History UsefulNotes / KatanasOfTheRisingSun

10th Apr '17 2:03:55 PM brianify
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!!Tropes about the Japanese Military in fiction:
* BeamMeUpScotty:
** The Japanese Navy never called the type 93 torpedo the "Long Lance". That term was coined by American historian [[Literature/HistoryOfUSNavalOperationsInWorldWarII Samuel Eliot Morrison]] after the war. It was so evocative that it stuck.

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!!Tropes about the Japanese Military Military:
* AcePilot: Saburo Sakai. Japan's second ranking ace. Doubles as TheDeterminator: shot through the head and blinded
in fiction:
* BeamMeUpScotty:
one eye, he pulled his plane out of a lethal dive and flew it back to Rabaul in a four hour, six hundred mile flight while partially paralyzed. Then he insisted on making his report before getting medical attention.
** Other pilots like him, however, were not so lucky, with most of them fighting on until they got killed in combat.
** Part of Japan's last gasp defense included gathering all of the Imperial Navy' surviving ace pilots (including Sakai) into one fighter group of Aces, the 343rd ''Kokutai'' under the command of Minoru Genda (the architect of the Pearl Harbor raid) and equipped with the last of the good quality gasoline and the limited numbers of the Kawanishi [=N1K1=] ''Shiden-Kai'' they were able to produce.
* AndThenWhat: Japan would have been much better off had its leadership considered this question at several stages, particularly at the start of launching their two main fronts, China and the Pacific. The Japanese high command, with a simplistic and propaganda-influenced view of foreigners, believed the primitive Chinese and self-absorbed Americans would sue for peace if they were simply dealt a series of hard blows. What they did not ask themselves was what would happen if they did not fold; China was too vast to conquer, and the U.S.' industrial might was too great to hold off for long. What they got, therefore, was a two-front war against effectively unbeatable opponents.
* AwesomeButImpractical: Partly in anticipation of being outnumbered in any major war right from the start, the Imperial Japanese Navy had a tendency towards wanting to have the ''individually'' biggest and baddest of something, regardless of its actual use. Case in point ''Yamato''-class battleships: when ''Yamato'' was launched it was the most powerful example of a ship type that had just been rendered obsolete. ''Yamato'' and ''Musashi'' went on to borderline-embarrassing careers of being held back from fighting because they guzzled large amounts of oil, the very resource Japan was critically low on and had gone to war to seize. When they finally were committed to battle ''Yamato'' scored no confirmed kills before turning away to dodge torpedoes from a handful of tiny American destroyers and destroyer escorts that each weighed less than one of her gun turrets. Her sister ship ''Musashi'' never even got this far, having been sunk by carrier aircraft before even seeing an enemy vessel. ''Yamato's'' final mission saw her and 5 of her escorts at the bottom of the Pacific, managing to down a piddling 10 American planes in the process. The best that can be said about them is that their massive bulk and incredibly thick armor did result in the ability to absorb a very large number of hits before going under (and since the Americans weren't exactly running out of explosives, this is a very small accomplishment indeed).
** The IJN were also obsessed with outranging their enemies, which resulted in some good things (the Zero fighter and the legendary Type 93 ''Sanso Gyorai'' "Long Lance" torpedo) and others which fell clearly into this category. However, this strategy ultimately failed because they did not pay sufficient attention to the RequiredSecondaryPowers of reconnaissance and intelligence. Superior range not only requires superior speed (which the IJN consistently recognized and achieved) it also requires superior knowledge of your opponent's location and intentions (which the IJN consistently failed to recognize or achieve).
*** The Type 91 and Type 0 "diving" shells, designed to follow a reliable underwater trajectory when they fell short, theoretically increasing the odds of a hit against vulnerable parts of a ship below waterline. Unfortunately, this made them very unreliable when they scored a direct hit above water and prone to passing clean through unarmored targets without even exploding (see ''Yamato'' above; this is a major part of why it performed so pitifully against those destroyers), more than negating any advantage gained. About the only achievement of the shells was, admittedly, very impressive - the Yamato is believed to have scored one of the longest ranged hits by any battleship gun (counting "hit" as a shell working the way it was intended) off Samar, when a diving shell plunged below a CVE and detonated such that her hull took damage from below.
*** The Mitsubishi [=G4M3=] medium bomber (Allied code name "Betty") sacrificed bomb load, defensive armament, armor and self-sealing fuel tanks for speed and enormous range to allow them to support a fleet battle far out at sea. Unfortunately flying them beyond the range of their fighter escorts quickly proved to be suicidal, meaning they'd sacrificed basic survivability and effectiveness for extreme range they couldn't use.
*** Type 98 mortar shells. Good for scaring the enemy, not good for much else.
*** The I-400 class aircraft carrying submarines. An impressive technical achievement and perhaps strategically effective for reconnaisance but incapable of inflicting significant damage on an enemy, as they could carry only three planes[[note]]Not to mention how easy would be for a destroyer to detect something so big and unmaneuverable underwater.[[/note]]
*** The 8-8 Fleet program was the 1920s belief that Japan needed a fleet of 8 modern battleships and 8 battlecruisers to defend the Home Islands. It was never carried out; partially because of the Washington Naval Treaty, partially because there was no way Japan could have afforded it.
* [[BadassArmy Badass Navy]] : The IJN. [[BadassDecay Initially]].
** The Imperial Japanese Army almost counts as a BadassArmy because it had such an incredible amount of pluck. But it had almost no sophistication or finesse unlike the Imperial Japanese Navy, and Allied troops tended to "give" several times more than they "received" from the IJA. The reverse was true, however, for much of the war in China since most (but not all) Chinese 'troops' were poorly coordinated formations of ill-equipped and ill-led irregulars and militiamen under abysmal leadership.
* BatmanGambit: Attempted by the IJN but not with much success. The Midway operation was based on the idea that the U.S. forces would react in exactly a certain way. See also ComplexityAddiction. It certainly didn't help that, since the IJN's radio codes had been broken, ''the U.S. forces knew how the Japanese wanted them to react''.
** Ironically, the one time that a Japanese BatmanGambit sort-of succeeded (the Battle of Leyte Gulf, where U.S. Admiral Halsey reacted just as intended and left his center exposed), the main Japanese force pulled back after a token battle with a hugely inferior American flotilla. The Japanese were so used to being devastated by U.S. [[DefensiveFeintTrap traps]] that they couldn't believe that their plan had actually worked.
** In addition, the U.S. successfully pulled a BatmanGambit on the Japanese by tricking them into confirming that the codename "AF" stood for Midway by broadcasting an alert about a water shortage in the clear, banking on the Japanese to pass on that info in code that AF having a water shortage. Note that this wasn't done to convince the U.S. codebreakers in Hawaii - they knew they were right - it was done to convince the Naval Intelligence staff in Washington who wanted reassurance.
* TheBattlestar: Several examples in the Imperial Japanese Navy:
** The battleships ''Ise'' and ''Hyuga'', after the loss of four carriers at Midway, had the two aft guns replaced with facilities to store and launch a mix of seaplanes and dive bombers, with plans to modify another two old battleships in the same scheme. They were a failure, however, because of the lack of both planes and flight crews.
** The cruiser ''Mogami'' was modified too in an ''Ise''-like configuration, but just to operate seaplanes.
** The heavy cruisers of the ''Tone'' class had all turrets mounted forward, with the stern designed to use seaplanes. Unlike the previous examples they were designed from the start with that purpose in mind.
** Many large submarines had an hangar with a seaplane, or even two in a few. The ''I-400'' already mentioned was the epitome of this , being a very large submarine -the largest non-nuclear powered ever built- carrying three planes-.
* BeamMeUpScotty:
The Japanese Navy never called the type 93 torpedo the "Long Lance". That term was coined by American historian [[Literature/HistoryOfUSNavalOperationsInWorldWarII Samuel Eliot Morrison]] after the war. It was so evocative that it stuck.


Added DiffLines:

* BigBrotherInstinct: Many Americans felt this towards the Filipinos, and some also felt it towards the Chinese - they felt they had done a lot to prevent China from being carved up between the other Imperial powers, for instance, as a result of their 'Open Door' policy to China (The USA feared that a China dismembered by the other Imperial Powers would tax or even ban goods imported from the USA. As in her dealings with Latin America, an 'Open Door' policy suited her interests as it meant she could continue to trade with them on her own terms without the expense and unpopularity of actually having a formal Empire). [[UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt FDR]] in particular strongly believed that China had a rightful place as one of the world's great powers, a belief that tended to blind him to UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek's shortcomings as China's leader. Likewise the Japanese government promoted this kind of pan-Asian-solidarity as a post-facto means of legitimating their Asian Empire.
** The Japanese legitimately believed their propaganda. Tojo was crying during the formation of the East Asia Prosperity Sphere
*** Arguably some of the southeast Asian people believed it as well, at first... since the Japanese appeared to have liberated them from the European powers (Britain, Holland and France) that previously held so much sway over them. But it didn't take long for them to realize that Japanese domination was little better and often worse, particularly when the tide of war turned against Japan. The Filipinos were already well along in the process of becoming independent from the U.S. so they never really bought into it. Indonesians and Burmans, though, did, and the fact that the Japanese did more than any other power (by leaving all their arms to them) to help the Indonesians win their independence still haunts their politics.
* BiggerIsBetter: Some of the ship designers in the IJN had this idea when they built the ''Yamato''-class battleship, which still holds the record for largest battleship ever afloat. However, as the war demonstrated (detailed in ImpossiblyCoolWeapon below) size is not everything when it comes to battleship construction. Due to lower quality steel available to Japan, inferior projectile design, and less advanced fire control, the ''Yamato'' would actually have been pretty evenly matched with an ''Iowa''-class battleship, despite having larger guns and outweighing by more than 10,000 tons. Except the ''Iowa''-class battleships were [[LightningBruiser a good 20% faster]]. Add in that the ''Yamato'' used absolutely insane amounts of oil - the exact resource Japan was critically low on and started the Pacific war to obtain.
** The Yamato versus Iowa debate continues to rage on internet forums, but it is more likely that at short range the Iowa would be outclassed by Yamato's brute firepower and armor thickness, but at long range the Iowa's superior fire control and speed would allow it to dictate the terms of the engagement and pound away at the Yamato. A moot point in reality, because the Yamato was sent to the bottom by aircraft.


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* BottledHeroicResolve. Methamphetamine, called ''shabu'' in the Army parlance. Oh God, ''meth''. [[UpToEleven The whole Japanese army basically ran on meth]]. Under the trade name ''Philopon'' (by Sumitomo Pharma), meth was freely distributed the combat units, and Sumitomo Pharma [[http://flemingsbond.com/philopon-a-japanese-murder-drug/ had a dedicated methamphetamine factory]] to fulfill the needs of the army. The whole army ''basically was on tweek'' until 1944 (when logistics became a problem). The generals [[BlueAndOrangeMorality considered the side effects as assets]] - the dulling, emotion dumbing and empathy killing side effects of the meth were actually ''desired'' effects. The Japanese army ''wanted'' their soldiers to become drug-induced pseudo-psychopaths. The result was wanton cruelty in unassumable scale. Most Japanese war crimes were committed on methamphetamine.
* BritsWithBattleships: The Japanese selected the Royal Navy, then the world's greatest naval power, as their mentor and model for the new Imperial Japanese Navy; this emulation extended to almost absurd degrees, from many early Japanese vessels being built in British yards to the Japanese Naval Academy being made entirely of imported British bricks. More significantly, it meant that the Japanese Navy inherited many of the strengths of the WorldWarI-era Royal Navy (long range capability, seamanship, tenaciousness, formidable firepower and speed) along with its weaknesses (tactical inflexibility, lower emphasis on ship armor and survivability).
* BullyingADragon: What ''else'' can you call it when a resource-poor island nation with no geographic allies and an already overextended military attacks a country that has such an overwhelming advantage in supplies, industry, natural resources, manpower, logistical capability, and scientific research that there is simply no comparison? This is pretty much also WhatWereYouThinking and BrokeYourArmPunchingOutCthulhu, and led directly to many a CurbStompBattle that culminated in the surrender of Japan.
* CannonFodder: The Imperial Japanese Army was [[WeHaveReserves notoriously callous]] about the lives of its troops. Nicknames for the common infantryman such as "senrin" (0.011 yen, after the price of mailing a conscription notice) or "teppodama" (literally "bullets", in being ''that'' expendable). The Imperial Navy achieved this reputation among its airmen during their duty in the South Pacific: of the pilots who went to Rabaul, almost none ever came back, the IJN's pre-war aviators wasting away under the strain of combat in the most malignant theater in which a major war has ever been fought. Pilots were known to state that no one went home unless they were dead.
** Averted in China, where 'ordinary' Guomindang troops were almost always outnumbered by their Japanese counterparts. 'Help' from regional and local militia, and warlord troops, was little better and often worse than no help at all, especially when they ran for it. A trope frequently used by the Guomindang itself when they were forced to fight set-piece battles- they would use the militia and warlord troops (strengthened by as small as possible a force of 'corset-stiffeners', regular Guomindang troops) on the defense while they used their own troops to encircle the attacking Japanese forces ([[BloodKnight who were notoriously easily lured into frontal attacks in which they would frequently 'outrun' their supply lines]]).
*** Also averted in the Philippines where General Homma was conservative with his troops, to the point of being criticized by other officers.
* TheCaptain: Hara Tameichi, captain of ''Amatsukaze'' and later commander of Destroyer Squadron 27 aboard the legendary ''Shigure'', which came through several of the fiercest naval engagements of the war unscathed under his leadership. He was the captain of the light cruiser ''Yahagi'' which had accompanied the mighty ''Yamato'' on its death ride, and miraculously escaped unhurt despite his ship taking a nearly equal pounding as the giant battleship. He was highly critical of his superiors' inflexibility during the war and the ''only'' Japanese destroyer captain at the start of the war to survive and write a memoir of his experiences afterwards.
* ColdBloodedTorture: During World War II, it was known to tie the wounded to a tree, torture them and leave them with a sign that said "It took him a long time to die". [[MoralMyopia Naturally]], the Allies didn't like that.
** A common favorite of Japanese soldiers was to force bayonet blades or katanas into the vaginas of non-Japanese Asian women, most infamously during the Nanjing Massacre.
** Also notorious is when Japanese soldiers in trucks held bayonets and katanas off the side as they drove past the [=POWs=] of the Bataan Death March. Many times trucks and tanks would swerve to run over any prisoner who collapsed or otherwise fell out of the column.
** Unit 731 had an entire campaign where they casually vivisected civilians or prisoners of war to remove various organs or perform violent abortions without any anesthetic whatsoever.
** Then there were the many, many cases of captured soldiers or unlucky civilians being bound and promptly used for bayonet practice.
* CombatAestheticist: Japanese were into this in a big way, often to the detriment of [[CombatPragmatist pragmatism]].
** Case in point: Japanese aviators preferred coordinated dogfighting maneuvers like loops, rolls, immelmans, etc. while their allied counterparts preferred uncoordinated evasive maneuvers like skids, slips yaws, and snap rolls. Uncoordinated maneuvers weren't nearly as pretty but they were much more effective if your main goal was to live to fight another day--provided you didn't lose control of your aircraft, which may have killed as many Allied pilots as the enemy.
* ComplexityAddiction: The Imperial Japanese Navy had a serious problem with creating incredibly complex battle plans which involved a half-dozen groups of ships that couldn't support each other or be easily controlled, exposing them to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defeat_in_detail defeat in detail]]. While as theories their plans were often highly elegant, they were also stupidly vulnerable to Murphy's Law and usually based on incredibly optimistic assumptions that [[BatmanGambit the enemy would do exactly as predicted.]] Considering that they were unaware that the Allies had long broken their military codes, the Japanese didn't know that would rarely be the case for their big operations.
** Along these lines, Japanese engineers recognized early on that the famous Zero was becoming outclassed by new Allied fighters. However, while the engineers would continually attempt to build new fighter types, they would constantly put off the upgrades or go back to the drawing board entirely whenever a newer, better bit of tech came along. It didn't help that the Navy kept putting in constant demands for Zeros, and that Navy fighter pilots were notoriously unforthcoming about possible areas of improvement. The new fighter types thus had their production repeatedly stalled or went through dozens of prototypes with nothing to show for it, as the now-outdated Zeroes were shot down by the hundreds.
26th Mar '17 1:21:09 PM nombretomado
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** In 1592, Hideyoshi first tried to force an alliance on and then invaded Korea in order to secure it as a staging ground for a wider assault on China in a bid for domination of the Far East. This may have been part of his efforts to end the Warring States (Sengoku Jidai) period by occupying his samurai and allied warlords with a hopeless war of conquest while he rebuilt the country. It's generally assumed that OdaNobunaga would've done the same had he lived to complete the unification himself.

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** In 1592, Hideyoshi first tried to force an alliance on and then invaded Korea in order to secure it as a staging ground for a wider assault on China in a bid for domination of the Far East. This may have been part of his efforts to end the Warring States (Sengoku Jidai) period by occupying his samurai and allied warlords with a hopeless war of conquest while he rebuilt the country. It's generally assumed that OdaNobunaga UsefulNotes/OdaNobunaga would've done the same had he lived to complete the unification himself.
25th Mar '17 10:06:47 AM Statzkeen
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* EatsBabies : Some "comfort women" (forced sex slaves) testified that they were forced to eat meat stew made from the chopped remains of babies cut out of other sex slaves. There are other recorded instances of Imperial troops engaging in cannibalism, either as an act of ceremony or simple desperation.

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* EatsBabies : EasyLogistics: As is usually the case in real life, this one was consistently averted. They didn't have enough oil for their ships and didn't have enough transports and other cargo vessels for their ground troops and equipment. Working off a shoestring managed to get them through wars against China and Russia, and through the SW Pacific / SE Asia operations early in World War 2, but during the Guadalcanal campaign these difficulties cost them big time.
* EatsBabies:
Some "comfort women" (forced sex slaves) testified that they were forced to eat meat stew made from the chopped remains of babies cut out of other sex slaves. There are other recorded instances of Imperial troops engaging in cannibalism, either as an act of ceremony or simple desperation.



* HopelessWar: The Pacific War became this for the Japanese at the conclusion of the Marianas campaign. The loss of Saipan placed Japan within range of American bombers and submarines, and meant the island nation would either starve or burn. Simultaneously, the Combined Fleet had just been humiliatingly defeated at the Battle of the Philippines Sea, and was clearly no match for the now-enormous U.S. Navy. That the war was lost was obvious to anyone, but the Japanese military's inability to admit failure and defeat meant that Japan was in for a year of pain far worse than [[NukeEm anything they had yet experienced.]]
** To be fair, Isoroku Yamamoto ''did'' warn his government that a war longer than six months would be this when the Pearl Harbor attack was being planned . Unfortunately, the millitaristic government, way in over their heads and unwilling to back out, ignored him. They would eat his words six months later at Midway.

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** In the 1920s Japan, Britain, and America (and France and Italy to some degree) signed 2 treaties limiting naval construction, especially of the very expensive battleships, because otherwise they would all try to outbuild the others and mutually drive themselves nearly bankrupt. The difficulty of such a treaty was how much to limit which sides to. In the end, it was known as "5:5:3" because the USA and Britain, having multiple oceans to patrol (and more economic capacity than Japan), got to retain 5 tons of ships for every 3 that Japan retained. This was actually an excellent deal for Japan because it held back the American shipyards - who could have outbuilt Japan much worse than 5:3. However, many Japanese felt it was a national insult to get a lower ratio; they considered it a temporary concession and a necessary evil that should be repudiated. As usual Yamamoto was the voice of reason, saying "The agreement is excellent for us - it is a treaty to restrict the other parties", but he was overruled because anything short of an equal ratio was dishonorable. On December 29, 1934, Japan gave the requisite two-years notice that it would withdraw from the treaties - freeing the United States up to outbuild Japan by insane margins. Had the Japanese not repudiated the treaties, the United States would have only started on its massive shipbuilding campaign after Pearl Harbor was attacked, meaning they wouldn't have been churning out unbeatable numbers of carriers and battleships until 1945-1946. As it was, the early start allowed them to, from 1942-1944, outproduce Japan 5:1 in carriers and battleships, 4:1 in aircraft, 15:1 in destroyers and escorts, and 8:1 in cargo ships.
* HopelessWar: The Pacific War became this for the Japanese at the conclusion of the Marianas campaign. The loss of Saipan placed Japan within range of American bombers and submarines, and meant the island nation would either starve or burn. Simultaneously, the Combined Fleet had just been humiliatingly defeated at the Battle of the Philippines Sea, and was clearly no match for the now-enormous U.S. Navy. That the war was lost was obvious to anyone, but the Japanese military's inability to admit failure and defeat meant that Japan was in for a year of pain far worse than [[NukeEm anything they had yet experienced.]]
** To be fair,
]] Isoroku Yamamoto ''did'' warn his government that a war longer than six months would be this when the Pearl Harbor attack was being planned . Unfortunately, the millitaristic militaristic government, way in over their heads and unwilling to back out, ignored him. They would eat his words six months later at Midway.



** By comparison, the US Navy created two entire fleet staffs, Third Fleet under Halsey and Firth fleet under Spruance, for the US Pacific fleet. The two staffs took turns, one running the current operation while the other planned the next one, allowing them to maintain a tempo of operations Combined Fleet could not match. Either one of these staffs had far more resources than their Combined Fleet counterparts, and the US Navy's long-established bureau system freed them from the petty details of construction, logistics and maintenance.

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** By comparison, the US Navy created two entire fleet staffs, Third Fleet under Halsey and Firth Fifth fleet under Spruance, for the US Pacific fleet. The two staffs took turns, one running the current operation while the other planned the next one, allowing them to maintain a tempo of operations Combined Fleet could not match. Either one of these staffs had far more resources than their Combined Fleet counterparts, and the US Navy's long-established bureau system freed them from the petty details of construction, logistics and maintenance.



** The Imperial Navy's fleet faction spent years fulminating against the Washington and London Naval treaties, which limited their forces to 60% of the U.S. Navy. But when Japan finally withdrew from the treaty regime in 1939 their celebrations were cut short when the U.S. responded with a huge naval construction program they could never dream to match. They'd been so focussed on breaking the treaty limits they'd forgotten they had no hope of staying even close to 60% without them. Part of the thinking behind the Pearl Harbor attack was a desire to strike before bulk of the new ships arrived in 1942 and the odds became insuperable.

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** The Imperial Navy's fleet faction spent years fulminating against the Washington and London Naval treaties, which limited their forces to 60% of the U.S. Navy. But when Japan finally withdrew from the treaty regime in 1939 1934 (which went into effect in 1936) their celebrations were cut short when the U.S. responded with a huge naval construction program they could never dream to match. They'd been so focussed focused on breaking the treaty limits they'd forgotten they had no hope of staying even close to 60% without them. Part of the thinking behind the Pearl Harbor attack was a desire to strike before bulk of the new ships arrived in 1942 1942-1943 and the odds became insuperable.
19th Mar '17 3:41:46 PM drbob76
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Added DiffLines:

** Many Allied soldiers also considered the executions of surrendering Japanese soldiers to be a justified response to Japan's brutal atrocities.
16th Mar '17 10:48:04 AM crazysamaritan
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* AcePilot: Saburo Sakai. Japan's second ranking ace. Doubles as TheDeterminator: shot through the head and blinded in one eye, he pulled his plane out of a lethal dive and flew it back to Rabaul in a four hour, six hundred mile flight while partially paralyzed. Then he insisted on making his report before getting medical attention.
** Other pilots like him, however, were not so lucky, with most of them fighting on until they got killed in combat.
** Part of Japan's last gasp defense included gathering all of the Imperial Navy' surviving ace pilots (including Sakai) into one fighter group of Aces, the 343rd ''Kokutai'' under the command of Minoru Genda (the architect of the Pearl Harbor raid) and equipped with the last of the good quality gasoline and the limited numbers of the Kawanishi [=N1K1=] ''Shiden-Kai'' they were able to produce.
* AndThenWhat: Japan would have been much better off had its leadership considered this question at several stages, particularly at the start of launching their two main fronts, China and the Pacific. The Japanese high command, with a simplistic and propaganda-influenced view of foreigners, believed the primitive Chinese and self-absorbed Americans would sue for peace if they were simply dealt a series of hard blows. What they did not ask themselves was what would happen if they did not fold; China was too vast to conquer, and the U.S.' industrial might was too great to hold off for long. What they got, therefore, was a two-front war against effectively unbeatable opponents.
* AwesomeButImpractical: Partly in anticipation of being outnumbered in any major war right from the start, the Imperial Japanese Navy had a tendency towards wanting to have the ''individually'' biggest and baddest of something, regardless of its actual use. Case in point ''Yamato''-class battleships: when ''Yamato'' was launched it was the most powerful example of a ship type that had just been rendered obsolete. ''Yamato'' and ''Musashi'' went on to borderline-embarrassing careers of being held back from fighting because they guzzled large amounts of oil, the very resource Japan was critically low on and had gone to war to seize. When they finally were committed to battle ''Yamato'' scored no confirmed kills before turning away to dodge torpedoes from a handful of tiny American destroyers and destroyer escorts that each weighed less than one of her gun turrets. Her sister ship ''Musashi'' never even got this far, having been sunk by carrier aircraft before even seeing an enemy vessel. ''Yamato's'' final mission saw her and 5 of her escorts at the bottom of the Pacific, managing to down a piddling 10 American planes in the process. The best that can be said about them is that their massive bulk and incredibly thick armor did result in the ability to absorb a very large number of hits before going under (and since the Americans weren't exactly running out of explosives, this is a very small accomplishment indeed).
** The IJN were also obsessed with outranging their enemies, which resulted in some good things (the Zero fighter and the legendary Type 93 ''Sanso Gyorai'' "Long Lance" torpedo) and others which fell clearly into this category. However, this strategy ultimately failed because they did not pay sufficient attention to the RequiredSecondaryPowers of reconnaissance and intelligence. Superior range not only requires superior speed (which the IJN consistently recognized and achieved) it also requires superior knowledge of your opponent's location and intentions (which the IJN consistently failed to recognize or achieve).
*** The Type 91 and Type 0 "diving" shells, designed to follow a reliable underwater trajectory when they fell short, theoretically increasing the odds of a hit against vulnerable parts of a ship below waterline. Unfortunately, this made them very unreliable when they scored a direct hit above water and prone to passing clean through unarmored targets without even exploding (see ''Yamato'' above; this is a major part of why it performed so pitifully against those destroyers), more than negating any advantage gained. About the only achievement of the shells was, admittedly, very impressive - the Yamato is believed to have scored one of the longest ranged hits by any battleship gun (counting "hit" as a shell working the way it was intended) off Samar, when a diving shell plunged below a CVE and detonated such that her hull took damage from below.
*** The Mitsubishi [=G4M3=] medium bomber (Allied code name "Betty") sacrificed bomb load, defensive armament, armor and self-sealing fuel tanks for speed and enormous range to allow them to support a fleet battle far out at sea. Unfortunately flying them beyond the range of their fighter escorts quickly proved to be suicidal, meaning they'd sacrificed basic survivability and effectiveness for extreme range they couldn't use.
*** Type 98 mortar shells. Good for scaring the enemy, not good for much else.
*** The I-400 class aircraft carrying submarines. An impressive technical achievement and perhaps strategically effective for reconnaisance but incapable of inflicting significant damage on an enemy, as they could carry only three planes[[note]]Not to mention how easy would be for a destroyer to detect something so big and unmaneuverable underwater.[[/note]]
*** The 8-8 Fleet program was the 1920s belief that Japan needed a fleet of 8 modern battleships and 8 battlecruisers to defend the Home Islands. It was never carried out; partially because of the Washington Naval Treaty, partially because there was no way Japan could have afforded it.
* [[BadassArmy Badass Navy]] : The IJN. [[BadassDecay Initially]].
** The Imperial Japanese Army almost counts as a BadassArmy because it had such an incredible amount of pluck. But it had almost no sophistication or finesse unlike the Imperial Japanese Navy, and Allied troops tended to "give" several times more than they "received" from the IJA. The reverse was true, however, for much of the war in China since most (but not all) Chinese 'troops' were poorly coordinated formations of ill-equipped and ill-led irregulars and militiamen under abysmal leadership.
* BatmanGambit: Attempted by the IJN but not with much success. The Midway operation was based on the idea that the U.S. forces would react in exactly a certain way. See also ComplexityAddiction. It certainly didn't help that, since the IJN's radio codes had been broken, ''the U.S. forces knew how the Japanese wanted them to react''.
** Ironically, the one time that a Japanese BatmanGambit sort-of succeeded (the Battle of Leyte Gulf, where U.S. Admiral Halsey reacted just as intended and left his center exposed), the main Japanese force pulled back after a token battle with a hugely inferior American flotilla. The Japanese were so used to being devastated by U.S. [[DefensiveFeintTrap traps]] that they couldn't believe that their plan had actually worked.
** In addition, the U.S. successfully pulled a BatmanGambit on the Japanese by tricking them into confirming that the codename "AF" stood for Midway by broadcasting an alert about a water shortage in the clear, banking on the Japanese to pass on that info in code that AF having a water shortage. Note that this wasn't done to convince the U.S. codebreakers in Hawaii - they knew they were right - it was done to convince the Naval Intelligence staff in Washington who wanted reassurance.
* TheBattlestar: Several examples in the Imperial Japanese Navy:
** The battleships ''Ise'' and ''Hyuga'', after the loss of four carriers at Midway, had the two aft guns replaced with facilities to store and launch a mix of seaplanes and dive bombers, with plans to modify another two old battleships in the same scheme. They were a failure, however, because of the lack of both planes and flight crews.
** The cruiser ''Mogami'' was modified too in an ''Ise''-like configuration, but just to operate seaplanes.
** The heavy cruisers of the ''Tone'' class had all turrets mounted forward, with the stern designed to use seaplanes. Unlike the previous examples they were designed from the start with that purpose in mind.
** Many large submarines had an hangar with a seaplane, or even two in a few. The ''I-400'' already mentioned was the epitome of this , being a very large submarine -the largest non-nuclear powered ever built- carrying three planes-.
* BeamMeUpScotty: The Japanese Navy never called the type 93 torpedo the "Long Lance". That term was coined by American historian [[Literature/HistoryOfUSNavalOperationsInWorldWarII Samuel Eliot Morrison]] after the war. It was so evocative that it stuck.

to:

\n* AcePilot: Saburo Sakai. Japan's second ranking ace. Doubles as TheDeterminator: shot through the head and blinded in one eye, he pulled his plane out of a lethal dive and flew it back to Rabaul in a four hour, six hundred mile flight while partially paralyzed. Then he insisted on making his report before getting medical attention.\n** Other pilots like him, however, were not so lucky, with most of them fighting on until they got killed in combat.\n** Part of Japan's last gasp defense included gathering all of the Imperial Navy' surviving ace pilots (including Sakai) into one fighter group of Aces, the 343rd ''Kokutai'' under the command of Minoru Genda (the architect of the Pearl Harbor raid) and equipped with the last of the good quality gasoline and the limited numbers of the Kawanishi [=N1K1=] ''Shiden-Kai'' they were able to produce.\n* AndThenWhat: Japan would have been much better off had its leadership considered this question at several stages, particularly at the start of launching their two main fronts, China and the Pacific. The Japanese high command, with a simplistic and propaganda-influenced view of foreigners, believed the primitive Chinese and self-absorbed Americans would sue for peace if they were simply dealt a series of hard blows. What they did not ask themselves was what would happen if they did not fold; China was too vast to conquer, and the U.S.' industrial might was too great to hold off for long. What they got, therefore, was a two-front war against effectively unbeatable opponents.\n* AwesomeButImpractical: Partly in anticipation of being outnumbered in any major war right from the start, the Imperial Japanese Navy had a tendency towards wanting to have the ''individually'' biggest and baddest of something, regardless of its actual use. Case in point ''Yamato''-class battleships: when ''Yamato'' was launched it was the most powerful example of a ship type that had just been rendered obsolete. ''Yamato'' and ''Musashi'' went on to borderline-embarrassing careers of being held back from fighting because they guzzled large amounts of oil, the very resource Japan was critically low on and had gone to war to seize. When they finally were committed to battle ''Yamato'' scored no confirmed kills before turning away to dodge torpedoes from a handful of tiny American destroyers and destroyer escorts that each weighed less than one of her gun turrets. Her sister ship ''Musashi'' never even got this far, having been sunk by carrier aircraft before even seeing an enemy vessel. ''Yamato's'' final mission saw her and 5 of her escorts at the bottom of the Pacific, managing to down a piddling 10 American planes in the process. The best that can be said ----
!!Tropes
about them is that their massive bulk and incredibly thick armor did result in the ability to absorb a very large number of hits before going under (and since the Americans weren't exactly running out of explosives, this is a very small accomplishment indeed).
** The IJN were also obsessed with outranging their enemies, which resulted in some good things (the Zero fighter and the legendary Type 93 ''Sanso Gyorai'' "Long Lance" torpedo) and others which fell clearly into this category. However, this strategy ultimately failed because they did not pay sufficient attention to the RequiredSecondaryPowers of reconnaissance and intelligence. Superior range not only requires superior speed (which the IJN consistently recognized and achieved) it also requires superior knowledge of your opponent's location and intentions (which the IJN consistently failed to recognize or achieve).
*** The Type 91 and Type 0 "diving" shells, designed to follow a reliable underwater trajectory when they fell short, theoretically increasing the odds of a hit against vulnerable parts of a ship below waterline. Unfortunately, this made them very unreliable when they scored a direct hit above water and prone to passing clean through unarmored targets without even exploding (see ''Yamato'' above; this is a major part of why it performed so pitifully against those destroyers), more than negating any advantage gained. About the only achievement of the shells was, admittedly, very impressive - the Yamato is believed to have scored one of the longest ranged hits by any battleship gun (counting "hit" as a shell working the way it was intended) off Samar, when a diving shell plunged below a CVE and detonated such that her hull took damage from below.
*** The Mitsubishi [=G4M3=] medium bomber (Allied code name "Betty") sacrificed bomb load, defensive armament, armor and self-sealing fuel tanks for speed and enormous range to allow them to support a fleet battle far out at sea. Unfortunately flying them beyond the range of their fighter escorts quickly proved to be suicidal, meaning they'd sacrificed basic survivability and effectiveness for extreme range they couldn't use.
*** Type 98 mortar shells. Good for scaring the enemy, not good for much else.
*** The I-400 class aircraft carrying submarines. An impressive technical achievement and perhaps strategically effective for reconnaisance but incapable of inflicting significant damage on an enemy, as they could carry only three planes[[note]]Not to mention how easy would be for a destroyer to detect something so big and unmaneuverable underwater.[[/note]]
*** The 8-8 Fleet program was the 1920s belief that Japan needed a fleet of 8 modern battleships and 8 battlecruisers to defend the Home Islands. It was never carried out; partially because of the Washington Naval Treaty, partially because there was no way Japan could have afforded it.
* [[BadassArmy Badass Navy]] : The IJN. [[BadassDecay Initially]].
** The Imperial Japanese Army almost counts as a BadassArmy because it had such an incredible amount of pluck. But it had almost no sophistication or finesse unlike the Imperial Japanese Navy, and Allied troops tended to "give" several times more than they "received" from the IJA. The reverse was true, however, for much of the war in China since most (but not all) Chinese 'troops' were poorly coordinated formations of ill-equipped and ill-led irregulars and militiamen under abysmal leadership.
* BatmanGambit: Attempted by the IJN but not with much success. The Midway operation was based on the idea that the U.S. forces would react in exactly a certain way. See also ComplexityAddiction. It certainly didn't help that, since the IJN's radio codes had been broken, ''the U.S. forces knew how
the Japanese wanted them to react''.
Military in fiction:
* BeamMeUpScotty:
** Ironically, the one time that a Japanese BatmanGambit sort-of succeeded (the Battle of Leyte Gulf, where U.S. Admiral Halsey reacted just as intended and left his center exposed), the main Japanese force pulled back after a token battle with a hugely inferior American flotilla. The Japanese were so used to being devastated by U.S. [[DefensiveFeintTrap traps]] that they couldn't believe that their plan had actually worked.
** In addition, the U.S. successfully pulled a BatmanGambit on the Japanese by tricking them into confirming that the codename "AF" stood for Midway by broadcasting an alert about a water shortage in the clear, banking on the Japanese to pass on that info in code that AF having a water shortage. Note that this wasn't done to convince the U.S. codebreakers in Hawaii - they knew they were right - it was done to convince the Naval Intelligence staff in Washington who wanted reassurance.
* TheBattlestar: Several examples in the Imperial Japanese Navy:
** The battleships ''Ise'' and ''Hyuga'', after the loss of four carriers at Midway, had the two aft guns replaced with facilities to store and launch a mix of seaplanes and dive bombers, with plans to modify another two old battleships in the same scheme. They were a failure, however, because of the lack of both planes and flight crews.
** The cruiser ''Mogami'' was modified too in an ''Ise''-like configuration, but just to operate seaplanes.
** The heavy cruisers of the ''Tone'' class had all turrets mounted forward, with the stern designed to use seaplanes. Unlike the previous examples they were designed from the start with that purpose in mind.
** Many large submarines had an hangar with a seaplane, or even two in a few. The ''I-400'' already mentioned was the epitome of this , being a very large submarine -the largest non-nuclear powered ever built- carrying three planes-.
* BeamMeUpScotty:
The Japanese Navy never called the type 93 torpedo the "Long Lance". That term was coined by American historian [[Literature/HistoryOfUSNavalOperationsInWorldWarII Samuel Eliot Morrison]] after the war. It was so evocative that it stuck.



* BigBrotherInstinct: Many Americans felt this towards the Filipinos, and some also felt it towards the Chinese - they felt they had done a lot to prevent China from being carved up between the other Imperial powers, for instance, as a result of their 'Open Door' policy to China (The USA feared that a China dismembered by the other Imperial Powers would tax or even ban goods imported from the USA. As in her dealings with Latin America, an 'Open Door' policy suited her interests as it meant she could continue to trade with them on her own terms without the expense and unpopularity of actually having a formal Empire). [[UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt FDR]] in particular strongly believed that China had a rightful place as one of the world's great powers, a belief that tended to blind him to UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek's shortcomings as China's leader. Likewise the Japanese government promoted this kind of pan-Asian-solidarity as a post-facto means of legitimating their Asian Empire.
** The Japanese legitimately believed their propaganda. Tojo was crying during the formation of the East Asia Prosperity Sphere
*** Arguably some of the southeast Asian people believed it as well, at first... since the Japanese appeared to have liberated them from the European powers (Britain, Holland and France) that previously held so much sway over them. But it didn't take long for them to realize that Japanese domination was little better and often worse, particularly when the tide of war turned against Japan. The Filipinos were already well along in the process of becoming independent from the U.S. so they never really bought into it. Indonesians and Burmans, though, did, and the fact that the Japanese did more than any other power (by leaving all their arms to them) to help the Indonesians win their independence still haunts their politics.
* BiggerIsBetter: Some of the ship designers in the IJN had this idea when they built the ''Yamato''-class battleship, which still holds the record for largest battleship ever afloat. However, as the war demonstrated (detailed in ImpossiblyCoolWeapon below) size is not everything when it comes to battleship construction. Due to lower quality steel available to Japan, inferior projectile design, and less advanced fire control, the ''Yamato'' would actually have been pretty evenly matched with an ''Iowa''-class battleship, despite having larger guns and outweighing by more than 10,000 tons. Except the ''Iowa''-class battleships were [[LightningBruiser a good 20% faster]]. Add in that the ''Yamato'' used absolutely insane amounts of oil - the exact resource Japan was critically low on and started the Pacific war to obtain.
** The Yamato versus Iowa debate continues to rage on internet forums, but it is more likely that at short range the Iowa would be outclassed by Yamato's brute firepower and armor thickness, but at long range the Iowa's superior fire control and speed would allow it to dictate the terms of the engagement and pound away at the Yamato. A moot point in reality, because the Yamato was sent to the bottom by aircraft.



* BottledHeroicResolve. Methamphetamine, called ''shabu'' in the Army parlance. Oh God, ''meth''. [[UpToEleven The whole Japanese army basically ran on meth]]. Under the trade name ''Philopon'' (by Sumitomo Pharma), meth was freely distributed the combat units, and Sumitomo Pharma [[http://flemingsbond.com/philopon-a-japanese-murder-drug/ had a dedicated methamphetamine factory]] to fulfill the needs of the army. The whole army ''basically was on tweek'' until 1944 (when logistics became a problem). The generals [[BlueAndOrangeMorality considered the side effects as assets]] - the dulling, emotion dumbing and empathy killing side effects of the meth were actually ''desired'' effects. The Japanese army ''wanted'' their soldiers to become drug-induced pseudo-psychopaths. The result was wanton cruelty in unassumable scale. Most Japanese war crimes were committed on methamphetamine.
* BritsWithBattleships: The Japanese selected the Royal Navy, then the world's greatest naval power, as their mentor and model for the new Imperial Japanese Navy; this emulation extended to almost absurd degrees, from many early Japanese vessels being built in British yards to the Japanese Naval Academy being made entirely of imported British bricks. More significantly, it meant that the Japanese Navy inherited many of the strengths of the WorldWarI-era Royal Navy (long range capability, seamanship, tenaciousness, formidable firepower and speed) along with its weaknesses (tactical inflexibility, lower emphasis on ship armor and survivability).
* BullyingADragon: What ''else'' can you call it when a resource-poor island nation with no geographic allies and an already overextended military attacks a country that has such an overwhelming advantage in supplies, industry, natural resources, manpower, logistical capability, and scientific research that there is simply no comparison? This is pretty much also WhatWereYouThinking and BrokeYourArmPunchingOutCthulhu, and led directly to many a CurbStompBattle that culminated in the surrender of Japan.
* CannonFodder: The Imperial Japanese Army was [[WeHaveReserves notoriously callous]] about the lives of its troops. Nicknames for the common infantryman such as "senrin" (0.011 yen, after the price of mailing a conscription notice) or "teppodama" (literally "bullets", in being ''that'' expendable). The Imperial Navy achieved this reputation among its airmen during their duty in the South Pacific: of the pilots who went to Rabaul, almost none ever came back, the IJN's pre-war aviators wasting away under the strain of combat in the most malignant theater in which a major war has ever been fought. Pilots were known to state that no one went home unless they were dead.
** Averted in China, where 'ordinary' Guomindang troops were almost always outnumbered by their Japanese counterparts. 'Help' from regional and local militia, and warlord troops, was little better and often worse than no help at all, especially when they ran for it. A trope frequently used by the Guomindang itself when they were forced to fight set-piece battles- they would use the militia and warlord troops (strengthened by as small as possible a force of 'corset-stiffeners', regular Guomindang troops) on the defense while they used their own troops to encircle the attacking Japanese forces ([[BloodKnight who were notoriously easily lured into frontal attacks in which they would frequently 'outrun' their supply lines]]).
*** Also averted in the Philippines where General Homma was conservative with his troops, to the point of being criticized by other officers.
* TheCaptain: Hara Tameichi, captain of ''Amatsukaze'' and later commander of Destroyer Squadron 27 aboard the legendary ''Shigure'', which came through several of the fiercest naval engagements of the war unscathed under his leadership. He was the captain of the light cruiser ''Yahagi'' which had accompanied the mighty ''Yamato'' on its death ride, and miraculously escaped unhurt despite his ship taking a nearly equal pounding as the giant battleship. He was highly critical of his superiors' inflexibility during the war and the ''only'' Japanese destroyer captain at the start of the war to survive and write a memoir of his experiences afterwards.
* ColdBloodedTorture: During World War II, it was known to tie the wounded to a tree, torture them and leave them with a sign that said "It took him a long time to die". [[MoralMyopia Naturally]], the Allies didn't like that.
** A common favorite of Japanese soldiers was to force bayonet blades or katanas into the vaginas of non-Japanese Asian women, most infamously during the Nanjing Massacre.
** Also notorious is when Japanese soldiers in trucks held bayonets and katanas off the side as they drove past the [=POWs=] of the Bataan Death March. Many times trucks and tanks would swerve to run over any prisoner who collapsed or otherwise fell out of the column.
** Unit 731 had an entire campaign where they casually vivisected civilians or prisoners of war to remove various organs or perform violent abortions without any anesthetic whatsoever.
** Then there were the many, many cases of captured soldiers or unlucky civilians being bound and promptly used for bayonet practice.
* CombatAestheticist: Japanese were into this in a big way, often to the detriment of [[CombatPragmatist pragmatism]].
** Case in point: Japanese aviators preferred coordinated dogfighting maneuvers like loops, rolls, immelmans, etc. while their allied counterparts preferred uncoordinated evasive maneuvers like skids, slips yaws, and snap rolls. Uncoordinated maneuvers weren't nearly as pretty but they were much more effective if your main goal was to live to fight another day--provided you didn't lose control of your aircraft, which may have killed as many Allied pilots as the enemy.
* ComplexityAddiction: The Imperial Japanese Navy had a serious problem with creating incredibly complex battle plans which involved a half-dozen groups of ships that couldn't support each other or be easily controlled, exposing them to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defeat_in_detail defeat in detail]]. While as theories their plans were often highly elegant, they were also stupidly vulnerable to Murphy's Law and usually based on incredibly optimistic assumptions that [[BatmanGambit the enemy would do exactly as predicted.]] Considering that they were unaware that the Allies had long broken their military codes, the Japanese didn't know that would rarely be the case for their big operations.
** Along these lines, Japanese engineers recognized early on that the famous Zero was becoming outclassed by new Allied fighters. However, while the engineers would continually attempt to build new fighter types, they would constantly put off the upgrades or go back to the drawing board entirely whenever a newer, better bit of tech came along. It didn't help that the Navy kept putting in constant demands for Zeros, and that Navy fighter pilots were notoriously unforthcoming about possible areas of improvement. The new fighter types thus had their production repeatedly stalled or went through dozens of prototypes with nothing to show for it, as the now-outdated Zeroes were shot down by the hundreds.
12th Mar '17 11:26:56 AM Divra
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** To a somewhat lesser extent the Arisaka type 99. A good candidate for best bolt-action rifle ever, but it was still a bolt-action rifle, and when stacked against the semi-automatic M1 Garand (USA) and SVT-40 (USSR) it was found severely lacking. It didn't help that workmanship suffered during the latter part of the war.

to:

** To a somewhat lesser extent the Arisaka type 99. A good candidate for best bolt-action rifle ever, and a design that was in many ways revolutionary (for example, it was the first weapon to feature chrome-plated internals) but it was still a bolt-action rifle, and when stacked against the semi-automatic M1 Garand (USA) and SVT-40 (USSR) it was found severely lacking. It didn't help that workmanship suffered during the latter part of the war.
2nd Mar '17 2:23:29 PM AriRockefeller
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[[caption-width-right:240: ''++Niitaka-yama nobore++''[[labelnote:*]]"Climb Mount Niitaka", the Wabun code (a form of Morse code) message signalling the go-ahead for the attack on Pearl Harbor[[/labelnote]] ]]

to:

[[caption-width-right:240: ''++Niitaka-yama nobore++''[[labelnote:*]]"Climb Mount Niitaka", the Wabun code (a form of Morse code) message signalling the go-ahead for the attack on Pearl Harbor[[/labelnote]] [[labelnote:Alternately...]][[Website/{{Cracked}} We don't know know what's worse, if this is our propaganda, or YOURS.]][[/labelnote]] ]]
21st Feb '17 1:10:51 AM MAI742
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*** Arguably some of the southeast Asian people believed it as well, at first... since the Japanese appeared to have liberated them from the European powers (Britain, Holland and France) that previously held so much sway over them. But it didn't take long for them to realize that Japanese domination was little better and often worse, particularly when the tide of war turned against Japan. The Filipinos were already well along in the process of becoming independent from the U.S. so they never really bought into it. Indonesians and Burmans, though, did, and the fact that their independence was more-or-less given to them by the Japanese still haunts Indonesian politics.
*** The Indonesians are not "given" independence by Japan as around 1945-1949 Indonesians fight British and, later, Dutch as both didn't recognize de-facto Independence proclamation of Independence in 1945. [[note]]There was a power vacuum, as Japan surrendered in 14 August but Allies forces have yet arrived until September. So Indonesian leaders snatch the opportunity to declare independence[[/note]]

to:

*** Arguably some of the southeast Asian people believed it as well, at first... since the Japanese appeared to have liberated them from the European powers (Britain, Holland and France) that previously held so much sway over them. But it didn't take long for them to realize that Japanese domination was little better and often worse, particularly when the tide of war turned against Japan. The Filipinos were already well along in the process of becoming independent from the U.S. so they never really bought into it. Indonesians and Burmans, though, did, and the fact that the Japanese did more than any other power (by leaving all their arms to them) to help the Indonesians win their independence was more-or-less given to them by the Japanese still haunts Indonesian politics.
*** The Indonesians are not "given" independence by Japan as around 1945-1949 Indonesians fight British and, later, Dutch as both didn't recognize de-facto Independence proclamation of Independence in 1945. [[note]]There was a power vacuum, as Japan surrendered in 14 August but Allies forces have yet arrived until September. So Indonesian leaders snatch the opportunity to declare independence[[/note]]
their politics.
20th Feb '17 8:41:22 PM EvilKid
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*** The Insonesians are not "given" independence by Japan as around 1945-1949 to fight British later Dutch as both didn't recognize de-facto Independence proclamation in 1945. [[note]]There was a power vacuum, as Japan surrendered in 14 August but Allies forces have yet arrived until September. So Indonesian leaders snatch the opportunity to declare independence[[/note]]

to:

*** The Insonesians Indonesians are not "given" independence by Japan as around 1945-1949 to Indonesians fight British later and, later, Dutch as both didn't recognize de-facto Independence proclamation of Independence in 1945. [[note]]There was a power vacuum, as Japan surrendered in 14 August but Allies forces have yet arrived until September. So Indonesian leaders snatch the opportunity to declare independence[[/note]]
20th Feb '17 8:28:12 PM Rmpdc
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* CoolPlane: The Mitsubishi [=A6M=] Type 0 Naval Fighter, otherwise known as the Zero. Paid a unique tribute among Japanese aircraft in that most Allied pilots referred to it using the diminutive of its name rather than its assigned Allied codename, the Zero was quite probably the best dogfighting aircraft of the Second World War and had incredible range, with a combat radius of over 550 miles. But it lacked engine power, armor, sufficient quantities of ammunition, and self-sealing fuel tanks. Never outturned, the Zero could be defeated by first generation Allied fighters using superior tactics and proved a death trap in the face of later Allied fighters that could easily outclimb, outdive, and outrun it. If fact, pilots of Warhawks and Wildcats (which were not nearly as nimble but had ''far'' superior armor and armament) quickly learned that the way to defeat the best dogfighting plane in the world (at the time) was by ''not'' dogfighting it. Allied pilots would use their planes superior power and speed to set themselves up above a Zero, do a diving attack and fire a short burst (which was usually more than enough to turn a Zero into a fireball). If the attack did not work, they would use the speed of the dive to get away, gain distance and altitude from the Zero, and repeat. Only very inexperienced or foolhardy pilots would attempt a turning fight with a Zero. And even at the end of the war, a Zero with a skilled pilot (a rarity at the time) was a lethal opponent for those pilots foolish enough to get into a turning fight with it.

to:

* CoolPlane: The Mitsubishi [=A6M=] Type 0 Naval Fighter, Fighter (Zeke to the Allies), otherwise known as the Zero. Paid a unique tribute among Japanese aircraft in that most Allied pilots referred to it using the diminutive of its name rather than its assigned Allied codename, the Zero was quite probably the best dogfighting aircraft of the Second World War and had incredible range, with a combat radius of over 550 miles. But it lacked engine power, armor, sufficient quantities of ammunition, and self-sealing fuel tanks. Never outturned, the Zero could be defeated by first generation Allied fighters using superior tactics and proved a death trap in the face of later Allied fighters that could easily outclimb, outdive, and outrun it. If fact, pilots of Warhawks and Wildcats (which were not nearly as nimble but had ''far'' superior armor and armament) quickly learned that the way to defeat the best dogfighting plane in the world (at the time) was by ''not'' dogfighting it. Allied pilots would use their planes superior power and speed to set themselves up above a Zero, do a diving attack and fire a short burst (which was usually more than enough to turn a Zero into a fireball). If the attack did not work, they would use the speed of the dive to get away, gain distance and altitude from the Zero, and repeat. Only very inexperienced or foolhardy pilots would attempt a turning fight with a Zero. And even at the end of the war, a Zero with a skilled pilot (a rarity at the time) was a lethal opponent for those pilots foolish enough to get into a turning fight with it.



** By 1944, Japanese had developed high performance fighters that could theoretically go toe-to-toe with the Allies' best, notably the Ki-83 ''Hayate'' of the Army and the [=N1K1=] ''Shiden-Kai'' of the Navy. However, by this time, the quality of manufacture from Japanese industries had fallen to unacceptable levels, there were hardly any good pilots or maintenance personnel left, high-grade fuel was impossible to come by, and Japanese flying units were outnumbered by absurd margins, meaning that none of these excellent planes had a chance to shine.

to:

** By 1944, Japanese had developed high performance fighters that could theoretically go toe-to-toe with the Allies' best, notably the Ki-83 Ki-84 ''Hayate'' (Frank) of the Army and the [=N1K1=] ''Shiden-Kai'' (George) of the Navy. However, by this time, the quality of manufacture from Japanese industries had fallen to unacceptable levels, there were hardly any good pilots or maintenance personnel left, high-grade fuel was impossible to come by, and Japanese flying units were outnumbered by absurd margins, meaning that none of these excellent planes had a chance to shine.
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