History UsefulNotes / GrammarInForeignLanguages

16th Nov '16 9:36:23 AM unokkun
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** The ConLang [[http://mw.lojban.org Lojban]], which is built on logic, only has three main parts of speech: particles, pronouns and verbs. No nouns, adjectives or adverbs. A noun is built with a construction equivalent to "someone/something that [verb]s" (like the English suffix "-er"), and adjectives/adverbs with a construction like "do [main verb] in a [secondary verb]-like manner". Also, although they're mostly optional, Lojban has the so-called "vocalized parentheses": particles that mark where a clause/phrase/something starts and ends, thus preventing most kinds of AmbiguousSyntax.

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** The ConLang [[http://mw.lojban.org Lojban]], which is built on logic, only has three main parts of speech: particles, pronouns and verbs. No nouns, adjectives or adverbs. A noun is built with a construction equivalent to "someone/something that [verb]s" (like the English suffix "-er"), and adjectives/adverbs with a construction like "do [main verb] in a [secondary verb]-like manner". (Of course, many verbs do correspond exactly to English nouns or adjectives: "is a house", "is large"...) Also, although in many cases they're mostly optional, Lojban has the so-called "vocalized parentheses": particles that mark where a clause/phrase/something starts and ends, thus preventing most kinds of AmbiguousSyntax.
16th Nov '16 9:14:14 AM unokkun
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** The ConLang [[http://mw.lojban.org Lojban]], which is built on logic, only has three main parts of speech: particles, pronouns and verbs. No nouns, adjectives or adverbs. A noun is built with a construction equivalent to "someone/something that [verb]s" (like the English suffix "-er"), and adjectives/adverbs with a construction like "do [main verb] in a [secondary verb]-like manner". Also, although they're mostly optional, Lojban has the so-called "vocalized parentheses": particles that mark where a clause/phrase/something starts and ends, thus preventing most kinds of AmbiguousSyntax.
28th Aug '16 5:59:54 PM Wuz
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* Are topic-prominent instead of subject-promotional (Japanese, Chinese). In English, the subject is understood to be the topic of the sentence (which the passive voice helps to facilitate). In Japanese, topic and subject do not have to be the same.

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* Are topic-prominent instead of subject-promotional (Japanese, Chinese).(Japanese). In English, the subject is understood to be the topic of the sentence (which the passive voice helps to facilitate). In Japanese, topic and subject do not have to be the same.
28th Aug '16 5:58:00 PM Wuz
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* Do not mark nouns for number (Japanese), or, alternatively, have ''more'' number markers than simply singular and plural. Many languages have separate dual or even trial ('three') numbers. There is even at least one language that has marks for zero (I have no cookies), fractional (I have half of a cookie), singular (I have one cookie), dual (I have two cookies), paucal (I have a few cookies), and large-scale plural (I have lots of cookies)! Most Indo-European languages have ''lost'' their duals; Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Old Church Slavonic had them, and there are still traces of them in some of the Balto-Slavic languages (usually in a unique declension for the number two, and different noun forms used with certain numbers). English's use of the word ''both'' (rather than *''all two'') may be a remnant of this as well. Latin also had one, which survived in the irregular declension of the word "duo", while Slovene still makes full use of it. Old English possessed the vestiges of a dual, but only in the pronouns. Come Middle English, this dual number was gone.

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* Do not mark nouns for number (Japanese), (Japanese, Chinese), or, alternatively, have ''more'' number markers than simply singular and plural. Many languages have separate dual or even trial ('three') numbers. There is even at least one language that has marks for zero (I have no cookies), fractional (I have half of a cookie), singular (I have one cookie), dual (I have two cookies), paucal (I have a few cookies), and large-scale plural (I have lots of cookies)! Most Indo-European languages have ''lost'' their duals; Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Old Church Slavonic had them, and there are still traces of them in some of the Balto-Slavic languages (usually in a unique declension for the number two, and different noun forms used with certain numbers). English's use of the word ''both'' (rather than *''all two'') may be a remnant of this as well. Latin also had one, which survived in the irregular declension of the word "duo", while Slovene still makes full use of it. Old English possessed the vestiges of a dual, but only in the pronouns. Come Middle English, this dual number was gone.



* Treat relative clauses like adjectives. For example, in Mandarin Chinese, using the attributive particle ''de'', one can just as easily say "red ''de'' car" as "drives down the street ''de'' car," using actual Chinese words of course. The former would simply be "red car," but the latter would have to be translated as "the car driving down the street."
* Are topic-prominent instead of subject-promotional (Japanese). In English, the subject is understood to be the topic of the sentence (which the passive voice helps to facilitate). In Japanese, topic and subject do not have to be the same.

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* Treat relative clauses like adjectives. For example, in Mandarin Chinese, using the attributive particle ''de'', one can just as easily say "red ''de'' car" (红色''的''车/紅色''的''車) as "drives down the street ''de'' car," using actual Chinese words of course.(路上开着''的''车/路上開著''的''車). The former would simply be "red car," but the latter would have to be translated as "the car driving down the street."
* Are topic-prominent instead of subject-promotional (Japanese).(Japanese, Chinese). In English, the subject is understood to be the topic of the sentence (which the passive voice helps to facilitate). In Japanese, topic and subject do not have to be the same.
11th Feb '16 2:31:40 AM anty21
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* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then crammed in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that. It's also considered a V2, language, which means that if a sentence begins with an adverbial (or even an object, for stylistic effect), the verb must go second, even when that means the subject comes after. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.

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* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then crammed in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that. It's also considered a V2, V2 language, which means that if a sentence begins with an adverbial (or even an object, for stylistic effect), the verb must go second, even when that means the subject comes after. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.
10th Feb '16 12:29:57 PM anty21
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* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then crammed in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that. It's also considered a V2, language, which means that if a sentence begins with an adverbial, the verb must go second, even when that means the subject comes after. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.

to:

* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then crammed in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that. It's also considered a V2, language, which means that if a sentence begins with an adverbial, adverbial (or even an object, for stylistic effect), the verb must go second, even when that means the subject comes after. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.
10th Feb '16 12:26:30 PM anty21
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* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then cramemd in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.

to:

* Have wildly different syntax (word order). English generally places the subject of a sentence first, the verb second, and the object last, a very common word order. However, in just as many languages, the subject is placed first, the object second, and the verb last. A minority of languages even do things like place the verb or the object first, the subject last, or any other possible combination. Some languages, usually those that are highly inflected, don't even have a hard and fast word order at all. Latin, for instance, generally prefers SOV outside of poetry, but is so inflected that the word order can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. The old forms of Semitic languages (like Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew) historically preferred VSO, but left SVO as an option because of their inflection--the latter of which became dominant in the contemporary colloquial forms. German can be a word order cluster fuck. On paper, it's SVO. That is true, but questions are VSO. The rest typically go SOV with a split predicate, part of the action, with the main verb turned into an infinitive and then cramemd crammed in at the end, with any auxiliary verbs being put into the first person singular form and placed after that.that. It's also considered a V2, language, which means that if a sentence begins with an adverbial, the verb must go second, even when that means the subject comes after. And Japanese... Japanese word order has its own PAGE on TheOtherWiki.
3rd Feb '16 6:34:22 AM PRH
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* Form compound nouns differently. Most languages put the base noun at the back, but there are languages which put it at the front. As an example, ''control CENTER'' would be translated as ''PUSAT kawalan'' in Malay language.

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* Form compound nouns differently.
**
Most languages put the base noun at the back, but there are languages which put it at the front. As an example, ''control CENTER'' would be translated as ''PUSAT kawalan'' in Malay language.language.
** Many languages can't even have compound nouns at all the way English does (that is, just by stringing nouns together). They either have to inflect the modifier nouns to distinguish them from the base noun, turn the modifier nouns into adjectives, or to form elaborate phrases to convey the meaning. The same example, "control center", would be rendered into Russian as "центр управлени'''я'''" (literally "center ''of'' control") not "управление центр" or "центр управление".
2nd Feb '16 2:43:19 PM PRH
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* Some languages have rare sounds and unusual phonotactics, which can make them sound like the TheUnpronouncable. Many world languages do not like big clusters of either consonants or vowels. A maximum of about three consonants per vowel, and no more than three vowels in a row is usual. Russian can be really dickish with odd sound consonants, especially with prepositions. Can you say kvrachu or vsmolensk or vtorom or vpragu or sdrugymi or vchera? And even Russians shake their heads at ''[[UpToEleven Armenians]]''.[[note]]A famous Soviet era actor had "Mkrtchian" as his surname. That's a six consonants strung together. And it's actually a pretty common Armenian surname and isn't remotely a longest consonant cluster in the language.[[/note]]

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* Some languages have rare sounds and unusual phonotactics, which can make them sound like the TheUnpronouncable. Many world languages do not like big clusters of either consonants or vowels. A maximum of about three consonants per vowel, and no more than three vowels in a row is usual. Russian can be really dickish with odd sound consonants, especially with prepositions. Can you say kvrachu or vsmolensk or vtorom or vpragu or sdrugymi sdrugimi or vchera? vchera?[[note]]It's actually simpler than you might think because of consonant assimilation, it actually sounds like "fsmolensk", "fpragu", "zdrugimi" only "k vrachu" actually sounds like "kvrachu".[[/note]] And even Russians shake their heads at ''[[UpToEleven Armenians]]''.[[note]]A famous Soviet era actor had "Mkrtchian" as his surname. That's a six consonants strung together. And it's actually a pretty common Armenian surname and isn't remotely a longest consonant cluster in the language.[[/note]]
18th Jan '16 3:41:24 AM Khathi
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* Some languages have rare sounds and unusual phonotactics, which can make them sound like the TheUnpronouncable. Many world languages do not like big clusters of either consonants or vowels. A maximum of about three consonants per vowel, and no more than three vowels in a row is usual. Russian can be really dickish with odd sound consonants, especially with prepositions. Can you say kvrachu or vsmolensk or vtorom or vpragu or sdrugymi or vchera?

to:

* Some languages have rare sounds and unusual phonotactics, which can make them sound like the TheUnpronouncable. Many world languages do not like big clusters of either consonants or vowels. A maximum of about three consonants per vowel, and no more than three vowels in a row is usual. Russian can be really dickish with odd sound consonants, especially with prepositions. Can you say kvrachu or vsmolensk or vtorom or vpragu or sdrugymi or vchera?vchera? And even Russians shake their heads at ''[[UpToEleven Armenians]]''.[[note]]A famous Soviet era actor had "Mkrtchian" as his surname. That's a six consonants strung together. And it's actually a pretty common Armenian surname and isn't remotely a longest consonant cluster in the language.[[/note]]
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