History UsefulNotes / India

18th Jul '16 10:19:46 AM JulianLapostat
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[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Ancient India]]



The Mauryan Empire lasted a few more generations, reaching the height of its territorial extent, military power, and cultural achievement under Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great. Ashoka is perhaps most famous for being (we think) a Buddhist and (possibly) a pacifist (after having done a lot of killing and conquering...), but he made more lasting contributions in the form of the usual good-monarch business (lawgiving, fair dispensation of justice, efficient administration, etc.) Of course, no empire can last long, and the Mauryan Empire soon broke up into what would later be termed the Middle Kingdoms of India; most of the kingdoms co-existed in peace, and trade routes started by Maurya flourished over the next 1,500 years. Ashoka also played a major role in proseltyzing Buddhism and in the course of the eventual rise of Hindu (or rather Vedic) kingdoms, Buddhism would decline in India but spread across China and Japan and generally flourish outside its country of origin. Every now and then, a new empire would rise and run most of the subcontinent for a few generations, but nobody really cared other than the nobles doing the ruling and fighting, as these political distinctions did comparatively little to affect the economic activity on the ground, which is good because during the classical to medieval period, India was considered the '''wealthiest''' economy in the world. India was the center of the spice trade and was linked to the Silk Route. Traders from across the world came to India, including the Arab scholars Al-Beruni (who brought Indian mathematics to the Middle East and managed to spread it westwards), Ibn Batuta and of course UsefulNotes/MarcoPolo who came all the way to South India, to Mylapore (present day Chennai) and wrote about the wealth of the Southern Kingdoms. India also held monopoly on the diamond trade until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 1700s, the crown jewels of virtually every European royal family was adorned with diamonds from the mines of India, especially Kollur in Golconda. This is true of the two most famous diamonds in the world, the Hope Diamond and the Koh-I-Noor.

India's wealth did not go unnoticed for long and the northern parts of India were subject to repeated raids from the Arabs and the Mongols. The Arab Sultans started making in-roads into India between 800-1400, starting several small kingdoms often inter-marrying with local rulers and allying with them to carve territory. Some of these rulers were highly notable, including Razia Sultana, the daughter of Alauddin Khilji who became [[SheIsTheKing the only female Sultan of India]] who ruled on her own. There was also Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan warlord who revived the ancient capital of Pataliputra (modern day Bihar) and ruled for five years (between the reigns of Humayun and Akbar) but in that time, extended the Grand Trunk Road, built a Post Office and invented the Rupee, the currency of the Indian subcontinent. Eventually, political unity would come about with the rise of the Mughal Empire, who would at their height grow to unify well over 80% of the subcontinent. Unlike earlier Arab rulers or other foreign rulers before (and after), the Mughals under Akbar started assimilating into Indian culture and traditions. Akbar famously abolished the tax for non-Muslims and promoted Hindus into high positions in the government and started a much admired policy of religious co-existence that would later be cited by nationalists as an inspiration for a plural society that formed part of secular Indian nationalism. This era of the Mughals brought about an architectural and cultural Renaissance comparable to Florence under the Medici, or France under UsefulNotes/LouisXIV. From this period dates monuments such as Humayun's Tomb, Fatehpur Sikhri, Buland Darwaza and under Akbar's grandson, Shahjahan, the Old Delhi quarter and of course the Taj Mahal, India's [[EiffelTowerEffect most iconic monument]]. The Mughals also promoted infrastructure, relative order and created a system of vassals and alliances. This was not always peaceful of course because the Mughals, however benign and tolerant they were, were still TheEmpire.

Rebellions sprang against their hegemony and within Punjab, regional rebellion also led to the rise of Sikhism (along with Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam, the major religion of the Indian subcontinent) whose Gurus often battled against the Mughal armies. Of course, the Mughals had a tendency to be [[HisOwnWorstEnemy their own worst enemies]] what with the DeadlyDecadentCourt and their fratricidal policy of succession. Much like the Ottomans, princes competed against each other for the right of succession [[CainAndAbel and brothers would often kill their siblings]] and imprison their fathers when they became old. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb came to power in this manner, and while the first two are still respected, Aurangzeb has a deeply ambivalent reputation across India, since he repudiated his ancestors policy of religious toleration (his brother Dara Shikoh, who he killed, translated the Gita into Persian for instance) and launched a policy of religious persecution and oppression. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughals reached the peak of their military power and territorial expansion. This sparked [[LaResistance a strong resistance in the South]] that would eventually evict the Mughals from large portions of the Deccan Plateau, forming the Maratha Confederacy, a state on the border between TheEmpire and TheFederation internally. The Mughals would also decline in the North under later rulers. Most humiliatingly of all, they would be sacked by the Persian conqueror Nader Shah who came to Delhi and left with the Peacock Throne and the Koh-I-Noor diamond [[note]]which would later be recovered by the Sikh Empire before coming into possession of the English, whose Crown Jewels outfit it to this day[[/note]]. Numerous petty wars and kingdoms broke out across the North and the South. All of this occurred to a backdrop of warfare well on par with the UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar, which thoroughly wrecked the golden age of before and the emergence of other petty states like Mysore in the vacuum. After well over a century of conflict, both sides still warily eyed each other, looking for the chance to finish the other off.

The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextProblem ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks. Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]]. The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously.

Britain created a modern, united, well-developed system of rule, with railways, telegraph and court systems - but the entire infrastructure was specifically designed to exploit the resources of the country, with only a minimal regard as to the consequences for the Indian people (although it also [[PragmaticVillainy a great deal of regard for avoiding doing things that unnecessarily antagonised the people]], e.g. rampant Christian proselytism; also, if doing something nice for the locals would also benefit the British or would cost them nothing, the authorities were often if not usually more than happy to do it). With that, right up until independence, there was also exactly zero interest (actually scratch that, minimal interest with zero ''support'' from the crown) in fixing social problems such as casteism, illiteracy, gender and income inequality, etc that civilizations were attempting to overcome around the world; any progress made on those fronts was either made in spite of the government or because something the government found expedient happened to lead to progress tangentially. Indeed, the British often encouraged these inequalities by establishing ethnic identities by special categories and quotas, which further spread religious divides. While the Raj became increasingly Indianized in terms of bureaucracy, true representative rule was never really put into place; the world's largest population was ruled without any direct way of voicing its wishes in government. This is known as "The Drain" in Indian history, when India's wealth and resources were harnessed--recklessly--by the British for their own ends. Britain then proceeded to popularize this image of the 'Poor India' around the world, emphasizing that such a country of "savages" was unfit to rule itself. The British rule was also marked by periodic famines in India, which came about because of the laissez faire attitude to liberal capitalism. As UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt[[note]]Who despite his friendship with Churchill was a critic of British Imperialism and repeatedly stated that America would push for decolonization after the war[[/note]], noted, ''"Every year the Indian people have one thing to look forward to, like death and taxes. Sure as shooting, they have a famine. The season of the famine, they call it."''

to:

The Mauryan Empire lasted a few more generations, reaching the height of its territorial extent, military power, and cultural achievement under Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great. Ashoka is perhaps most famous for being (we think) a Buddhist and (possibly) a pacifist (after having done a lot of killing and conquering...), but he made more lasting contributions in the form of the usual good-monarch business (lawgiving, fair dispensation of justice, efficient administration, etc.) Of course, no empire can last long, and the Mauryan Empire soon broke up into what would later be termed the Middle Kingdoms of India; most of the kingdoms co-existed in peace, and trade routes started by Maurya flourished over the next 1,500 years. Ashoka also played a major role in proseltyzing Buddhism and in the course of the eventual rise of Hindu (or rather Vedic) kingdoms, Buddhism would decline in India but spread across China and Japan and generally flourish outside its country of origin. Every now and then, a new empire would rise and run most of the subcontinent for a few generations, but nobody really cared other than the nobles doing the ruling and fighting, as these political distinctions did comparatively little to affect the economic activity on the ground, which is good because during the classical to medieval period, India was considered the '''wealthiest''' economy in the world. world.

India was the center of the spice trade and was linked to the Silk Route. Traders from across the world came to India, including the Arab scholars Al-Beruni (who brought Indian mathematics to the Middle East and managed to spread it westwards), Ibn Batuta and of course UsefulNotes/MarcoPolo who came all the way to South India, to Mylapore (present day Chennai) and wrote about the wealth of the Southern Kingdoms. India also held monopoly on the diamond trade until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 1700s, the crown jewels of virtually every European royal family was adorned with diamonds from the mines of India, especially Kollur in Golconda. This is true of the two most famous diamonds in the world, the Hope Diamond and the Koh-I-Noor. \n\n
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Medieval India]]

India's wealth did not go unnoticed for long and the northern parts of India were subject to repeated raids from the Arabs and the Mongols. The Arab Sultans started making in-roads into India between 800-1400, starting several small kingdoms often inter-marrying with local rulers and allying with them to carve territory. Some of these rulers were highly notable, including Razia Sultana, the daughter of Alauddin Khilji who became [[SheIsTheKing the only female Sultan of India]] who ruled on her own. There was also Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan warlord who revived the ancient capital of Pataliputra (modern day Bihar) and ruled for five years (between the reigns of Humayun and Akbar) but in that time, extended the Grand Trunk Road, built a Post Office and invented the Rupee, the currency of the Indian subcontinent. Eventually, political unity would come about with the rise of the Mughal Empire, who would at their height grow to unify well over 80% of the subcontinent.

Unlike earlier Arab rulers or other foreign rulers before (and after), the Mughals under Akbar started assimilating into Indian culture and traditions. Akbar famously abolished the tax for non-Muslims and promoted Hindus into high positions in the government and started a much admired policy of religious co-existence that would later be cited by nationalists as an inspiration for a plural society that formed part of secular Indian nationalism. This era of the Mughals brought about an architectural and cultural Renaissance comparable to Florence under the Medici, or France under UsefulNotes/LouisXIV. From this period dates monuments such as Humayun's Tomb, Fatehpur Sikhri, Buland Darwaza and under Akbar's grandson, Shahjahan, the Old Delhi quarter and of course the Taj Mahal, India's [[EiffelTowerEffect most iconic monument]]. The Mughals also promoted infrastructure, relative order and created a system of vassals and alliances. This was not always peaceful of course because the Mughals, however benign and tolerant they were, were still TheEmpire.

Rebellions sprang against their hegemony and within Punjab, regional rebellion also led to the rise of Sikhism (along with Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam, the major religion of the Indian subcontinent) whose Gurus often battled against the Mughal armies. Of course, the Mughals had a tendency to be [[HisOwnWorstEnemy their own worst enemies]] what with the DeadlyDecadentCourt and their fratricidal policy of succession. Much like the Ottomans, princes competed against each other for the right of succession [[CainAndAbel and brothers would often kill their siblings]] and imprison their fathers when they became old. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb came to power in this manner, and while the first two are still respected, Aurangzeb has a deeply ambivalent reputation across India, since he repudiated his ancestors policy of religious toleration (his brother Dara Shikoh, who he killed, translated the Gita into Persian for instance) and launched a policy of religious persecution and oppression. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughals reached the peak of their military power and territorial expansion.

This sparked [[LaResistance a strong resistance in the South]] that would eventually evict the Mughals from large portions of the Deccan Plateau, forming the Maratha Confederacy, a state on the border between TheEmpire and TheFederation internally. The Mughals would also decline in the North under later rulers. Most humiliatingly of all, they would be sacked by the Persian conqueror Nader Shah who came to Delhi and left with the Peacock Throne and the Koh-I-Noor diamond [[note]]which would later be recovered by the Sikh Empire before coming into possession of the English, whose Crown Jewels outfit it to this day[[/note]]. Numerous petty wars and kingdoms broke out across the North and the South. All of this occurred to a backdrop of warfare well on par with the UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar, which thoroughly wrecked the golden age of before and the emergence of other petty states like Mysore in the vacuum. After well over a century of conflict, both sides still warily eyed each other, looking for the chance to finish the other off.

off.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: British Raj]]

The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextProblem ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks.

Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]].

The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously.

Britain created a modern, united, well-developed system of rule, with railways, telegraph and court systems - but the entire infrastructure was specifically designed to exploit the resources of the country, with only a minimal regard as to the consequences for the Indian people (although it also [[PragmaticVillainy a great deal of regard for avoiding doing things that unnecessarily antagonised the people]], e.g. rampant Christian proselytism; also, if doing something nice for the locals would also benefit the British or would cost them nothing, the authorities were often if not usually more than happy to do it). With that, right up until independence, there was also exactly zero interest (actually scratch that, minimal interest with zero ''support'' from the crown) in fixing social problems such as casteism, illiteracy, gender and income inequality, etc that civilizations were attempting to overcome around the world; any progress made on those fronts was either made in spite of the government or because something the government found expedient happened to lead to progress tangentially. Indeed, the British often encouraged these inequalities by establishing ethnic identities by special categories and quotas, which further spread religious divides. While the Raj became increasingly Indianized in terms of bureaucracy, true representative rule was never really put into place; the world's largest population was ruled without any direct way of voicing its wishes in government. government.

This is known as "The Drain" in Indian history, when India's wealth and resources were harnessed--recklessly--by the British for their own ends. Britain then proceeded to popularize this image of the 'Poor India' around the world, emphasizing that such a country of "savages" was unfit to rule itself. The British rule was also marked by periodic famines in India, which came about because of the laissez faire attitude to liberal capitalism. As UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt[[note]]Who despite his friendship with Churchill was a critic of British Imperialism and repeatedly stated that America would push for decolonization after the war[[/note]], noted, ''"Every year the Indian people have one thing to look forward to, like death and taxes. Sure as shooting, they have a famine. The season of the famine, they call it."''
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Pre-Independence]]




to:

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Post-Independence India]]




to:

[[/folder]]
18th Jul '16 10:14:05 AM Eagal
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->''"India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."''
-->-- '''Creator/MarkTwain'''
9th Jul '16 9:26:14 PM Discar
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The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextVillain ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks. Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]]. The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously.

to:

The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextVillain ...[[OutsideContextProblem ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks. Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]]. The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously.
7th Jun '16 7:04:32 PM Doug86
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India's independence struggle caught global attention after UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne. Several Indian freedom fighters had supported calls for Indian soldiers to enlist in the hopes for Dominion Status and autonomy. Despite the great numbers of Indian soldiers who died for the Crown, the British didn't uphold their side of the bargain. Then after the war, the events of the Jalianwalla Bagh massacre happened, where British General Dyer ordered a contingent to fire on protestors in a crowded area. The resulting violence, brutal crackdown, martial law in Amritsar and grotesque acts of torture earned condemnation across India and the world (even by arch-imperialist UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill in Parliament). Around this time, a lawyer returning from South Africa, named UsefulNotes/MahatmaGandhi (though still called Mohandas Karamchand at the time) was making his voice heard in India. To protest this massacre, he called for the Non-Cooperation Movement, a large scale boycott of Indian goods that electrified public opinion and earned Gandhi worldwide attention. Later events such as the Civil Disobedience movemement and the iconic Salt March, and several other agitations exposed the absurdity and arbitrary nature of English rule behind the propaganda of the Empire.

to:

India's independence struggle caught global attention after UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne.UsefulNotes/WorldWarI. Several Indian freedom fighters had supported calls for Indian soldiers to enlist in the hopes for Dominion Status and autonomy. Despite the great numbers of Indian soldiers who died for the Crown, the British didn't uphold their side of the bargain. Then after the war, the events of the Jalianwalla Bagh massacre happened, where British General Dyer ordered a contingent to fire on protestors in a crowded area. The resulting violence, brutal crackdown, martial law in Amritsar and grotesque acts of torture earned condemnation across India and the world (even by arch-imperialist UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill in Parliament). Around this time, a lawyer returning from South Africa, named UsefulNotes/MahatmaGandhi (though still called Mohandas Karamchand at the time) was making his voice heard in India. To protest this massacre, he called for the Non-Cooperation Movement, a large scale boycott of Indian goods that electrified public opinion and earned Gandhi worldwide attention. Later events such as the Civil Disobedience movemement and the iconic Salt March, and several other agitations exposed the absurdity and arbitrary nature of English rule behind the propaganda of the Empire.
19th Apr '16 4:41:25 AM erforce
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->''"We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made."''\\
--'''UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein'''

->''"India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."''\\
--'''Creator/MarkTwain'''

to:

->''"We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made."''\\
--'''UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein'''

"''
-->-- '''UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein'''

->''"India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."''\\
--'''Creator/MarkTwain'''
"''
-->-- '''Creator/MarkTwain'''



* The second Franchise/IndianaJones film ''Film/IndianaJonesAndTheTempleOfDoom'' (1984) has Indiana and his companions crash land in India and get involved in freeing the local population from a local evil cult.

to:

* The second Franchise/IndianaJones ''Franchise/IndianaJones'' film ''Film/IndianaJonesAndTheTempleOfDoom'' (1984) has Indiana and his companions crash land in India and get involved in freeing the local population from a local evil cult.
26th Mar '16 12:08:57 PM MarkLungo
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* UsefulNotes/CricketRules - UsefulNotes/{{Cricket}}, Cricket, [[RuleOfThree Cricke]]t. What is it?

to:

* UsefulNotes/CricketRules - UsefulNotes/{{Cricket}}, Cricket, [[RuleOfThree Cricke]]t.Cricket]]. What is it?
26th Mar '16 12:08:32 PM MarkLungo
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* Main/CricketRules - Cricket, Cricket, Cricket. What is it?

to:

* Main/CricketRules UsefulNotes/CricketRules - UsefulNotes/{{Cricket}}, Cricket, Cricket, Cricket.[[RuleOfThree Cricke]]t. What is it?
20th Jan '16 10:43:55 AM JulianLapostat
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The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextVillain ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks.

Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]]. The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously. Britain created a modern, united, well-developed system of rule, with railways, telegraph and court systems - but the entire infrastructure was specifically designed to exploit the resources of the country, with only a minimal regard as to the consequences for the Indian people (although it also [[PragmaticVillainy a great deal of regard for avoiding doing things that unnecessarily antagonised the people]], e.g. rampant Christian proselytism; also, if doing something nice for the locals would also benefit the British or would cost them nothing, the authorities were often if not usually more than happy to do it). With that, right up until independence, there was also exactly zero interest (actually scratch that, minimal interest with zero ''support'' from the crown) in fixing social problems such as casteism, illiteracy, gender and income inequality, etc that civilizations were attempting to overcome around the world; any progress made on those fronts was either made in spite of the government or because something the government found expedient happened to lead to progress tangentially. Indeed, the British often encouraged these inequalities by establishing ethnic identities by special categories and quotas, which further spread religious divides. While the Raj became increasingly Indianized in terms of bureaucracy, true representative rule was never really put into place; the world's largest population was ruled without any direct way of voicing its wishes in government. This is known as "The Drain" in Indian history, when India's wealth and resources were harnessed--recklessly--by the British for their own ends. Britain then proceeded to popularize this image of the 'Poor India' around the world, emphasizing that such a country of "savages" was unfit to rule itself. The British rule was also marked by periodic famines in India, which came about because of the laissez faire attitude to liberal capitalism. As UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt[[note]]Who despite his friendship with Churchill was a critic of British Imperialism and repeatedly stated that America would not support England's imperialist holdings and would push for decolonization after the war[[/note]], noted, ''"Every year the Indian people have one thing to look forward to, like death and taxes. Sure as shooting, they have a famine. The season of the famine, they call it."''

to:

The East India Company, originally chartered by UsefulNotes/ElizabethI had previously come into contact with the Mughal Emperors and initially conducted themselves in the interest of trade. The arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese and the French East India Companies as well as the great deal of instability caused by the above mentioned power vaccuum, led them to begin forming an army to protect their interests. These actions in turn got the side-eye of local Nawabs and rulers, who allied with the French or other regional heads to fight the English, often in proxy wars of European conflicts such as the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. A good example is Tipu Sultan who, incredibly was an ally of [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution Revolutionary France]]. However, from the victory of Robert Clive at the 1757 Battle of Plassey to the Mutiny, a century later, [[OutsideContextVillain ... the British East India Company established unquestioned hegemony over all remaining Indian kingdoms]], going from strength to strength with the only true challenge finally coming from [[PrivateMilitaryContractors the local sipahis]] they had brought into their ranks. \n\n Under British Colonial Rule, first under the East India Company and [[UsefulNotes/TheRaj then directly under the Crown]], two hundred and fifty years of capital-F-Foreign rule began. Initially, the East India Company was allowed to govern [[OneNationUnderCopyright more or less by itself]], which resulted in such [[KickTheDog lovely]] policies such as abusive tax-collecting (with collectors often torturing people to pay up like a proto-mafia LoanShark), aggressive missionary activity, destruction of rural infrastructure, imperialism and annexation violating treaties that the Company formerly agreed to. The East India Company also farmed opium in India with which it tried [[TheAggressiveDrugDealer to open up China's market]]. The resulting flare up was the Indian Mutiny. This event achieved two things. It resulted in the elimination of the Mughals, the brutal and violent conquest of Delhi, and the end of any future local military threat (this was the last time Indian rulers took command in battle and the last time locals actually mounted military resistance against the Crown). It also resulted in the crown [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness abolishing the EITC]] and ruling directly and *far* more cautiously.

Britain created a modern, united, well-developed system of rule, with railways, telegraph and court systems - but the entire infrastructure was specifically designed to exploit the resources of the country, with only a minimal regard as to the consequences for the Indian people (although it also [[PragmaticVillainy a great deal of regard for avoiding doing things that unnecessarily antagonised the people]], e.g. rampant Christian proselytism; also, if doing something nice for the locals would also benefit the British or would cost them nothing, the authorities were often if not usually more than happy to do it). With that, right up until independence, there was also exactly zero interest (actually scratch that, minimal interest with zero ''support'' from the crown) in fixing social problems such as casteism, illiteracy, gender and income inequality, etc that civilizations were attempting to overcome around the world; any progress made on those fronts was either made in spite of the government or because something the government found expedient happened to lead to progress tangentially. Indeed, the British often encouraged these inequalities by establishing ethnic identities by special categories and quotas, which further spread religious divides. While the Raj became increasingly Indianized in terms of bureaucracy, true representative rule was never really put into place; the world's largest population was ruled without any direct way of voicing its wishes in government. This is known as "The Drain" in Indian history, when India's wealth and resources were harnessed--recklessly--by the British for their own ends. Britain then proceeded to popularize this image of the 'Poor India' around the world, emphasizing that such a country of "savages" was unfit to rule itself. The British rule was also marked by periodic famines in India, which came about because of the laissez faire attitude to liberal capitalism. As UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt[[note]]Who despite his friendship with Churchill was a critic of British Imperialism and repeatedly stated that America would not support England's imperialist holdings and would push for decolonization after the war[[/note]], noted, ''"Every year the Indian people have one thing to look forward to, like death and taxes. Sure as shooting, they have a famine. The season of the famine, they call it."''



Despite his immense importance however, Britain's withdrawal from India ''wasn't'' quite as simple as "Gandhi's love impressed them so much they left in peace" and more a result of a number of diverse factors, such was WW2's significant impact on Britain's army and economy, anti-British riots beginning to break out around the country, growing dissent among the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army_during_World_War_II#Aftermath Indian Army during WW2]], who were becoming increasing antagonistic towards the Allies (unsurprising, since they were now caught in a situation where they were fighting ''against'' an oppressive regime ''for'' an oppressive regime -- nearly 100,000 Indian soldiers eventually defected over to the INA; [[LaResistance the pro-Japanese, anti-British Resistance]] movement, and some [=POWs=] were actually recruited voluntarily by the Japanese; both these forces inevitably went on to fight the Allies in Southeast Asia) plus, having just witnessed the results of a totalitarian government, the world was much less willing to buy the idea of British rule being for "India's own good".

The tragedy of the Partition came as a result of the rather messy creation of India and Pakistan as separate states a full year earlier than planned. The British got their dignified exit, but at the expense of a few million people who were displaced and impoverished by the war and mass exodus that soon followed. In retrospect the two-state solution was a bad idea, Britain had also had to speed the de-colonisation process up as they were quite literally teetering on the edge of bankruptcy and unable to shoulder the costs of administering the colony any more - a direct result of the US' unwillingness to loan them any more money In Support Of Imperialism (in the bad sense) after [[WorldWarTwo the War's]] end, and likewise a direct consequence over their decade long policies of organizing communities on ethnic and religious lines, (which also resulted in partitions and messy independence struggles in Ireland and British Palestine). It goes without saying that the East India Company, and its successor The Raj[[note]] The company had been running at a loss for decades, but the final straw was a widespread mercenary (Sepoy) rebellion in 1857-8 which convinced Westminster that letting a corporation control 2/3 of a sub-continent was a bad idea[[/note]], had done much to play India's Muslim (e.g. the Mughal Empire and its secessionist kingdoms) and Hindu (e.g. the Maharatta Confederacy) realms - and people - against each other for the better part of a century, passing laws to 'preserve' their differences and the caste system (to counter the melding of culture and castes/classes in the century or two of strife and social mobility that marked the disintegration of the Mughal Empire) [[DivideAndConquer to ensure the region would be easier to govern]].

[[FromBadToWorse Things took a rapid turn for the worse]] when Muhammad Ali Jinnah, India's most prominent Muslim leader, put forward a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-nation_theory charming theory]] that Hindus and Muslims must live in separate countries, divided by religion. India being a region of numerous faiths, the situation spiraled out of control rapidly, escalating into full-scale communal riots that left hundreds of thousands dead. The new Indian Muslim state was called 'Pak(i)stan', an acronym of its constituent provinces of the Punjab, Afghan Province, Kashmir, Sind, and Baluchistan (but not [[AndZoidberg Bangladesh]], aka 'East Pakistan'). The Partition occurred on the 15 August 1947. Eventually, with Indian military support, Bangladesh gained its own independence from Pakistan after a rather bloody revolution. In spite of the goal of Pakistan as a separate Muslim state, the fact remains that a large number of Muslims remained in India and as of 21st Century, India ranks among the top three Muslim populations in the world, with 172 million residing in India and calling it home (greater than the total populations of Russia and Japan). It's only in proportion to the 900+ million Hindu population that Muslims constitute a "minority" in India.

Obtaining total Independence from Britain on August 15th, 1947, India was divided into what is now modern India, Pakistan, [[UsefulNotes/{{Portugal}} Portuguese occupied Goa]] (which was later conquered and integrated into India--not that most Goans had any problem with it),[[note]]This led to a rather amusing incident in which the Portugese attempted to invoke the [[BindingAncientTreaty Anglo-Portugese Treaty of 1373]] to defend Goa against India; the British basically told them, "You're a puny bunch of quasi-fascist colonialists, India is a powerful and reasonably-friendly and democratic member of UsefulNotes/TheCommonwealth, so...how about no?"[[/note]] Bangladesh (which broke off from Pakistan in '71 with India's help), Bhutan (which remains independent), and Sikkim (which was an Indian protectorate from independence to 1975, at which point it was admitted as a state). A much-overlooked fact is that because of the structure of the British Raj, India had to fight for considerable swaths of territory (Kashmir aside). The country at the time was divided into a whopping ''five hundred plus'' now-independent Princely States (which Britain had governed and taxed indirectly through traditional Indian monarchs) and, deciding not to expend the vast resources that would be necessary to make a smooth transition, Britain took an attitude of "you guys sort it out among yourselves" and withdrew without establishing the new government.

Meanwhile, the Herculean task of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_integration_of_India uniting the princely states]] fell to Home Minister Vallabhai Patel, his Constitutional Advisor V.P. Menon, and (more controversially) the Britain-appointed Viceroy Luis Mountbatten. While the parts of the subcontinent under direct British rule immediately became part of the Union of India (as it was called before it became a republic in 1950), the Princely States themselves had the option of joining India, joining Pakistan, or remaining independent. Majority-Muslim states on the border with Pakistan tended to join Pakistan without controversy, while most others chose to join India. However, several princely states refused to follow the obvious patterns, the most notable of which are Kashmir, Junagadh, and Hyderabad, all instances where the ruling elite was a different religion from the majority of the population in the state. Kashmir, where the ruler was Hindu and the people Muslim, is quite possibly the biggest political can of worms in the world today besides the ArabIsraeliConflict and (historically, perhaps) UsefulNotes/TheTroubles. The other two major instances involved a Muslim ruler over a majority-Hindu state: Junagadh's Muslim prince decided to join Pakistan despite not bordering it at all, leading India to essentially lay siege to the territory, and eventually the prince fled. Hyderabad's Muslim ruler decided he didn't much care to be part of India ''or'' Pakistan, and Hyderabad had to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Polo integrated by force of arms]].

A lot of the problems that nobody got around to rectifying before independence are still there now, most notably a high rate of illiteracy in the more rural areas, which both the government and private organizations are fighting to change. Sixty years of quick, accelerated development later, India today is the world's largest democracy, maintaining the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Military second largest military in the world]], a nuclear superpower, and the only nation that has U.N permission to trade in nuclear fuel without having signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

For a country that has only had six decades of actual modern development, it says a lot about how fast the nation is moving forward, especially when Americans today are concerned that Indians are surpassing them in the IT sector. Poverty is ''extremely'' widespread still, with 41% of the nation falling below the poverty line (and an equal percentage of malnourished children), and the nation containing a third of the world's poor. It is trying to deal with these problems, but it remains a slow climb.

to:

Despite his immense importance however, Britain's withdrawal from India ''wasn't'' quite as simple as "Gandhi's love impressed them so much they left in peace" and more was not solely, or mainly, a result of Gandhi's protests, rather a result of a number of diverse factors, such was factors. This includes: WW2's significant impact on Britain's army and economy, anti-British riots beginning to break out around the country, growing dissent among the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army_during_World_War_II#Aftermath Indian Army during WW2]], who were becoming increasing antagonistic towards the Allies (unsurprising, since they were now caught in a situation where they were fighting ''against'' an oppressive regime ''for'' an oppressive regime -- nearly 100,000 Indian soldiers eventually defected over to the INA; [[LaResistance the pro-Japanese, anti-British Resistance]] movement, and some [=POWs=] were actually recruited voluntarily by the Japanese; both these forces inevitably went on to fight the Allies in Southeast Asia) plus, having just witnessed the results of a totalitarian government, the world was much less willing to buy the idea of British rule being for "India's own good".

The tragedy of
good". Even then, the Partition came as a result of the rather messy creation of India and Pakistan as separate states a full year earlier than planned. The British got their dignified exit, but at the expense of a few million people who were displaced and impoverished by the war and mass exodus that soon followed. In retrospect the two-state solution was a bad idea, Britain had also had to speed the de-colonisation process up as they were quite literally teetering on the edge of bankruptcy and unable to shoulder the costs of administering the colony any more - a direct result of the US' unwillingness to loan them any more money In Support Of Imperialism (in the bad sense) after [[WorldWarTwo the War's]] end, and likewise a direct consequence over their decade long policies of organizing communities on ethnic and religious lines, (which also resulted in partitions and messy independence struggles attained in Ireland and British Palestine). It goes without saying that the East India Company, and its successor The Raj[[note]] The company had been running at a loss for decades, but the final straw 1947 was a widespread mercenary (Sepoy) rebellion in 1857-8 which convinced Westminster that letting a corporation control 2/3 of a sub-continent was a bad idea[[/note]], had done as much to play India's Muslim (e.g. triumph as it was tragedy.

The policies of UsefulNotes/TheRaj, alongside internal party disputes within
the Mughal Empire and its secessionist kingdoms) and Hindu (e.g. Congress, led to a polarization between the Maharatta Confederacy) realms - and people - against each other for two parties of the better part of a century, passing laws to 'preserve' their differences Indian National Congress and the caste system (to counter the melding of culture and castes/classes in the century or two of strife and social mobility that marked the disintegration Muslim League. The leader of the Mughal Empire) [[DivideAndConquer to ensure the region would be easier to govern]].

[[FromBadToWorse Things took a rapid turn for the worse]] when
Muslim League, and founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, India's most prominent Muslim leader, put forward Jinnah was originally a member of the Congress party. He had once voiced support for Hindu-Muslim unity, and was a committed nationalist. Yet, factional disputes within the Congress, percieved closeness to Hindu religious leaders and fears of a Hindu nationalism rather than a secular one, made him sympathetic to the a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-nation_theory charming theory]] that Hindus and Muslims must live in two-nation theory]], a demand for a separate countries, divided by religion. India being a region of numerous faiths, the situation spiraled nation for India's sizable Muslim minority carved out of control rapidly, escalating into full-scale communal riots that left hundreds of thousands dead. The new Indian Muslim state was called 'Pak(i)stan', an acronym of its constituent provinces of in the Punjab, Afghan Province, Kashmir, Sind, Raj that had sizable Muslim majorities and Baluchistan (but not [[AndZoidberg Bangladesh]], aka 'East Pakistan'). The Partition occurred on the 15 August 1947. Eventually, with Indian military support, Bangladesh gained its own independence from Hindu-Sikh minorities. This idea of nationalism was inspired by Kemalism, Zionism and Arab nationalism, i.e. it revolved around social identity of Muslims as citizens, rather than building a theocratic state, and Jinnah fully expected a Pakistan after a rather bloody revolution. In spite that would be democratic and eventually co-exist alongside India. This notion of the goal of Pakistan as a separate Muslim state, nation was opposed by the Congress' leadership who were committed to a secular state and believed that its leadership was representative of all Indians, the majority Hindus and its minorities. It is a fact remains that despite the purpose of Pakistan as a large nation for the Muslim minority, a vast number of Muslims remained did not wish to live in India a separate Muslim nation and as of identified with Indian nationalism. Indeed, in the 21st Century, India ranks among the top three Muslim populations in the world, with 172 million residing in India and calling it home (greater than the total populations of Russia and Japan). It's only in proportion to the 900+ million Hindu population that Muslims constitute a "minority" in India.

Obtaining total Independence from Britain on August 15th, 1947, Nonetheless, in consequence of a series of factors in the 1940s, Jinnah and the Muslim League won enough support in a 1945 regional electorate that their demands for a separate nation were taken seriously by the English. The Labour government, who came to power in 1945, promised independence and devolution, and the goal was a "dignified exit" and as such Louis Mountbatten agreed to a two-nation division of the former British Raj. There isn't a great deal of consensus for what follows but historians agree that the most contentious issues invole 1) The case of the Princely States, the areas of India governed [[InNameOnly by nominal Princes]] who had the right to accede to either India and Pakistan or declare neutrality and idependence. 2) The movement of the date of transfer far earlier than intended. In the case of the former, there were issues of Hindu Kings ruling over regions with Muslim minorities (cf, UsefulNotes/TheKashmirQuestion) and vice versa. Whether "neutrality" was the desires of the King over that of their people and if it weren't more democratic to put the issue of national self-determination to a Plebiscite. In the case of the latter, the moving up the date meant that the infrastructure to arrange and police the population exchange had to be erected in haste, and in some cases, not at all. As such people were forced to suddenly leave what they considered their homes, with their belongings and asked to move to an area which they were told was now their country when, in most cases, their true homeland was the world they left behind, whose new residents were...the strangers coming their way to take it. This led to the violence of the Partition, the largest and bloodiest communal violence in South East Asia, where more than a million people were killed as Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims clashed in Bengal, Punjab and the Sindh, in addition to leaving millions more displaced. This was the largest population exchange and greatest human migration in history. To say that the parties (India, British, Pakistan) were unprepared and incompetent in handling the crisis is an {{Understatement}}. The trauma of these events had a psychological impact on India and Pakistan, and the memories of these events, the loss of land, lives and dignity, and the overall responsibility [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment is an issue of great contention]].

The former British Raj which governed the whole subcontinent
was divided into what is now modern India, Pakistan (a non-contiguous land that included West Pakistan and East Pakistan[[note]]Eventually, with Indian military support, East Pakistan, carved out of the Bengal province, became Bangladesh and gained its own independence from Pakistan after a rather bloody revolution.[[/note]]), [[UsefulNotes/{{Portugal}} Portuguese occupied Goa]] (which [[note]](which was later conquered and integrated into India--not that most Goans had any problem with it),[[note]]This it), This led to a rather amusing incident in which the Portugese attempted to invoke the [[BindingAncientTreaty Anglo-Portugese Treaty of 1373]] to defend Goa against India; the British basically told them, "You're a puny bunch of quasi-fascist colonialists, India is a powerful and reasonably-friendly and democratic member of UsefulNotes/TheCommonwealth, so...how about no?"[[/note]] Bangladesh (which broke off from Pakistan in '71 with India's help), no?"[[/note]], Bhutan (which remains independent), and Sikkim (which was an Indian protectorate from independence to 1975, at which point it was admitted as a state). A much-overlooked fact is that because of the structure of the British Raj, India had to fight for considerable swaths of territory (Kashmir aside).territory. The country at the time was divided into a whopping ''five hundred plus'' now-independent Princely States (which Britain had governed and taxed indirectly through traditional Indian monarchs) and, deciding not to expend the vast resources that would be necessary to make a smooth transition, Britain took an attitude of "you guys sort it out among yourselves" and withdrew without establishing the new government.

Meanwhile, On August 15, 1947, India became an independent nation, which despite its partitions, constituted the 7th largest nation in the world. The Herculean task of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_integration_of_India uniting the princely states]] fell to Home Minister Vallabhai Patel, his Constitutional Advisor V.P. Menon, and (more controversially) the Britain-appointed Viceroy Luis Louis Mountbatten. While the parts of the subcontinent under direct British rule immediately became part of the Union of India (as it was called before it became a republic in 1950), the Princely States themselves had the option of joining India, joining Pakistan, or remaining independent. Majority-Muslim states on the border with Pakistan tended to join Pakistan without controversy, while most others chose to join India. However, several princely states refused to follow the obvious patterns, the most notable of which are Kashmir, Junagadh, and Hyderabad, all instances where the ruling elite was a different religion from the majority of the population in the state. Kashmir, where the ruler was Hindu and the people Muslim, is quite possibly the biggest political can of worms in the world today besides the ArabIsraeliConflict and (historically, perhaps) UsefulNotes/TheTroubles. The other two major instances involved a Muslim ruler over a majority-Hindu state: Junagadh's Muslim prince decided to join Pakistan despite not bordering it at all, leading India to essentially lay siege to the territory, and eventually the prince fled. Hyderabad's Muslim ruler decided he didn't much care to be part of India ''or'' Pakistan, and Hyderabad had to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Polo integrated by force of arms]].

A lot of the problems that nobody got around to rectifying before independence are still there now, most notably a high rate of illiteracy in the more rural areas, which both the government and private organizations are fighting to change. Sixty change, the uneven spread of urbanization and since TheNineties, massive income inequality, UrbanSegregation and the rise of communal violence and political corruption. On the positive side, sixty years of quick, accelerated development later, India today is the world's largest democracy, maintaining the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Military second largest military in the world]], a nuclear superpower, and the only nation that has U.N permission to trade in nuclear fuel without having signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. \n\n For a country that has only had six decades of actual modern development, it says a lot about how fast the nation is moving forward, especially when Americans today are concerned that Indians are surpassing them in the IT sector. Poverty is ''extremely'' widespread still, with 41% of the nation falling below the poverty line (and an equal percentage of malnourished children), and the nation containing a third of the world's poor. It is trying to deal with these problems, but it remains a slow climb.
30th Dec '15 9:19:36 AM StFan
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Despite his immense importance however, Britain's withdrawal from India ''wasn't'' quite as simple as Gandhi's love impressed them so much they left in peace" and more a result of a number of diverse factors, such was WW2's significant impact on Britain's army and economy, anti-British riots beginning to break out around the country, growing dissent among the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army_during_World_War_II#Aftermath Indian Army during WW2]], who were becoming increasing antagonistic towards the Allies (unsurprising, since they were now caught in a situation where they were fighting ''against'' an oppressive regime ''for'' an oppressive regime - nearly 100,000 Indian soldiers eventually defected over to the INA; [[LaResistance the pro-Japanese, anti-British Resistance]] movement, and some POWs were actually recruited voluntarily by the Japanese; both these forces inevitably went on to fight the Allies in Southeast Asia) plus, having just witnessed the results of a totalitarian government, the world was much less willing to buy the idea of British rule being for "India's own good".

to:

Despite his immense importance however, Britain's withdrawal from India ''wasn't'' quite as simple as Gandhi's "Gandhi's love impressed them so much they left in peace" and more a result of a number of diverse factors, such was WW2's significant impact on Britain's army and economy, anti-British riots beginning to break out around the country, growing dissent among the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army_during_World_War_II#Aftermath Indian Army during WW2]], who were becoming increasing antagonistic towards the Allies (unsurprising, since they were now caught in a situation where they were fighting ''against'' an oppressive regime ''for'' an oppressive regime - -- nearly 100,000 Indian soldiers eventually defected over to the INA; [[LaResistance the pro-Japanese, anti-British Resistance]] movement, and some POWs [=POWs=] were actually recruited voluntarily by the Japanese; both these forces inevitably went on to fight the Allies in Southeast Asia) plus, having just witnessed the results of a totalitarian government, the world was much less willing to buy the idea of British rule being for "India's own good".
28th Dec '15 4:00:06 AM JulianLapostat
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