in 1791. He returned after Napoléon's defeat in 1814 and secured himself on the throne. Wise enough to recognize that the French Revolution left permanent changes, he willingly made himself a constitutional monarch and kept the least threatening reforms of the Revolution in place. This made him popular enough to not face a revolution himself and France started to stabilize a bit under his reign. He died childless in 1824, leaving the throne to his surviving brother.
* ''Charles X'' (reigned 1824-1830) was the younger brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. Leader of the absolutist faction in the early stages of the Revolution, he left France since the 16th of July 1789 (only two days after the Storming of the Bastille) and thus escaped Madame Guillotine. Under Louis XVIII, he became the head of the Ultra-royalist political group, defined by Chateaubriand[[note]]Himself an Ultra-royalist[[/note]] as being "''plus royaliste que le roi''" i.e. "more royalist than the King". [[TooDumbToLive Charles X never internalised the lessons of the Revolution]] and the people revolted against him when he attempted a ScrewTheRulesIMakeThem move. He abdicated in favor of his grandson, but the Chamber of Deputies preferred to put a cousin, Louis-Philippe, on the throne.

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* ''Louis XVIII'' (claimant 1795-1814, reigned 1814-1815, 1815-1824) was Louis XVI's brother (it had become tradition for all princes to be given the name Louis). He escaped France in 1791. He returned after Napoléon's defeat in 1814 and secured himself on the throne. Wise enough to recognize that the French Revolution left permanent changes, he willingly made himself a constitutional monarch and kept the least threatening reforms of the Revolution in place. This made him popular enough to not face a revolution himself and France started to stabilize a bit under his reign. He died childless in 1824, leaving the throne to his surviving brother.
brother. Referred to in works set before his ascension as Comte de Provence or "Monsieur".[[note]][[NotMakingThisUpDisclaimer No, really.]] That was a title for the king's eldest brother, literally meaning "my lord".[[/note]]
* ''Charles X'' (reigned 1824-1830) was the younger brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. Leader of the absolutist faction in the early stages of the Revolution, he left France since on the 16th of July 1789 (only two days after the Storming of the Bastille) and thus escaped Madame Guillotine. Under Louis XVIII, he became the head of the Ultra-royalist political group, defined by Chateaubriand[[note]]Himself an Ultra-royalist[[/note]] as being "''plus royaliste que le roi''" i.e. "more royalist than the King". [[TooDumbToLive Charles X never internalised the lessons of the Revolution]] and the people revolted against him when he attempted a ScrewTheRulesIMakeThem move. He abdicated in favor of his grandson, but the Chamber of Deputies preferred to put a cousin, Louis-Philippe, on the throne. Referred to in works set before his ascension as Comte d'Artois or (after his brother's ascension) "Monsieur".
12th Apr '18 3:32:05 PM penguinist
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* ''Lothair'' (reigned 954-986) was Louis IV' son, and became king at the age of 13 on his father's sudden death. He constantly waged war on his own vassals, on the count of Flanders, on the HRE Otto II, and [[TakeOurWordForIt probably some others]].

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* ''Lothair'' (reigned 954-986) was Louis IV' IV's son, and became king at the age of 13 on his father's sudden death. He constantly waged war on his own vassals, on the count of Flanders, on the HRE Otto II, and [[TakeOurWordForIt probably some others]].



* ''Saint Louis (Louis IX)'' (reigned 1226-1270) was Louis and Blanca's eldest son, and the only French king to be canonized as a saint. He married Marguerite de Provence; her sisters were the queen of England, the queen of Germany, and the queen of Sicily. Extremely pious, he considered it his duty to lead two Crusades to the Holy Land, both of which ended in complete disaster -- in 1250 his army was destroyed and Louis himself was captured by the Egyptians. He died in 1270 at Tunis during the Eighth Crusade.

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* ''Saint Louis (Louis IX)'' (reigned 1226-1270) was Louis and Blanca's eldest son, and the only French king to be canonized commonly referred to as a saint.saint [[note]] though not the only one to be canonized, as both Clovis I and Charlemagne were accorded this as well [[/note]]. He married Marguerite de Provence; her sisters were the queen of England, the queen of Germany, and the queen of Sicily. Extremely pious, he considered it his duty to lead two Crusades to the Holy Land, both of which ended in complete disaster -- in 1250 his army was destroyed and Louis himself was captured by the Egyptians. He died in 1270 at Tunis during the Eighth Crusade.
1st Feb '18 6:56:54 PM Malady
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* ''Pepin I the Short'' (reigned 752-768). Son of Charles Martel. His wife was called "Berthe au Grand Pied", or "Big-Footed Bertha". Yes, really. Campaigned in Italy against the Lombards, becoming the protector of the Popes. Created the PapalStates. Also campaigned against the Emirate of Cordoba and the Duchy of Aquitaine, successfully annexing Narbonne and setting the stage for further conquests in the Mediterranean coast.

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* ''Pepin I the Short'' (reigned 752-768). Son of Charles Martel. His wife was called "Berthe au Grand Pied", or "Big-Footed Bertha". Yes, really. Campaigned in Italy against the Lombards, becoming the protector of the Popes. Created the PapalStates.UsefulNotes/ThePapalStates. Also campaigned against the Emirate of Cordoba and the Duchy of Aquitaine, successfully annexing Narbonne and setting the stage for further conquests in the Mediterranean coast.
27th Jan '18 11:47:34 AM nombretomado
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* Charles VI and his family are portrayed quite unfavourably in WilliamShakespeare's ''HenryV'', which makes sense considering it is technically propaganda (save perhaps his daughter Catherine of Valois, whom Henry V married as per the Treaty of Troyes.)

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* Charles VI and his family are portrayed quite unfavourably in WilliamShakespeare's ''HenryV'', Creator/WilliamShakespeare's ''Theatre/HenryV'', which makes sense considering it is technically propaganda (save perhaps his daughter Catherine of Valois, whom Henry V married as per the Treaty of Troyes.)
11th Dec '17 8:08:20 PM costanton11
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* ''Louis XII'' (reigned 1498-1515), "the Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple), was Duke of Orleans, a great-grandson of Charles V, and cousin to Charles VIII. He married Charles' [[ComfortingTheWidow widow]], Anne de Bretagne, upon becoming king, following a seedy divorce from his first wife (allegations of witchcraft and deformities flew thick and fast from both sides). He and Anne had two daughters, but no sons. After his queen died, the 52-year-old Louis married the 18-year-old Mary Tudor, sister of the notorious UsefulNotes/HenryVIII of England, and died three months later, [[OutWithABang allegedly worn out by his new bride]].

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* ''Louis XII'' (reigned 1498-1515), "the Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple), was Duke of Orleans, a great-grandson of Charles V, and cousin to Charles VIII. He married Charles' [[ComfortingTheWidow widow]], Anne de Bretagne, upon becoming king, following a seedy divorce from his first wife wife, Charles VIII's sister (allegations of witchcraft and deformities flew thick and fast from both sides). He and Anne had two daughters, but no sons. After his queen died, the 52-year-old Louis married the 18-year-old Mary Tudor, sister of the notorious UsefulNotes/HenryVIII of England, and died three months later, [[OutWithABang allegedly worn out by his new bride]].
6th Nov '17 7:21:38 PM JulianLapostat
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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited Creator/LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars with his arch-rival Charles V of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (Carlos I of Spain) and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.

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* ''François I'' (reigned 1515-1547), comte d'Angoulême before becoming King, was yet another cousin, also descended from Charles V. He was also married to Louis XII's eldest surviving daughter, Claude. Cultured, sophisticated, and a patron of the arts (he invited Creator/LeonardoDaVinci to live in France, owned the '[[MonaLisaSmile Mona Lisa]]', ''Art/TheMonaLisa'', and spent lots of money to upgrade numerous castles). He got involved in disastrous wars with his arch-rival Charles V of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (Carlos I of Spain) and was held hostage in Madrid for awhile. He occasionally appears in fiction and media about Henry VIII, as the two knew each other and liked to wrestle. He died in 1547.
15th Oct '17 3:23:53 PM nombretomado
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Louis Philippe himself fought with distinction in the early Revolutionary Wars, but got caught up in a plot with the Austrians to restore the constitutional monarchy established in 1791. He spent the next several years in exile, at first in Switzerland, but later went to America (!) before settling in England. He returned from exile after Napoleon's defeat. The Chamber of Deputies proclaimed him King in preference to Charles X's descendants in 1830, establishing a constitutional monarchy with some but highly limited powers for the King. The July Monarchy--as Louis-Philippe's regime was called--is considered to be an era in which the cautious, liberal bourgeoisie was most firmly in control of the country, slowly building a slightly more democratic regime, with the King acting as slow-builder-in-chief. Slightly, because censorship was very active, and only people who owned a certain amount of property (i.e. the rich, or at least the reasonably-well-off) could vote. Of course, at the time, there were few places where anyone ''but'' the rich could vote (even in America, it was only in the 1830s that some states abolished property requirements, and it wasn't until 1860 or so that they were abandoned everywhere); it would thus be quite fair to call the July Monarchy what it more or less aspired to be: "[[BritishPoliticalSystem England]], but French." It should come as no surprise that ''the'' prototypical tale of boring balanced bourgeois rationality, ''Literature/MadameBovary'', is set during Louis Philippe's reign. So self-consciously bourgeois was the era that the King himself was known to stroll around Paris with his own rolled-up umbrella. The building proved to be too slow, and despite the umbrella-carrying, another revolution in 1848 forced Louis-Philippe to abdicate in favor of his grandson Philippe; the Deputies were willing to keep the constitutional monarchy and install Philippe as King, but public opinion forced the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a Second Republic.

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Louis Philippe himself fought with distinction in the early Revolutionary Wars, but got caught up in a plot with the Austrians to restore the constitutional monarchy established in 1791. He spent the next several years in exile, at first in Switzerland, but later went to America (!) before settling in England. He returned from exile after Napoleon's defeat. The Chamber of Deputies proclaimed him King in preference to Charles X's descendants in 1830, establishing a constitutional monarchy with some but highly limited powers for the King. The July Monarchy--as Louis-Philippe's regime was called--is considered to be an era in which the cautious, liberal bourgeoisie was most firmly in control of the country, slowly building a slightly more democratic regime, with the King acting as slow-builder-in-chief. Slightly, because censorship was very active, and only people who owned a certain amount of property (i.e. the rich, or at least the reasonably-well-off) could vote. Of course, at the time, there were few places where anyone ''but'' the rich could vote (even in America, it was only in the 1830s that some states abolished property requirements, and it wasn't until 1860 or so that they were abandoned everywhere); it would thus be quite fair to call the July Monarchy what it more or less aspired to be: "[[BritishPoliticalSystem "[[UsefulNotes/BritishPoliticalSystem England]], but French." It should come as no surprise that ''the'' prototypical tale of boring balanced bourgeois rationality, ''Literature/MadameBovary'', is set during Louis Philippe's reign. So self-consciously bourgeois was the era that the King himself was known to stroll around Paris with his own rolled-up umbrella. The building proved to be too slow, and despite the umbrella-carrying, another revolution in 1848 forced Louis-Philippe to abdicate in favor of his grandson Philippe; the Deputies were willing to keep the constitutional monarchy and install Philippe as King, but public opinion forced the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a Second Republic.
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