History UsefulNotes / HistoryOfModernEgypt

23rd May '16 4:45:10 AM Dimas28
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to UsefulNotes/TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, the Ottoman Empire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to UsefulNotes/TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople Constantinople]] appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, Mamluks, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}.Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.



[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_presidential_election,_2012 Presidential elections]] were held in 2012, under a two-round system. The first round, which took place on May 23 and 24, resulted in the FJP's Mohamed Morsi facing off against Ahmed Shafik, Mubarak's last Prime Minister- a choice widely seen as a MortonsFork by many people. The second round was held on June 16 and 17. The results were supposed to be announced on the 21st, but were delayed to the 24th. The final results had Morsi taking 13,230,131 votes (51.73%) against Shafik's 12,347,380 (48.27%). Further complicating things was the fact that the SCAF [[http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/egypt/2012/06/201261812449990250.html took several powers]] for itself a day after the election, stripping much power away from the President. A few months later, Morsi [[KickedUpstairs retired the whole SCAF, gave them big fat pensions, and showered them with medals and decorations]]. The SCAF was taken utterly by surprise and acquiesced. (They probably realized that [[XanatosGambit they couldn't win]]: Morsi couldn't have done this without the support of some junior officers, and refusal of retirement would be tantamount to a highly-unpopular coup.) Since then, political attention has turned primarily towards new parliamentary elections (date as yet TBD) and the constitutional assembly (everything about it TBD). There was a flap/large angry protests about a particularly vitriolic anti-Muslim film (which proved to have been made by a Copt living in America) and general dislike of meddling foreign powers (especially America) in mid-September 2012, but the main focus in Egypt itself remains on the future.

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[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_presidential_election,_2012 Presidential elections]] were held in 2012, under a two-round system. The first round, which took place on May 23 and 24, resulted in the FJP's Mohamed Morsi facing off against Ahmed Shafik, Mubarak's last Prime Minister- a choice widely seen as a MortonsFork by many people. The second round was held on June 16 and 17. The results were supposed to be announced on the 21st, but were delayed to the 24th. The final results had Morsi taking 13,230,131 votes (51.73%) against Shafik's 12,347,380 (48.27%). Further complicating things was the fact that the SCAF [[http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/egypt/2012/06/201261812449990250.html took several powers]] for itself a day after the election, stripping much power away from the President. A few months later, Morsi [[KickedUpstairs retired the whole SCAF, gave them big fat pensions, and showered them with medals and decorations]]. The SCAF was taken utterly by surprise and acquiesced. (They probably realized that [[XanatosGambit they couldn't win]]: Morsi couldn't have done this without the support of some junior officers, and refusal of retirement would be tantamount to a highly-unpopular coup.) Since then, political attention has turned primarily towards )

Not all is well, though. After a few months of ruling, some have accused Morsi of [[MeetTheNewBoss falling into the pitfall that Mubarak exactly was in]], started when he made some decrees giving him substantial legislative and executive powers until a
new parliamentary elections (date constitution is approved, which is to say, forever. Then there's the fact that living as yet TBD) a minority under the MB's power isn't exactly pretty, what with numerous harassment and the constitutional assembly (everything about it TBD). There was a flap/large angry protests about a discrimination, particularly vitriolic anti-Muslim towards the Copts[[note]]Leading to the whole ruckus about that anti-Islam film (which proved to have been made produced by a an American Copt living which almost involved the US Congress[[/note]], or the deterioration of the country's fragile peace with Israel, supported by the military but loathed by everyone else[[note]] The Camp David Accords was seen by many to be drafted without the Egyptian people's consent; it was created because of a losing war (from both sides), since no one was in America) the right mood for starting another unpleasantness, after all. The fact that the Egypt-Israel peace treaty is a textbook example of what you call a "Cold Peace" is a testament[[/note]]. There's also the increasing Islamist insurgency in the Sinai due to the lawlessness of the area.

All this led to a BrokenBase-fueled anniversary of Morsi' inauguration in July 2013, seeing the clashes of pro-Morsi
and general dislike of meddling foreign powers (especially America) in mid-September 2012, but anti-Morsi protesters, the main focus in Egypt itself remains on latter mainly consisting of the future.Tamarod movement, a sort of a LaResistance defending the country's secularism. The military decided to use this wonder of a chance to depose Morsi, ban the MB, reinstate every {{Realpolitik}} that Morsi abandoned (including the reestablishment of the Israeli embassy), and the installment of the military under Abdel Fatah el-Sisi until the next constitution is approved, which it did in January 2014, followed by Sisi announcing to run for president, which he ultimately won. In short, everything that characterizes Mubarak's regime. An epic FullCircleRevolution, indeed.
7th Feb '16 10:19:50 AM nombretomado
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: UsefulNotes/TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
20th Sep '15 5:23:39 PM nombretomado
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars [[UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
5th Aug '15 9:06:31 PM karstovich2
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The French were eventually forced to withdraw by a coalition of British and Ottoman forces (although not before a team of 167 French scientists had a chance to produce a massive ''Description de l'Egypte'' and discover and run away with the Rosetta Stone) in 1801. However, in 1805, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman Army named Muhammad Ali (no, not the former Cassius Clay), resorting to some bloody tactics (e.g. slaughtering all the Mamelukes on their way to a banquet) became governor. Based on what the French had done, Muhammad Ali began modernizing Egypt, creating a European-style bureaucracy, establishing a military on Western lines (called the Nizam al-Gadid, or "New Order," a term later adopted by the central Ottoman government for its similar plan), building a navy, constructing arsenals for the manufacture of modern weapons, building schools, and adopting a new cash crop--cotton--for Egyptian farmers to raise and sell to Europe, and particularly Britain, whose cotton-hungry textile mills were leading the IndustrialRevolution. From this point on, Egypt was more or less independent of the Sultan--just how independent changed over time--and seemed on its way to becoming Japan about fifty years before Japan.

to:

The French were eventually forced to withdraw by a coalition of British and Ottoman forces (although not before a team of 167 French scientists had a chance to produce a massive ''Description de l'Egypte'' and discover and run away with the Rosetta Stone) in 1801. However, in 1805, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman Army named Muhammad Ali (no, not the former Cassius Clay), resorting to some bloody tactics (e.g. [[NastyParty slaughtering all the Mamelukes on their way to a banquet) banquet he had invited them to]]) became governor. Based on what the French had done, Muhammad Ali began modernizing Egypt, creating a European-style bureaucracy, establishing a military on Western lines (called the Nizam al-Gadid, or "New Order," a term later adopted by the central Ottoman government for its similar plan), building a navy, constructing arsenals for the manufacture of modern weapons, building schools, and adopting a new cash crop--cotton--for Egyptian farmers to raise and sell to Europe, and particularly Britain, whose cotton-hungry textile mills were leading the IndustrialRevolution. From this point on, Egypt was more or less independent of the Sultan--just how independent changed over time--and seemed on its way to becoming Japan about fifty years before Japan.
4th Aug '15 8:10:17 PM karstovich2
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin.UsefulNotes/{{Saladin}}. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.
28th Apr '15 10:20:46 AM nombretomado
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However, this arrangement was unpopular enough that in 1879, the Egyptian people revolted. Led by the disaffected colonel Ahmed Orabi, they managed to keep things going for three years, but in 1882, [[BritsWithBattleships British troops]] arrived to take control of the country. Egypt, while still nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire, was now a protectorate under British military occupation; maps of the day include Egypt as part of TheBritishEmpire.

to:

However, this arrangement was unpopular enough that in 1879, the Egyptian people revolted. Led by the disaffected colonel Ahmed Orabi, they managed to keep things going for three years, but in 1882, [[BritsWithBattleships British troops]] arrived to take control of the country. Egypt, while still nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire, was now a protectorate under British military occupation; maps of the day include Egypt as part of TheBritishEmpire.
UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.
23rd Mar '15 9:47:53 PM nombretomado
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Nevertheless, Egypt managed to grow up quite nicely under this arrangement, although corruption, illiteracy, and other problems plagued the country. As time went on, one of the most obvious problems came to the fore: though Egypt was an agrarian country, the vast majority of its land was owned by a very small number of aristocrats, who rented out their land to the peasants in a quasi-feudal system (indeed, the Arabic word for this system--''iqta`iyyah''--is the same one applied to the kind of feudalism that existed in medieval Europe). Both the middle class and social mobility were virtually nonexistent. As a result, you had a tiny and absurdly rich upper class, highly Westernized, ruling over a mass of impoverished peasants. The gap became even more obvious under King Farouk, who acceded to the throne at the age of 16 in 1936. Something of a RoyalBrat, Farouk was a notorious [[AdiposeRex glutton]], [[TheCasanova womanizer]], gambler, and [[TheAlcoholic drunk]], to say nothing of a literal [[StickyFingers kleptomaniac]] who once filched UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill's watch and on another occasion stole a sword belonging to the Shah of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}} (his brother-in-law). Things got to the point where even the BellyDancer hired to entertain at one of his parties took the opportunity to chew him out ("Your place is in the palace, helping govern the country, not at the casino!"). ("King Farouk" became something of a byword for "living in extreme luxury among really poor people"; for instance, HunterSThompson used it in ''FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').

to:

Nevertheless, Egypt managed to grow up quite nicely under this arrangement, although corruption, illiteracy, and other problems plagued the country. As time went on, one of the most obvious problems came to the fore: though Egypt was an agrarian country, the vast majority of its land was owned by a very small number of aristocrats, who rented out their land to the peasants in a quasi-feudal system (indeed, the Arabic word for this system--''iqta`iyyah''--is the same one applied to the kind of feudalism that existed in medieval Europe). Both the middle class and social mobility were virtually nonexistent. As a result, you had a tiny and absurdly rich upper class, highly Westernized, ruling over a mass of impoverished peasants. The gap became even more obvious under King Farouk, who acceded to the throne at the age of 16 in 1936. Something of a RoyalBrat, Farouk was a notorious [[AdiposeRex glutton]], [[TheCasanova womanizer]], gambler, and [[TheAlcoholic drunk]], to say nothing of a literal [[StickyFingers kleptomaniac]] who once filched UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill's watch and on another occasion stole a sword belonging to the Shah of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}} (his brother-in-law). Things got to the point where even the BellyDancer hired to entertain at one of his parties took the opportunity to chew him out ("Your place is in the palace, helping govern the country, not at the casino!"). ("King Farouk" became something of a byword for "living in extreme luxury among really poor people"; for instance, HunterSThompson used it in ''FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').
''Literature/FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'').
7th Nov '14 8:18:31 AM Patachou
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Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.

to:

Egypt's modern history is widely considered to begin in 1798, when NapoleonBonaparte UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte showed up with a large army as part of the [[NapoleonicWars French Revolutionary Wars]]. Egypt had at this point spent 350 years as a province of TheOttomanEmpire, ruled in a complicated arrangement with elements dating back to TheCrusades: though the Sultan in Constantinople appointed a governor, he had to share power with the Mamelukes, warrior-slaves (it's complicated) who had ruled the country after a palace revolt ousted the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. As one might imagine, history had largely passed Egypt by, particularly after Europe's mastery of ocean travel allowed them to cut out the (Egyptian) middleman in the lucrative trade in Far Eastern spices. So when Napoleon comes in with a modern army, modern laws, and a ''printing press'', you can rather understand the shock to Egyptian society--and indeed, the whole of the Ottoman Empire.



Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.

to:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery UsefulNotes/BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
7th Nov '14 6:10:57 AM Patachou
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Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.

to:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
17th Oct '14 8:46:47 PM LtFedora
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Added DiffLines:

Meanwhile, Egypt was a vital front in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, as it was the only country between Italian-controlled Libya and the oil-rich Middle East. An initial Italian invasion in 1940 was easily fought off by the British. In response, the Germans sent ErwinRommel and his newly formed Afrika Korps to halt the total collapse of the new North African front. He quickly managed to salvage the situation, sending the British into retreat as he headed for the ultimate goal of Iraq's oil fields and the undefended southern border into the Russian Caucasus. After a series of back and forth battles across the desert, Rommel pushed all the way to the rail station of El Alamein, where he was decisively defeated by BernardLawMontgomery and turned away from the Nile. The Axis forces retreated to Tunisia, where they finally surrendered in May 1943.
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