History UsefulNotes / Islam

7th Feb '16 10:21:02 AM nombretomado
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* Note also that the Muslim ''maddhahib'' (plural of ''maddhab'') are schools of ''law'': their job is interpreting the Islamic laws, or Shari'ah. In this respect, they're more like court systems. Indeed, like courts in [[TheCommonLaw the common-law tradition]] (i.e. derived from English law), they are bound by precedent and do not regard themselves of makers of new law but clarifiers of existing law, even though they do in fact make law this way. Some scholars even think the English got the idea of binding precedent (as well as trusts and some other legal concepts) from Muslims during TheCrusades, but that's [[FlameBait a rather contentious subject]], to say the least.
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* Note also that the Muslim ''maddhahib'' (plural of ''maddhab'') are schools of ''law'': their job is interpreting the Islamic laws, or Shari'ah. In this respect, they're more like court systems. Indeed, like courts in [[TheCommonLaw the common-law tradition]] (i.e. derived from English law), they are bound by precedent and do not regard themselves of makers of new law but clarifiers of existing law, even though they do in fact make law this way. Some scholars even think the English got the idea of binding precedent (as well as trusts and some other legal concepts) from Muslims during TheCrusades, UsefulNotes/TheCrusades, but that's [[FlameBait a rather contentious subject]], to say the least.
1st Feb '16 11:40:52 PM SSJMagus
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** WordOfDante: Sunni theologians question the existence of the Mahdi since he's not mentioned in the Qur'an or the hadith.
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** WordOfDante: Sunni theologians question the existence of the Mahdi since he's not mentioned in the Qur'an or the hadith. There is indication in the hadith that a Mahdi ''will'' exist, but Sunni interpretation is that it describes merely a future leader (possibly but not necessarily a caliph) rather than a messiah, and he hasn't been born yet. The latter is also believed by some minority Shiah sects
28th Jan '16 7:22:03 PM karstovich2
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* "Syariah" (or sharia) is not limited to religious law, it also covers personal and daily matters including worship and morals. It is such an intrinsic part of being a Muslim that one cannot function as a practising Muslim without syariah. Worshipping God is not limited to the Five Pillars of Islam but also covers doing what God orders in God's name. Thus doing good deeds in God's name is worshipping God. In other words, doing good deeds is one of the many ways of practising syariah.
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* "Syariah" ''Sharī`ah'' (or sharia) is not limited to religious law, it also covers personal and daily matters including worship and morals. It is such an intrinsic part of being a Muslim that one cannot function as a practising Muslim without syariah.''sharī`ah''. Worshipping God is not limited to the Five Pillars of Islam but also covers doing what God orders in God's name. Thus doing good deeds in God's name is worshipping worshiping God. In other words, doing good deeds is one of the many ways of practising syariah. ''sharī`ah''. ** We should note here that "''sharī`ah''" roughly means "the Way" (it's very closely related to the word ''shāri`'', which is the Arabic word for "street"), and essentially refers to "the way God says we should do things in all aspects of life." What the ignorant term "sharia law" is actually more properly considered a subset of ''fiqh''. "''Fiqh''" refers to the body of rules and regulations that constitute the considered opinion of generations of scholars on what God thinks the ''sharī`ah'' (that is, the Way) should be; although widely accepted, it is not based solely on the Qur'an but also incorporates a great deal of oral tradition (particularly the ''Hadith''--sayings of the Prophet--and ''Sunnah''--reported acts/habits of the Prophet), some of which has been questioned by modern scholars. Only part of the ''fiqh'' deals directly with what Western societies would consider legal matters, and to the extent it does, it mostly deals with them as matters of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_law private law]]--that is, as disputes between individuals, rather than as any kind of official law for the state to follow. (For instance, ''yes'' it is true that the Qur'an prescribes death as the penalty for murder--but it also states that the decision to impose the death penalty lies with the family of the victim, who may--and are encouraged to--accept blood-money in lieu of death. In other words, the ''fiqh'', as accepted by nearly all mainstream scholars, does not actually define ''murder'' but rather a tort of wrongful death--the state has nothing to do with it.) To the extent that ''fiqh'' prescribes any action by the state, the state is, in traditional Islamic jurisprudence, free to ignore ''fiqh'' so long as it serves the public interest; what modern legal scholars term [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_law public law]] is in Islamic jurisprudence called ''siyasah'' (literally "politics" or "policy"), and may under proper circumstances override official prescriptions (most famously, during one year with difficult harvests, the Caliph Umar suspended the ''fiqh'' sentence for theft--cutting off of the hand--because doing so would both impede the ability to harvest what grain there was and unnecessarily make unproductive citizens out of people who would not have stolen but for the exceedingly difficult year).
28th Jan '16 7:01:11 PM karstovich2
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** Variations of "Allah" appear, also meaning "God" in other Semitic (or Arabic-influenced languages), including Aramaic (preceding both Islam and Christianity) and Maltese (the language of arguably the most Catholic country in the world.)
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** Variations of "Allah" appear, also meaning "God" in other Semitic (or Arabic-influenced languages), including Aramaic (preceding both Islam and Christianity) and Maltese (the bastard child of Tunisian Arabic and Sicilian and the language of arguably the most Catholic country in the world.)
17th Dec '15 11:30:58 AM surgoshan
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Islam has a complex relationship with homosexuality., Many Islamic countries, accordingly, have laws against homosexuality. In most extreme cases, it is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan and Iran. Muslim majority countries that have no laws against homosexuality include Turkey and Indonesia, but it bears mentioning that these are both secular states. However, in 2002 Indonesia's Aceh province was granted permission to introduce sharia law, and homosexual acts between adults have been banned. However, there are long-standing traditions of relationships between adult men and young boys in many Muslim areas, though the buggery has to stop before the boy is old enough to start enjoying it (because he'll get addicted). In Jakarta, Indonesia's capital, homosexuals acts will get you labeled as mentally handicapped, which has wide ranging effects on your legal status in society. In Iraqn, it's mandated by law that homosexual men get sex change operations.
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Islam has a complex relationship with homosexuality., Many Islamic countries, accordingly, have laws against homosexuality. In most extreme cases, it is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan and Iran. Muslim majority countries that have no laws against homosexuality include Turkey and Indonesia, but it bears mentioning that these are both secular states. However, in 2002 Indonesia's Aceh province was granted permission to introduce sharia law, and homosexual acts between adults have been banned. However, there are long-standing traditions of relationships between adult men and young boys in many Muslim areas, though the buggery has to stop before the boy is old enough to start enjoying it (because he'll get addicted). In Jakarta, Indonesia's capital, homosexuals acts will get you labeled as mentally handicapped, which has wide ranging effects on your legal status in society. In Iraqn, it's mandated by law that homosexual men get sex change operations.
17th Dec '15 11:30:40 AM surgoshan
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Regarding homosexuality in Islam, as in many Abrahamic religion, is strictly forbidden and seen as a very bad thing. Many Islamic countries, accordingly, have laws against homosexuality. In most extreme cases, it is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan and Iran. Muslim majority countries that have no laws against homosexuality include Turkey and Indonesia, but it bears mentioning that these are both secular states. However, in 2002 Indonesia's Aceh province was granted permission to introduce sharia law, and homosexual acts between adults have been banned. In Jakarta, Indonesia's capital, homosexuals acts will get you labeled as mentally handicapped, which has wide ranging effects on your legal status in society.
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Regarding homosexuality in Islam, as in many Abrahamic religion, is strictly forbidden and seen as Islam has a very bad thing. complex relationship with homosexuality., Many Islamic countries, accordingly, have laws against homosexuality. In most extreme cases, it is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan and Iran. Muslim majority countries that have no laws against homosexuality include Turkey and Indonesia, but it bears mentioning that these are both secular states. However, in 2002 Indonesia's Aceh province was granted permission to introduce sharia law, and homosexual acts between adults have been banned. However, there are long-standing traditions of relationships between adult men and young boys in many Muslim areas, though the buggery has to stop before the boy is old enough to start enjoying it (because he'll get addicted). In Jakarta, Indonesia's capital, homosexuals acts will get you labeled as mentally handicapped, which has wide ranging effects on your legal status in society. society. In Iraqn, it's mandated by law that homosexual men get sex change operations.
14th Dec '15 8:52:52 PM somerandomdude
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* Muslims take the Qur'an ''very'' seriously indeed. Muhammad claimed that the tenets of Islam were revealed to him by the [[ArchangelGabriel Archangel Jibreel (Gabriel)]] over a twenty-two-year period between 610 and his death in 632. Because he was illiterate, he then dictated to others. The written transcripts of these revelations are collected in the Koran (more properly called the Glorious Qur'an), the main sacred text of Islam. For Muslims, the Koran is, literally, word for word, comma for comma, the Word of God (as opposed to the Christian Bible and Jewish Tanakh, which are mostly comprised of prophets and apostles ''talking about'' God). Most Muslim scholars would rather learn Classical Arabic to study it rather than risk mistranslation. This makes sense if you take in mind that, because of how Arabic grammar works, misreading a word could change the meaning of the whole sentence.
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* Muslims take the Qur'an ''very'' seriously indeed. Muhammad claimed that the tenets of Islam were revealed to him by the [[ArchangelGabriel Archangel Jibreel (Gabriel)]] over a twenty-two-year period between 610 and his death in 632. Because he was illiterate, he then dictated to others. The written transcripts of these revelations are collected in the Koran (more properly called the Glorious Qur'an), the main sacred text of Islam. For Muslims, the Koran is, literally, word for word, comma for comma, the Word of God (as opposed to the Christian Bible and Jewish Tanakh, which are mostly comprised of prophets and apostles ''talking about'' God). Most Muslim scholars would rather learn Classical Arabic to study it rather than risk mistranslation. This makes sense if you take in mind that, because of how Arabic grammar works, misreading a word could change the meaning of the whole sentence. The word "Qur'an" itself literally means "recitation."
22nd Nov '15 5:59:23 AM ChairmanKusem
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* MusicIsPolitics: And you better believe this creed--in its strongest form--takes this trope seriously. The strictest possible adherence to the Sharia, that is the Qu'ran, Hadith, Sira definitely and maybe the fiqh too would ban all musical instruments except for the Persian daf as well as any singing or dancing to any musical instruments that are not the daf. Furthermore, strict interpretations of Sharia suggest all songs be in support of the faith with no "lewd" lyrics. Scholars following a strict adherence to the law would suggest reading the Muslim texts or playing sports to fill any void you feel the expulsion of non political music and dance creates. Naturally, people who strictly adhere to the law are viewed by most Muslims as pious...perhaps [[HolierThanThou too pious]] (there's a stereotype across the Middle East about the judgmental, large-bearded taxi driver who listens to nothing but Qur'anic recordings...).
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* MusicIsPolitics: And you better believe this creed--in its strongest strictest form--takes this trope seriously. The fundamentalist and strictest possible form of adherence to and interpretation of the Sharia, that is included in some iterations of the Qu'ran, Hadith, Sira definitely and maybe the fiqh too too, would ban all musical instruments except for the Persian daf as well as any singing or dancing to any musical instruments that are not the daf. Furthermore, strict interpretations of Sharia suggest all permissible songs be in support of the faith with no "lewd" lyrics. Fundamentalist or rigidly Orthodox Scholars following a strict adherence to the law would suggest reading the Muslim texts or playing sports to fill any void you feel the expulsion of non political music and dance creates. Naturally, people who strictly adhere to the law are viewed by most Muslims as pious...perhaps [[HolierThanThou too pious]] (there's a stereotype across the Middle East about the judgmental, large-bearded taxi driver who listens to nothing but Qur'anic recordings...). Similar to the Christian "Bible Thumper" stereotype.
22nd Nov '15 5:44:09 AM ChairmanKusem
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* Sufism has also been particularly strong in Chechnya and the neighboring regions of the northern Caucasus. It was quite convenient during the Soviet times, since Sufis do not need mosques for their practices, and going to any house of worship could get one ostracized in the USSR. However, during the wars with Russia more radical forms of Islam, such as the aforementioned Wahhabi school, became quite widespread. Still, some sources state that about half of all Chechens belong to Sufi brotherhoods. Sufism is also somewhat more common in Turkey for similar reasons, and Sufi brotherhoods have been at the center of much political activism and controversy. * Sufism (the Naqshbandi branch in particular) is also quite popular and the traditional orientation of Chinese Muslims. As well as in the general Central Asian region near and in Western China as well. There is also a myriad of more minor sects, such as the Kharijite sect, which, among other things, claimed that most Muslims had become ''kuffar'' (unbelievers), and the Ibadi sect--who form a majority in Oman--which is essentially Kharijism-lite.
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* Sufism has also been particularly strong in Chechnya and the neighboring regions of the northern Caucasus. It was quite convenient during the Soviet times, since Sufis do not need mosques for their practices, and going to any house of worship could get one ostracized in the USSR. However, during the wars with Russia more radical forms of Islam, such as the aforementioned Wahhabi school, became quite widespread. Still, some sources state that about half of all Chechens belong to Sufi brotherhoods. Sufism is also somewhat more common in Turkey and The Eastern European Muslim countries (Bosnia, Albania) for similar reasons, and Sufi brotherhoods have been at the center of much political activism and controversy. * Sufism (the Naqshbandi branch in particular) is also quite popular and the traditional orientation of Chinese Muslims. As well as in the general Central Asian region. *The Tradition also has deep connections in African countries. Which has the most murids (devotees) of Sufism than any other region near in the world. Many African Muslim communities typically follow the Naqshbandi and Qadiri Tariqa. Similar to Chechnya, The region has undergone massive Wahhabi reactionary movements that seek to "cleanse Islam" of Sufism, which they find hedonistic and pagan. Some of whom, like Boko Haram, going so far as to go out and exterminate Sufi communities in Western China as well.Africa. There is also a myriad of more minor sects, such as the Kharijite sect, which, among other things, claimed that most Muslims had become ''kuffar'' (unbelievers), and the Ibadi sect--who form a majority in Oman--which is essentially Kharijism-lite. Another movement very prevalent among some Modernist Muslims and several Reform advocates is Qur'anism. Which rejects all or most Hadith and histories, basically "extra-Qur'anic sources". On their account of them being historically biased, illegitimate and/or questionable for a number of different reasons. It's still a minority and heavily criticized by most other Muslim groups.
22nd Nov '15 5:27:44 AM ChairmanKusem
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Sufis are a notable, esoteric, mystical minority who are now mostly extinct but were very important in spreading Islam, particularly in India and Indonesia. * Sufism has also been particularly strong in Chechnya and the neighbouring regions of the northern Caucasus. It was quite convenient during the Soviet times, since Sufis do not need mosques for their practices, and going to any house of worship could get one ostracised in the USSR. However, during the wars with Russia more radical forms of Islam, such as the aforementioned Wahhabi school, became quite widespread. Still, some sources state that about half of all Chechens belong to Sufi brotherhoods. Sufism is also somewhat more common in Turkey for similar reasons, and Sufi brotherhoods have been at the center of much political activism and controversy.
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Sufis are a notable, esoteric, mystical orientation, who are a minority who nowadays, at least compared to their historical role in the Muslim world. They are now mostly extinct but however, extremely prevalent in multiple areas of the Muslim world and Muslim communities worldwide. And were very important in spreading Islam, particularly in India India, Turkey, Africa and Indonesia. *Sufis are divided into many different subgroups, or Tariqa, each with their own distinct traditions, method of interpretation, saintly figures and mythos. Some include the Mevlevi, who primarily revere (among others) the poet Rumi as a saint and are famous for their "Whirling Dervishes" a method of worship involving meditative spinning. The Naqshbandi, who revere (among other saints) the teachings of Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari and Sheikh Nazim-Haqqani and several forms of communal chanting/meditation as prayer. And The Bektashi. Who form a syncretic doctrine with Traditional Shamanism, and believe in a concept of Muhammad and Ali being "radiations" of Allah. Forming an almost Triune aspect similar to the Alawi concept. * Sufism has also been particularly strong in Chechnya and the neighbouring neighboring regions of the northern Caucasus. It was quite convenient during the Soviet times, since Sufis do not need mosques for their practices, and going to any house of worship could get one ostracised ostracized in the USSR. However, during the wars with Russia more radical forms of Islam, such as the aforementioned Wahhabi school, became quite widespread. Still, some sources state that about half of all Chechens belong to Sufi brotherhoods. Sufism is also somewhat more common in Turkey for similar reasons, and Sufi brotherhoods have been at the center of much political activism and controversy.controversy. * Sufism (the Naqshbandi branch in particular) is also quite popular and the traditional orientation of Chinese Muslims. As well as in the general Central Asian region near and in Western China as well.
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