History UsefulNotes / HistoryOfModernEgypt

7th Feb '16 10:19:50 AM nombretomado
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: UsefulNotes/TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
20th Sep '15 5:23:39 PM nombretomado
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
5th Aug '15 9:06:31 PM karstovich2
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The French were eventually forced to withdraw by a coalition of British and Ottoman forces (although not before a team of 167 French scientists had a chance to produce a massive ''Description de l'Egypte'' and discover and run away with the Rosetta Stone) in 1801. However, in 1805, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman Army named Muhammad Ali (no, not the former Cassius Clay), resorting to some bloody tactics (e.g. slaughtering all the Mamelukes on their way to a banquet) became governor. Based on what the French had done, Muhammad Ali began modernizing Egypt, creating a European-style bureaucracy, establishing a military on Western lines (called the Nizam al-Gadid, or "New Order," a term later adopted by the central Ottoman government for its similar plan), building a navy, constructing arsenals for the manufacture of modern weapons, building schools, and adopting a new cash crop--cotton--for Egyptian farmers to raise and sell to Europe, and particularly Britain, whose cotton-hungry textile mills were leading the IndustrialRevolution. From this point on, Egypt was more or less independent of the Sultan--just how independent changed over time--and seemed on its way to becoming Japan about fifty years before Japan.

to:

The French were eventually forced to withdraw by a coalition of British and Ottoman forces (although not before a team of 167 French scientists had a chance to produce a massive ''Description de l'Egypte'' and discover and run away with the Rosetta Stone) in 1801. However, in 1805, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman Army named Muhammad Ali (no, not the former Cassius Clay), resorting to some bloody tactics (e.g. [[NastyParty slaughtering all the Mamelukes on their way to a banquet) banquet he had invited them to]]) became governor. Based on what the French had done, Muhammad Ali began modernizing Egypt, creating a European-style bureaucracy, establishing a military on Western lines (called the Nizam al-Gadid, or "New Order," a term later adopted by the central Ottoman government for its similar plan), building a navy, constructing arsenals for the manufacture of modern weapons, building schools, and adopting a new cash crop--cotton--for Egyptian farmers to raise and sell to Europe, and particularly Britain, whose cotton-hungry textile mills were leading the IndustrialRevolution. From this point on, Egypt was more or less independent of the Sultan--just how independent changed over time--and seemed on its way to becoming Japan about fifty years before Japan.
4th Aug '15 8:10:17 PM karstovich2
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin.UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
28th Apr '15 10:20:46 AM nombretomado
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However, this arrangement was unpopular enough that in 1879, the Egyptian people revolted. Led by the disaffected colonel Ahmed Orabi, they managed to keep things going for three years, but in 1882, [[BritsWithBattleships British troops]] arrived to take control of the country. Egypt, while still nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire, was now a protectorate under British military occupation; maps of the day include Egypt as part of TheBritishEmpire.

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However, this arrangement was unpopular enough that in 1879, the Egyptian people revolted. Led by the disaffected colonel Ahmed Orabi, they managed to keep things going for three years, but in 1882, [[BritsWithBattleships British troops]] arrived to take control of the country. Egypt, while still nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire, was now a protectorate under British military occupation; maps of the day include Egypt as part of TheBritishEmpire.
UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.
23rd Mar '15 9:47:53 PM nombretomado
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Nevertheless, Egypt managed to grow up quite nicely under this arrangement, although corruption, illiteracy, and other problems plagued the country. As time went on, one of the most obvious problems came to the fore: though Egypt was an agrarian country, the vast majority of its land was owned by a very small number of aristocrats, who rented out their land to the peasants in a quasi-feudal system (indeed, the Arabic word for this system--''iqta`iyyah''--is the same one applied to the kind of feudalism that existed in medieval Europe). Both the middle class and social mobility were virtually nonexistent. As a result, you had a tiny and absurdly rich upper class, highly Westernized, ruling over a mass of impoverished peasants. The gap became even more obvious under King Farouk, who acceded to the throne at the age of 16 in 1936. Something of a RoyalBrat, Farouk was a notorious [[AdiposeRex glutton]], [[TheCasanova womanizer]], gambler, and [[TheAlcoholic drunk]], to say nothing of a literal [[StickyFingers kleptomaniac]] who once filched UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill's watch and on another occasion stole a sword belonging to the Shah of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}} (his brother-in-law). Things got to the point where even the BellyDancer hired to entertain at one of his parties took the opportunity to chew him out ("Your place is in the palace, helping govern the country, not at the casino!"). ("King Farouk" became something of a byword for "living in extreme luxury among really poor people"; for instance, HunterSThompson used it in ''FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').

to:

Nevertheless, Egypt managed to grow up quite nicely under this arrangement, although corruption, illiteracy, and other problems plagued the country. As time went on, one of the most obvious problems came to the fore: though Egypt was an agrarian country, the vast majority of its land was owned by a very small number of aristocrats, who rented out their land to the peasants in a quasi-feudal system (indeed, the Arabic word for this system--''iqta`iyyah''--is the same one applied to the kind of feudalism that existed in medieval Europe). Both the middle class and social mobility were virtually nonexistent. As a result, you had a tiny and absurdly rich upper class, highly Westernized, ruling over a mass of impoverished peasants. The gap became even more obvious under King Farouk, who acceded to the throne at the age of 16 in 1936. Something of a RoyalBrat, Farouk was a notorious [[AdiposeRex glutton]], [[TheCasanova womanizer]], gambler, and [[TheAlcoholic drunk]], to say nothing of a literal [[StickyFingers kleptomaniac]] who once filched UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill's watch and on another occasion stole a sword belonging to the Shah of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}} (his brother-in-law). Things got to the point where even the BellyDancer hired to entertain at one of his parties took the opportunity to chew him out ("Your place is in the palace, helping govern the country, not at the casino!"). ("King Farouk" became something of a byword for "living in extreme luxury among really poor people"; for instance, HunterSThompson used it in ''FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').
''Literature/FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').
7th Nov '14 8:18:31 AM Patachou
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when NapoleonBonaparte UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.



Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.

to:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery UsefulNotes/BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
7th Nov '14 6:10:57 AM Patachou
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Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.

to:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
17th Oct '14 8:46:47 PM LtFedora
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Added DiffLines:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
13th May '14 5:41:28 PM MarkLungo
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One of the first officers to enter the Egyptian military academy without noble sponsorship was a fellow by the name of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser, from the southern "Upper" part of Egypt, was something of an intellectual (for a military type), and had read works on socialism and the relatively new movement of Arab nationalism before and during his time at the academy. With a few like-minded members of his academy class, Nasser formed the Free Officers' Movement after the debacle that was the [[ArabIsraeliConflict 1948 Arab-Israeli War]]. On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers' Movement moved against the king, deposing him and (for the time being) installing his infant son Fuad II as monarch, with a Regency Council established, composed of several of the Free Officers.

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One of the first officers to enter the Egyptian military academy without noble sponsorship was a fellow by the name of Gamal Abdel Nasser.UsefulNotes/GamalAbdelNasser. Nasser, from the southern "Upper" part of Egypt, was something of an intellectual (for a military type), and had read works on socialism and the relatively new movement of Arab nationalism before and during his time at the academy. With a few like-minded members of his academy class, Nasser formed the Free Officers' Movement after the debacle that was the [[ArabIsraeliConflict 1948 Arab-Israeli War]]. On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers' Movement moved against the king, deposing him and (for the time being) installing his infant son Fuad II as monarch, with a Regency Council established, composed of several of the Free Officers.
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