History UsefulNotes / KuKluxKlan

29th Sep '17 12:00:02 AM DemonDuckofDoom
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America's oldest terrorist organization and one of the most famous hate groups in the world, the Ku Klux Klan was founded by six Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1865. The name was chosen from the Greek word for circle, "''kuklos''" (κύκλος) to symbolize their bond as brothers, since the group was designed to be a fraternity by the aforementioned veterans (who were well-educated in Latin and Greek) shortly after the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar Civil War]]. However, as the group grew in popularity, its members quickly turned to violence towards newly freed blacks and "Yankees". In a short amount of time, the KKK became a dire threat to Reconstruction, but was put down by various laws and arrests (and actions taken from within the Klan) in the 1870s, finally coming to an end at some point during the decade.

to:

America's oldest terrorist organization and one of the most famous hate groups in the world, the Ku Klux Klan was founded by six Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1865. The name was chosen from the Greek word for circle, "''kuklos''" (κύκλος) to symbolize their bond as brothers, since the group was designed to be a fraternity by the aforementioned veterans (who were well-educated in Latin and Greek) shortly after the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar Civil War]]. However, as the group grew in popularity, its members quickly turned to violence towards newly freed blacks and "Yankees".Northerners ("Yankees"). In a short amount of time, the KKK became a dire threat to Reconstruction, but was put down by various laws and arrests (and actions taken from within the Klan) in the 1870s, finally coming to an end at some point during the decade.
24th Aug '17 1:04:45 PM ImperialMajestyXO
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Beginning in the 1920s, it's become fairly common for the KKK to be referred to as "fascist", with [[EaglelandOsmosis some observers even theorizing that fascism must have begun in America since the Klan preceded Mussolini and Hitler by over half a century]]. This is probably due to the popular "racism equals fascism" fallacy. While it is true that the second incarnation of the Klan (and, to a lesser extent, subsequent Klans) displayed an extreme form of patriotism not unlike the nationalism found in fascist countries, there have been two important differences. First, fascism is (usually) a strictly secular philosophy, and from the very beginning all forms of the Klan have trafficked in religious or at least supernatural imagery. Second, fascism is very statist (focused on centralization of a nation's government), while the original incarnation of the Klan was, in part, a ''regionalist'' backlash against the statist policies of Reconstruction. Because of such differences, the Klan and Nazis despised each other when both were enjoying their heyday. Now, of course, their successors are far more friendly.

to:

Beginning in the 1920s, it's become fairly common for the KKK to be referred to as "fascist", with [[EaglelandOsmosis some observers even theorizing that fascism must have begun in America since the Klan preceded Mussolini and Hitler by over half a century]]. This is probably due to the popular "racism equals fascism" fallacy. While it is true that the second incarnation of the Klan (and, to a lesser extent, subsequent Klans) displayed an extreme form of patriotism not unlike the nationalism ultranationalism found in fascist countries, there have been two important differences. First, fascism is (usually) a strictly secular philosophy, and from the very beginning all forms of the Klan have trafficked in religious or at least supernatural imagery. Second, fascism is very statist (focused on centralization of a nation's government), while the original incarnation of the Klan was, in part, a ''regionalist'' backlash against the statist policies of Reconstruction. Because of such differences, the Klan and Nazis despised each other when both were enjoying their heyday. Now, of course, their successors are far more friendly.
1st Jul '17 5:07:49 PM nombretomado
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* The Third Klan (1945-1970s): This is the Klan most modern Americans remember. The Third Klan was formed out of several smaller Klans to combat the UsefulNotes/CivilRightsMovement, beginning in the 1950's with a Klan in Birmingham, Alabama resisting social change, which eventually gave way to a series of bombings throughout the city, which gained the nickname "[[WretchedHive Bombing]][[NamesToRunAwayFromReallyFast ham]]" as a result. As the Klans unified to form one single Klan in the 1960's, Alabama (and especially Birmingham) would find themselves at the center of Klan activity, with several police departments and even governor George C. Wallace forging an alliance with the Klan, which operated with near impunity. A particularly notable example of how close the Klan and the police were at that time came when the Freedom Riders[[note]]a group of civil rights activists who rode buses into the segregated parts of the South; TheOtherWiki has more information for the curious.[[/note]] came to Birmingham in 1961. Commissioner Bull Connor and Sargent Tom Cook famously gave the Klan (armed with bats, iron bars, and chains) fifteen minutes to attack the group before the police would get involved and start making arrests, with white riders being singled out for especially savage beatings. Violent murders and attacks from Klan members continued through the rest of the decade, even after Civil Rights legislation had passed, with the Klan finally dissolving into various smaller groups sometime around the mid-1970s, after increasing pressure from the FBI[[note]]who had paid informants in the Klan dating back to the 50's, however J. Edgar Hoover considered communists to be a bigger threat to American safety, and as a result, several crucial pieces of information such as evidence implicating four people in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing of 1963 were not revealed to prosecutors or the general public until around this time[[/note]] and local police, making this Klan the last fully unified Ku Klux Klan, with no single Klan remaining by 1980.

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* The Third Klan (1945-1970s): This is the Klan most modern Americans remember. The Third Klan was formed out of several smaller Klans to combat the UsefulNotes/CivilRightsMovement, beginning in the 1950's with a Klan in Birmingham, Alabama resisting social change, which eventually gave way to a series of bombings throughout the city, which gained the nickname "[[WretchedHive Bombing]][[NamesToRunAwayFromReallyFast ham]]" as a result. As the Klans unified to form one single Klan in the 1960's, Alabama (and especially Birmingham) would find themselves at the center of Klan activity, with several police departments and even governor George C. Wallace forging an alliance with the Klan, which operated with near impunity. A particularly notable example of how close the Klan and the police were at that time came when the Freedom Riders[[note]]a group of civil rights activists who rode buses into the segregated parts of the South; TheOtherWiki Wiki/TheOtherWiki has more information for the curious.[[/note]] came to Birmingham in 1961. Commissioner Bull Connor and Sargent Tom Cook famously gave the Klan (armed with bats, iron bars, and chains) fifteen minutes to attack the group before the police would get involved and start making arrests, with white riders being singled out for especially savage beatings. Violent murders and attacks from Klan members continued through the rest of the decade, even after Civil Rights legislation had passed, with the Klan finally dissolving into various smaller groups sometime around the mid-1970s, after increasing pressure from the FBI[[note]]who had paid informants in the Klan dating back to the 50's, however J. Edgar Hoover considered communists to be a bigger threat to American safety, and as a result, several crucial pieces of information such as evidence implicating four people in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing of 1963 were not revealed to prosecutors or the general public until around this time[[/note]] and local police, making this Klan the last fully unified Ku Klux Klan, with no single Klan remaining by 1980.
5th Mar '17 7:58:40 PM mkmckoy
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-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''[[note]]Of course, Griffith took the quote vastly put of context, with Wilson spending most of the same chapter condemning the Klan.[[/note]]

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-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''[[note]]Of course, Griffith took the quote vastly put out of context, with Wilson spending most of the same chapter condemning the Klan.[[/note]]
15th Nov '16 2:22:07 PM LondonKdS
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See also TheKlan, which is a trope portraying the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups in fiction.

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See also TheKlan, which is a trope portraying For fictional depictions of the Ku Klux Klan Klan, and similar groups in fiction.
fictional organisations [[NoCelebritiesWereHarmed clearly based on them]], see TheKlan.
2nd Nov '16 12:01:28 PM aolbain
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-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''

to:

-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''
''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''[[note]]Of course, Griffith took the quote vastly put of context, with Wilson spending most of the same chapter condemning the Klan.[[/note]]
8th Sep '16 2:50:10 PM MarkLungo
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-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation''

to:

-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation''
''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915''



In the 1910's, a second Klan was formed as a response to immigrants from Eastern Europe, most of whom were either Catholic or Jewish, although they still continued their violence towards African-Americans, especially after ''Film/TheBirthOfANation'' was released in 1915. Within a decade, several politicians, churches, and schools openly endorsed or were endorsed by the Klan, with over four million members calling themselves Klansmen. However, after a series of scandals, the Klan waned in both power and numbers during the Great Depression and World War II -- only to come back in the 1950's and 60's as a third Klan, this time with the goal of fighting the Civil Rights Movement. This movement fizzled out as well, and in the 1970s, the Ku Klux Klan decentralized and broke off into various splinter groups that have taken root across the United States. By 1980, there was no single Klan, and as of today, there still isn't.

to:

In the 1910's, a second Klan was formed as a response to immigrants from Eastern Europe, most of whom were either Catholic or Jewish, although they still continued their violence towards African-Americans, especially after ''Film/TheBirthOfANation'' ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915'' was released in 1915.released. Within a decade, several politicians, churches, and schools openly endorsed or were endorsed by the Klan, with over four million members calling themselves Klansmen. However, after a series of scandals, the Klan waned in both power and numbers during the Great Depression TheGreatDepression and World War II UsefulNotes/WorldWarII -- only to come back in the 1950's and 60's as a third Klan, this time with the goal of fighting the Civil Rights Movement. This movement fizzled out as well, and in the 1970s, the Ku Klux Klan decentralized and broke off into various splinter groups that have taken root across the United States. By 1980, there was no single Klan, and as of today, there still isn't.



* The Second Klan (1915-1944): The most powerful though arguably least well-known iteration of the Ku Klux Klan, the Second Klan was founded as a response to the waves of immigrants from Eastern Europe, most of whom were either Catholic or Jewish, as well as [[TheRedStapler inspiration]] from the film ''Film/TheBirthOfANation'' which glorified the First Klan. Black audiences were ''infuriated'' at their depiction in the movie (keep in mind, there were practically ''zero'' positive depictions of the black community back then, and the film painted over an entire group of people as inferior, violent, and sex-crazed bunch of maniacs who were a threat to the white race), but the film gained popularity in the United States regardless, and eventually took the "honor" of being the first film screened at the White House by president Woodrow Wilson, who is reported to have said, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true." Whether he ''actually'' said this is [[BeamMeUpScotty hotly disputed]], though it wouldn't have been out of line with his general attitudes about race. Within ten years, the popularity of the Klan grew immensely, with membership peaking at around six million in 1924 (one year before the Klan's famous parade through Washington, D.C.), and Klan membership was almost a necessity to run for public office in many states. However, a series of scandals -- most notably the rape, murder, and apparent cannibalism trial of Indiana Grand Dragon D.C. Stephenson -- destroyed the Klan's reputation as defenders of law and order, sending it into decline during the late '20s and '30s. They finally died out in 1944. A lot of the common images of the Klan, such as conical hats, white robes, and burning crosses, started here. Klan violence during this time also led to the formation of the Jewish Anti-Defamation League, today one of the chief civil rights/anti-racism organizations.

to:

* The Second Klan (1915-1944): The most powerful though arguably least well-known iteration of the Ku Klux Klan, the Second Klan was founded as a response to the waves of immigrants from Eastern Europe, most of whom were either Catholic or Jewish, as well as [[TheRedStapler inspiration]] from the film ''Film/TheBirthOfANation'' ''Film/TheBirthOfANation1915'' which glorified the First Klan. Black audiences were ''infuriated'' at their depiction in the movie (keep in mind, there were practically ''zero'' positive depictions of the black community back then, and the film painted over an entire group of people as inferior, violent, and sex-crazed bunch of maniacs who were a threat to the white race), but the film gained popularity in the United States regardless, and eventually took the "honor" of being the first film screened at the White House by president Woodrow Wilson, who is reported to have said, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true." Whether he ''actually'' said this is [[BeamMeUpScotty hotly disputed]], though it wouldn't have been out of line with his general attitudes about race. Within ten years, the popularity of the Klan grew immensely, with membership peaking at around six million in 1924 (one year before the Klan's famous parade through Washington, D.C.), and Klan membership was almost a necessity to run for public office in many states. However, a series of scandals -- most notably the rape, murder, and apparent cannibalism trial of Indiana Grand Dragon D.C. Stephenson -- destroyed the Klan's reputation as defenders of law and order, sending it into decline during the late '20s and '30s. They finally died out in 1944. A lot of the common images of the Klan, such as conical hats, white robes, and burning crosses, started here. Klan violence during this time also led to the formation of the Jewish Anti-Defamation League, today one of the chief civil rights/anti-racism organizations.
28th Aug '16 11:10:28 PM Fireblood
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Beginning in the 1920s, it's become fairly common for the KKK to be referred to as "fascist", with [[EaglelandOsmosis some observers even theorizing that fascism must have begun in America since the Klan preceded Mussolini and Hitler by over half a century]]. This is probably due to the popular "racism equals fascism" fallacy. While it is true that the second incarnation of the Klan (and, to a lesser extent, subsequent Klans) displayed an extreme form of patriotism not unlike the nationalism found in fascist countries, there have been two important differences. First, fascism is (usually) a strictly secular philosophy, and from the very beginning all forms of the Klan have trafficked in religious or at least supernatural imagery. Second, fascism is very statist (focused on centralization of a nation's government), while the original incarnation of the Klan was, in part, a ''regionalist'' backlash against the statist policies of Reconstruction.

to:

Beginning in the 1920s, it's become fairly common for the KKK to be referred to as "fascist", with [[EaglelandOsmosis some observers even theorizing that fascism must have begun in America since the Klan preceded Mussolini and Hitler by over half a century]]. This is probably due to the popular "racism equals fascism" fallacy. While it is true that the second incarnation of the Klan (and, to a lesser extent, subsequent Klans) displayed an extreme form of patriotism not unlike the nationalism found in fascist countries, there have been two important differences. First, fascism is (usually) a strictly secular philosophy, and from the very beginning all forms of the Klan have trafficked in religious or at least supernatural imagery. Second, fascism is very statist (focused on centralization of a nation's government), while the original incarnation of the Klan was, in part, a ''regionalist'' backlash against the statist policies of Reconstruction.
Reconstruction. Because of such differences, the Klan and Nazis despised each other when both were enjoying their heyday. Now, of course, their successors are far more friendly.
5th Jan '16 1:22:50 AM JulianLapostat
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5th Jan '16 1:22:43 AM JulianLapostat
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-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People''

to:

-->-- UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson, ''A History of the American People''
People'', retained as an intertitle in ''Film/TheBirthOfANation''
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