History UsefulNotes / Germany

9th Aug '17 8:24:41 PM JulianLapostat
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For most of its history, there was no unified German state. The area of land that comprises Germany evolved and shifted repeatedly, over the centuries, being divided, subdivided and combined at various times, with the current territorial boundary determined by the second unification of 1990, when UsefulNotes/EastGermany and UsefulNotes/WestGermany were finally united into a single nation, after spending the UsefulNotes/ColdWar [[UsefulNotes/BerlinWall divided]] into two republics. Parts of Germany were parceled out to UsefulNotes/{{Poland}}, UsefulNotes/TheCzechRepublic while Russia holds the enclave of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg, hometown and stomping grounds of Immanuel Kant[[note]]He was known for walking around the town on his daily routines which was so unwavering that townsfolk apparently measured time by his movements[[/note]]), with the modern borders on the East being the Oder-Neisse line as outlined and demanded by UsefulNotes/JosefStalin.

to:

For most of its history, there was no unified German state. The area of land that comprises Germany evolved and shifted repeatedly, repeatedly over the centuries, centuries; being divided, subdivided and combined at various times, times with the current territorial boundary determined by the second unification of 1990, 1990 when UsefulNotes/EastGermany and UsefulNotes/WestGermany were finally united into a single nation, after spending the UsefulNotes/ColdWar [[UsefulNotes/BerlinWall divided]] into two republics. Parts of Germany were parceled out to UsefulNotes/{{Poland}}, UsefulNotes/TheCzechRepublic while Russia holds the enclave of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg, hometown and stomping grounds of Immanuel Kant[[note]]He was known for walking around the town on his daily routines which was so unwavering that townsfolk apparently measured time by his movements[[/note]]), with the modern borders on the East being the Oder-Neisse line as outlined and demanded by UsefulNotes/JosefStalin.
30th Jul '17 2:15:09 PM bt8257
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* Music/{{Heroes}} by David Bowie. The title track also takes place in Germany.

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* Music/{{Heroes}} Music/HeroesDavidBowieAlbum by David Bowie. The title track also takes place in Germany.
18th Jun '17 12:34:39 PM JulianLapostat
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In the years after German defeat, there was effectively no German government. Germany was governed by military occupying forces by the British, Americans, Russians and the French. After Germany lost that war (which is nowadays treated as a liberation in the German public), it was occupied by the four Allies. The nascent UsefulNotes/ColdWar led to the establishment of two Germanies--the [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany FRG]] and the [[UsefulNotes/EastGermany GDR]]. [[note]]Almost three Germanies. The Saarland was set up as a French protectorate and may have either remained an independent nation or become a part of France. However, the people there really really didn't want that, voted against it, and rejoined Germany in 1957, an event referred to as Little Reunification.[[/note]] The UsefulNotes/ColdWar resulted in divisions between America and USSR and this was to Germany's benefit since the American bloc, saw an interest in rebuilding and aiding German post-war redevelopment and reconstruction to keep them the communists from coming to power, leading to the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' (Economic Miracle) under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Adenauer's regime saw a great many former Nazis and war criminals released into civil life, and his regime promulgated the "Myth of the Clean Wehrmacht" i.e. that Hitler's crimes and ideology was the work of the Nazi Party and most ordinary Germans did not share in the ideology. Later historians, within Germany it must be said, have successfully debunked this. But it was comforting for people at the time. Adenauer to his credit, also made an effort to pay reparations to Holocaust survivors and invested heavily in Israel. A different situation happened in East Germany, which was mostly UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}. The commies finally completed and achieved what liberals and early reformers failed to do. Via Bodenreform, they broke up the Junker manorial estates the agrarian reform and distributed Junker land, and broke up their manors, demolishing many of them. The communists were far less willing to forgive war crimes committed in the east (which was more or less buried or ignored in the West during this time), and the Prussians were old enemies of Russia and many Junkers were active supporters of Nazism and GeneralplanOst. This land reform and redistribution remains upheld even in West Germany after unification despite several challenges and claims by descendants for compensation and recovery of property.[[note]]It was part of the agreement with the USSR in the Final Treaty that led to German Unification[[/note]]. However, for the USSR, East Germany proved to be too much trouble. It was far and away the land that was most developed before Communist takeover, and it would be the most developed Soviet Republic during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar but on account of that, it needed extra investment and maintenance, and subsidies to provide its citizens a lifestyle they were accustomed to, which became harder when West Germany was visibly near enough for them to see and compare with.

These and other crises led to the UsefulNotes/BerlinWall, and tensions between West and East Germany. In West Germany, the communist party was banned and those of "suspect" political persuasions were not allowed posts in the government. The youth movement of TheSixties owing to the particular mixture of political culture and historical baggage took a violent turn with the establishment of WesternTerrorists from Germany, the Baader-Meinhof Gang and the Revolutionary Zellen (RZ). They were notorious for attacking and assassinating Nazi-era officials who had wormed back into civilian life and domestic and international terrorism saw much incidents in Germany, the most famous and traumatic being the murder of the Israeli Olympic team in the Munich Olympics at the hands of a Palestinian terrorist group. The imprisonment of the Baader-Meinhof gang and the kidnapping of a prominent German businessman triggered triggered a small period of EmergencyAuthority (which was undeclared) that struck some fears and tensions during that time, especially when it ended with the deaths of gang at Stammheim Prison which was officially ruled as a suicide but has led many to accuse "foul play". Other problems faced in Germany was immigration. Since Germany's center as an economic powerhouse in Europe attracted migrant labour from other parts of Europe and the world, leading to the arrival, immigration and settlement of a large number of foreign workers in Germany. Greek and Italian (Sicilian in fact) workers faced some amount of violence in this era at first, but the demand for cheap labour and the greater liberalization in the young triggered changes in the attitudes of some Germans. Turkish immigrants to Germany have become especially prominent, and within the EU, Germany is one of the few nations whose idea of nationality is tilting towards the MeltingPot multiculturalism, albeit not entirely and not without resistance. East Germany in the same time devolved into a massive surveillance PoliceState and tensions within East Germany and the poor economy of the Soviet Union led to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the Reunification in 1990.

However, the subsequent economic troubles (especially in the former East), which have lasted until today, contribute to the continued existence of a mental divide between East and West, at least among the older generation and older voters.

to:

In the years after German defeat, there was effectively no German government. Germany was governed by military occupying forces by the British, Americans, Russians and the French. After Germany lost that war (which is nowadays treated as a liberation in the German public), it was occupied by the four Allies. The nascent UsefulNotes/ColdWar led to the establishment of two Germanies--the [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany FRG]] and the [[UsefulNotes/EastGermany GDR]]. [[note]]Almost three Germanies. The Saarland was set up as a French protectorate and may have either remained an independent nation or become a part of France. However, the people there really really didn't want that, voted against it, and rejoined Germany in 1957, an event referred to as Little Reunification.[[/note]] The UsefulNotes/ColdWar resulted in divisions between America and USSR and this was to Germany's benefit since the American bloc, saw an interest in rebuilding and aiding German post-war redevelopment and reconstruction to keep them the communists from coming to power, leading to the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' (Economic Miracle) under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Adenauer's regime saw a great many former Nazis and war criminals released into civil life, and his regime promulgated the "Myth of the Clean Wehrmacht" i.e. that Hitler's crimes and ideology was the work of the Nazi Party and most ordinary Germans did not share in the ideology. Later historians, within Germany it must be said, have successfully debunked this. But it was comforting for people at the time. Adenauer to his credit, also made an effort to pay reparations to Holocaust survivors and invested heavily in Israel. A different situation happened in East Germany, which was mostly UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}. The commies finally completed and achieved what liberals and early reformers failed to do. Via Bodenreform, they broke up the Junker manorial estates the agrarian reform and distributed Junker land, and broke up their manors, estates, demolishing many of them. them and distributed the land. The communists were far less willing to forgive war crimes committed in the east (which was more or less buried or ignored in the West during this time), and the Prussians were old enemies of Russia and many Junkers were active supporters of Nazism and GeneralplanOst.Generalplan Ost[[note]]This includes even the Valkyrie Assassins, whose plan to assassinate Hitler and negotiate peace with Britain and America, was undertaken in the hope of escalating and extending the war in the East, and many of them had committed war crimes already in the Soviet territories[[/note]]. This land reform and redistribution remains upheld even in West Germany after unification despite several challenges and claims by descendants for compensation and recovery of property.[[note]]It was part of the agreement with the USSR in the Final Treaty that led to German Unification[[/note]]. However, for the USSR, East Germany proved to be too much trouble. It was far and away the land that was most developed before Communist takeover, and it would be the most developed Soviet Republic during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar but on account of that, it needed extra investment and maintenance, and subsidies to provide its citizens a lifestyle they were accustomed to, which became harder when West Germany was visibly near enough for them to see and compare with.

These and other crises led to the UsefulNotes/BerlinWall, and tensions between West and East Germany. In West Germany, the communist party was banned and those of "suspect" political persuasions were not allowed posts in the government. The youth movement of TheSixties owing to the particular mixture of political culture and historical baggage took a violent turn with the establishment of WesternTerrorists from Germany, the Baader-Meinhof Gang and the Revolutionary Zellen (RZ). They were notorious for attacking and assassinating Nazi-era officials who had wormed back into civilian life and domestic and international terrorism saw much incidents in Germany, the most famous and traumatic being the murder of the Israeli Olympic team in the Munich Olympics at the hands of a Palestinian terrorist group. The imprisonment of the Baader-Meinhof gang and the kidnapping of a prominent German businessman triggered triggered a small period of EmergencyAuthority (which was undeclared) that struck some fears and tensions during that time, especially when it ended with the deaths of gang at Stammheim Prison which was officially ruled as a suicide but has led many to accuse "foul play". Other problems faced in Germany was immigration. Since Germany's center as an economic powerhouse in Europe attracted migrant labour from other parts of Europe and the world, leading to the arrival, immigration and settlement of a large number of foreign workers in Germany. Greek and Italian (Sicilian ([[UsefulNotes/{{Sicily}} Sicilian]] in fact) workers faced some amount of violence violence, racism and xenophobia in this era at first, era, but the demand for cheap labour and the greater liberalization in the young triggered changes in the attitudes of some Germans. Turkish immigrants to Germany have become especially prominent, and within the EU, Germany is one of the few nations whose idea of nationality is tilting towards the MeltingPot multiculturalism, albeit not entirely and not without resistance. East Germany in the same time devolved into a massive surveillance PoliceState and tensions within East Germany and the poor economy of the Soviet Union led to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the Reunification in 1990.

However, the subsequent economic troubles (especially in the former East), which have lasted until today, contribute to the continued existence of a mental divide between East and West, at least among the older generation and older voters. Modern Germany's current problems involve the divide between its domestic interests and the broader foreign interests of the EU. American observers are not happy about Germans not being entirely on board with NATO expansion (they opposed the extension of membership to former Soviet States), and the Iraq War and TheWarOnTerror. Modern Germans are fairly big on pacifism and isolationism and are not comfortable with being called to play a bigger role in foreign affairs. It's status as the biggest economy in EU however played a huge role when the Great Recession hit, and EU and German lawmakers proposed policies of austerity, which created tensions between Germans and Greeks[[note]]Who hven't forgotten that they are the only country to have never received wartime reparations despite suffering greatly under Nazi Invasion[[/note]], and the left within and without Germany who have anti-austerity policies. The Syrian Refugee Crisis also led to great tensions within Germany, and a revival of nativism among rural voters.
18th Jun '17 12:25:01 PM JulianLapostat
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The Nazis and conservatives were fond of seeing the Weimar Republic as doomed to failure and "decadent" permanently haunted by the defeat of the war, but the Weimar years was one of recovery and change. Berlin became the largest city in Europe, and one of the largest in the world, with the biggest population in Europe. Germany became the heart of 20th Century modernism, with Bauhaus architecture, caberet culture, modern graphic design, and GermanExpressionism forming itself in this era. Likewise, this was also an era of advancement, with the modern gay rights movement, which had originated in the Imperial years, finding new impetus through the works of Magnus Hirschfield who advocated for LGBT rights. Nonetheless, there was sharp polarization between urban and rural areas, and the fears of revolution, memories of defeat, and fears of change were barely kept in lid. TheGreatDepression brought these tensions to the surface resulting in the momentous election of 1933 and the rise of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany who it must be said ruled for 12 years (1933-1945), shorter than the Weimar Republic, the Kaisserreich and greatly exceeded by succeeding governments of West, East and Modern Germany. But those 12 years, to the people living through them really did have enough incidents and memories that made it feel like Hitler's promised thousand year reich, leading to judicial murder, purges, autocracy, mass propaganda, rapid rearmament, and genocide against Jews, Romani, Homosexuals, Communists, Slavs, Russians and the disabled.

to:

The Nazis and conservatives were fond of seeing the Weimar Republic as doomed to failure and "decadent" permanently haunted by the defeat of the war, but the Weimar years was one of recovery and change. Berlin became the largest city in Europe, and one of the largest in the world, with the biggest population in Europe. Germany became the heart of 20th Century modernism, with Bauhaus architecture, caberet culture, modern graphic design, and GermanExpressionism forming itself in this era. Likewise, this was also an era of advancement, with the modern gay rights movement, which had originated in the Imperial years, finding new impetus through the works of Magnus Hirschfield who advocated for LGBT rights. Nonetheless, there was sharp polarization between urban and rural areas, and the fears of revolution, memories of defeat, and fears of change were barely kept in lid. TheGreatDepression brought these tensions to the surface resulting in the momentous election of 1933 and the rise of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany who it must be said ruled for 12 years (1933-1945), shorter than the Weimar Republic, the Kaisserreich and greatly exceeded by succeeding governments of West, East and Modern Germany. But those 12 years, to the people living through them them, and to the ones who survived, really did have enough incidents and memories that made it feel like Hitler's promised thousand year reich, leading to judicial murder, purges, autocracy, mass propaganda, rapid rearmament, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII and genocide [[UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust genocide]] against Jews, Romani, Homosexuals, Communists, Slavs, Russians and the disabled.disabled, and a seemingly endless list of war crimes.



Humiliated by the defeat and territorial losses and burdened by the reparations mandated by the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Republic was off to a bad start. It was plagued by political instability (in the 14 years of its existence, it had 14 chancellors) and economic troubles--all of which destroyed the credibility of the government. This and a number of other factors contributed to the rise of UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler and the subsequent [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII second European unpleasantness]].

After Germany lost that war (which is nowadays treated as a liberation in the German public), it was occupied by the four Allies. The nascent UsefulNotes/ColdWar led to the establishment of two Germanies--the [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany FRG]] and the [[UsefulNotes/EastGermany GDR]]. [[note]]Almost three Germanies. The Saarland was set up as a French protectorate and may have either remained an independent nation or become a part of France. However, the people there really really didn't want that, voted against it, and rejoined Germany in 1957, an event referred to as Little Reunification.[[/note]] Over the next few years, both Germanies were rebuilt. Although the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' is associated with the West, the GDR didn't do too bad for CommieLand, either.

The UsefulNotes/BerlinWall fell in 1989 in what constituted a CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming for most Germans, and the two countries were reunified one year later. However, the subsequent economic troubles (especially in the former East), which have lasted until today, contribute to the continued existence of a mental divide between East and West.

to:

Humiliated by In the defeat and territorial losses and burdened by the reparations mandated by the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Republic was off to a bad start. It was plagued by political instability (in the 14 years of its existence, it had 14 chancellors) and economic troubles--all of which destroyed the credibility of the after German defeat, there was effectively no German government. This and a number of other factors contributed to Germany was governed by military occupying forces by the rise of UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler British, Americans, Russians and the subsequent [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII second European unpleasantness]].

French. After Germany lost that war (which is nowadays treated as a liberation in the German public), it was occupied by the four Allies. The nascent UsefulNotes/ColdWar led to the establishment of two Germanies--the [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany FRG]] and the [[UsefulNotes/EastGermany GDR]]. [[note]]Almost three Germanies. The Saarland was set up as a French protectorate and may have either remained an independent nation or become a part of France. However, the people there really really didn't want that, voted against it, and rejoined Germany in 1957, an event referred to as Little Reunification.[[/note]] Over The UsefulNotes/ColdWar resulted in divisions between America and USSR and this was to Germany's benefit since the next few years, both Germanies were rebuilt. Although American bloc, saw an interest in rebuilding and aiding German post-war redevelopment and reconstruction to keep them the communists from coming to power, leading to the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' is associated (Economic Miracle) under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Adenauer's regime saw a great many former Nazis and war criminals released into civil life, and his regime promulgated the "Myth of the Clean Wehrmacht" i.e. that Hitler's crimes and ideology was the work of the Nazi Party and most ordinary Germans did not share in the ideology. Later historians, within Germany it must be said, have successfully debunked this. But it was comforting for people at the time. Adenauer to his credit, also made an effort to pay reparations to Holocaust survivors and invested heavily in Israel. A different situation happened in East Germany, which was mostly UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}. The commies finally completed and achieved what liberals and early reformers failed to do. Via Bodenreform, they broke up the Junker manorial estates the agrarian reform and distributed Junker land, and broke up their manors, demolishing many of them. The communists were far less willing to forgive war crimes committed in the east (which was more or less buried or ignored in the West during this time), and the Prussians were old enemies of Russia and many Junkers were active supporters of Nazism and GeneralplanOst. This land reform and redistribution remains upheld even in West Germany after unification despite several challenges and claims by descendants for compensation and recovery of property.[[note]]It was part of the agreement with the West, USSR in the GDR didn't do Final Treaty that led to German Unification[[/note]]. However, for the USSR, East Germany proved to be too bad for CommieLand, either.

The UsefulNotes/BerlinWall fell in 1989 in what constituted a CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming for
much trouble. It was far and away the land that was most Germans, developed before Communist takeover, and it would be the most developed Soviet Republic during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar but on account of that, it needed extra investment and maintenance, and subsidies to provide its citizens a lifestyle they were accustomed to, which became harder when West Germany was visibly near enough for them to see and compare with.

These and other crises led to the UsefulNotes/BerlinWall, and tensions between West and East Germany. In West Germany, the communist party was banned and those of "suspect" political persuasions were not allowed posts in the government. The youth movement of TheSixties owing to the particular mixture of political culture and historical baggage took a violent turn with the establishment of WesternTerrorists from Germany, the Baader-Meinhof Gang
and the two countries Revolutionary Zellen (RZ). They were reunified notorious for attacking and assassinating Nazi-era officials who had wormed back into civilian life and domestic and international terrorism saw much incidents in Germany, the most famous and traumatic being the murder of the Israeli Olympic team in the Munich Olympics at the hands of a Palestinian terrorist group. The imprisonment of the Baader-Meinhof gang and the kidnapping of a prominent German businessman triggered triggered a small period of EmergencyAuthority (which was undeclared) that struck some fears and tensions during that time, especially when it ended with the deaths of gang at Stammheim Prison which was officially ruled as a suicide but has led many to accuse "foul play". Other problems faced in Germany was immigration. Since Germany's center as an economic powerhouse in Europe attracted migrant labour from other parts of Europe and the world, leading to the arrival, immigration and settlement of a large number of foreign workers in Germany. Greek and Italian (Sicilian in fact) workers faced some amount of violence in this era at first, but the demand for cheap labour and the greater liberalization in the young triggered changes in the attitudes of some Germans. Turkish immigrants to Germany have become especially prominent, and within the EU, Germany is one year later. of the few nations whose idea of nationality is tilting towards the MeltingPot multiculturalism, albeit not entirely and not without resistance. East Germany in the same time devolved into a massive surveillance PoliceState and tensions within East Germany and the poor economy of the Soviet Union led to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the Reunification in 1990.

However, the subsequent economic troubles (especially in the former East), which have lasted until today, contribute to the continued existence of a mental divide between East and West.
West, at least among the older generation and older voters.
18th Jun '17 11:43:27 AM JulianLapostat
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'''A Short History of Germany'''

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'''A Short History of Germany'''
[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Roman Era]]




After Charlemagne, the Empire splintered with one region becoming the separate kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{France}}, while the Empire fractured into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. Unusually for the time, the Empire became an ElectiveMonarchy, but this Electorate was restricted to feudal nobility creating a state that had the problems of feudalism (i.e. make the King dependent on local lords and lower nobility for their army) with none of its advantages (i.e. a strong independent King who had the power to unify, and establish order by means of justice and force). The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hanseatic League could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a strong German Kingdom on the model of [[UsefulNotes/UnitedKingdom England}}, UsefulNotes/{{France}}, UsefulNotes/{{Spain}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} in the comparative timeframe.

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\n[[/folder]]

[[folder: The Middle Ages--Early Modern Era]]
After Charlemagne, the Empire splintered with one region becoming the separate kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{France}}, while the Empire fractured into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. Unusually for the time, the Empire became an ElectiveMonarchy, but this Electorate was restricted to feudal nobility creating a state that had the problems of feudalism (i.e. make the King dependent on local lords and lower nobility for their army) with none of its advantages (i.e. a strong independent King who had the power to unify, and establish order by means of justice and force). The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hanseatic League could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a strong German Kingdom on the model of [[UsefulNotes/UnitedKingdom England}}, England]], UsefulNotes/{{France}}, UsefulNotes/{{Spain}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} in the comparative timeframe.



The late 17th and early 18th Century is seen as the Golden Age, where Germans contributed heavily to UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, and became known as ''The Land of [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker Poets and Thinkers]]''. This was the age of Kant, Gauss, Leibniz, Goethe, Schiller, Lessing among others. German writers were among the European avant-garde, being the first to challenge Neoclassicism and playing a major role in making Creator/WilliamShakespeare a major European writer, as opposed to an English one. In this same time, Prussia under UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat became a major new power in the Continent, strengthened by the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and playing a major part in the dissolution of the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth. UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution once again divided Germany. Jacobin clubs began forming in parts of Germany, with prominent voices advocating for revolution and democracy, and some such as Metz briefly became an independent republic supported by the French before being crushed. There was no mass support or grounds for the same at the time and the German Noble hierarchy, aided by French aristocratic emigres were firmly counter-revolutionary, which was reinforced by the recurring victories of the French Revolutionary Army. When UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte became emperor and war was breaking out, he pre-emptively invaded Austria and Germany, ending the Holy Roman Empire permanently and then more or less rewriting and reordering the boundaries of Germany. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. More important however was the impact of his reforms in Germany. He introduced meritocracy and administrative modernity, his Civil Code, and most crucially, the de-ghettoization of Jews. At the time, Jews, having been expelled previously from France, Spain, and only recently being allowed back in England, were most prominent in Central Europe (hence the AllJewsAreAshkenazi trope, Ashkenazis are Jews of Central Europe, whose language was Yiddish, formed by a mix of Hebrew and German). Under Napoleon, Jews were allowed equal rights, access to education, work and jobs[[note]]The fathers and ancestors of UsefulNotes/KarlMarx, UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud and UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein to name a few were all beneficiaries of Napoleon's reforms which should give you some idea of how momentous an event this was[[/note]]. However, Napoleon was also...well Napoleon. His rule over Germany did not always endear him, what his execution of publisher Joseph Philip Palm who published a pro-independence publication. Some Germans supported Napoleon while others didn't. The Prussian Army developed a fierce dislike for Napoleon and his supporters, and the military-aristocratic elite formed the core of anti-Napoleonic resistance. After Napoleon's invasion of Russia, he faced his major defeat at the Battle of Leipzig (which was the largest battle in Europe until World War I).

After Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged as the dominant power in what was then considered German lands. From this, a loose confederation was formed, including the world's first customs union that didn't involve the simultaneous creation of a political union. For a while, Prussia and Austria struggled for dominance. Supporters of either side were known as Little Germans and Big Germans respectively. This referred not to the size or power of the two states, but of their divergent visions of what a unified Germany should be. In the end, the Little Germans won. The [[MagnificentBastard magnificent bastardry]] of UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck led to the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, which reflected the ''Kleindeutsche Lösung'' (solution of a small Germany)-- the unification of all German countries except Austria.[[note]]The reason the Prussians and their allies wanted Austria excluded were twofold. First and most important, Austria was predominantly Catholic, while Prussia and most other northern German states were primarily Protestant. Second, [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria already had its own multicultural empire]]; the Prussians did not want such a huge influx of non-Germans into the new Germany, while Austria's Habsburg monarchs would never dream of renouncing rule over the non-German half of their empire.[[/note]]

The next forty years saw the rapid rise of Germany as a great power. Being late to unify, the country was able to only establish a handful of colonies in Africa and the Pacific. German industry saw the establishment of a strong economy, and their education system saw the cultivation of some of the finest scientists of the turn of the century, such as Wilhelm Röntgen, who discovered X-rays, and theoretical physicists Max Planck and Albert Einstein. However, the meteoric rise was met with a degree of concern from Britain and France, who quickly asserted themselves as Germany's principal rivals.

Then came the [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI first European unpleasantness]] over a silly thing in the Balkans. Long story short, Germany lost and a [[UsefulNotes/WeimarRepublic republic]] was declared. Humiliated by the defeat and territorial losses and burdened by the reparations mandated by the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Republic was off to a bad start. It was plagued by political instability (in the 14 years of its existence, it had 14 chancellors) and economic troubles--all of which destroyed the credibility of the government. This and a number of other factors contributed to the rise of UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler and the subsequent [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII second European unpleasantness]].

to:

The late 17th and early 18th Century is seen as the Golden Age, where Germans contributed heavily to UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, and became known as ''The Land of [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker Poets and Thinkers]]''. This was the age of Kant, Gauss, Leibniz, Goethe, Schiller, Lessing among others. German writers were among the European avant-garde, being the first to challenge Neoclassicism and playing a major role in making Creator/WilliamShakespeare a major European writer, as opposed to an English one. In this same time, Prussia under UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat became a major new power in the Continent, strengthened by the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and playing a major part in the dissolution of the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth. UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution once again divided Germany. Jacobin clubs began forming in parts of Germany, with prominent voices advocating for revolution and democracy, and some such as Metz briefly became an independent republic supported by the French before being crushed. There was no mass support or grounds for the same at the time and the German Noble hierarchy, aided by French aristocratic emigres were firmly counter-revolutionary, which was reinforced by the recurring victories of the French Revolutionary Army. When UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte became emperor and war was breaking out, he pre-emptively invaded Austria and Germany, ending the Holy Roman Empire permanently and then more or less rewriting and reordering the boundaries of Germany. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. More important however was the impact of his reforms in Germany. He introduced meritocracy and administrative modernity, his Civil Code, and most crucially, the de-ghettoization of Jews. At the time, Jews, having been expelled previously from France, Spain, and only recently being allowed back in England, were most prominent in Central Europe (hence the AllJewsAreAshkenazi trope, Ashkenazis are Jews of Central Europe, whose language was Yiddish, formed by a mix of Hebrew and German). Under Napoleon, Jews were allowed equal rights, access to education, work and jobs[[note]]The fathers and ancestors of UsefulNotes/KarlMarx, UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud and UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein to name a few were all beneficiaries of Napoleon's reforms which should give you some idea of how momentous an event this was[[/note]]. However, Napoleon was also...well Napoleon. His rule over Germany did not always endear him, what his execution of publisher Joseph Philip Palm who published a pro-independence publication. Some Germans supported Napoleon while others didn't. The Prussian Army developed a fierce dislike for Napoleon and his supporters, and the military-aristocratic elite formed the core of anti-Napoleonic resistance. After Napoleon's invasion of Russia, he faced his major defeat at the Battle of Leipzig (which was the largest battle in Europe until World War I).

I), with Germans on both sides.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:1815--1918]]

After Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged as the dominant power in what was then considered German lands. From this, a loose confederation was formed, including the world's first customs union that didn't involve the simultaneous creation of a political union. For a while, Prussia and Austria struggled for dominance. Supporters of either side were known as Little Germans and Big Germans respectively. This referred not to the size or power of the two states, but of their divergent visions of what a unified Germany should be. In The elite aristocrats in this time were fiercely reactionary, wanting to turn the end, clock back and pretend that revolutions were a thing in the Little Germans won. past. The [[MagnificentBastard magnificent bastardry]] UsefulNotes/RevolutionsOf1848 were a rude awakening for many of UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck them, but an even ruder awakening for the revolutionaries themselves, because it highlighted the divisions and lack of organization between the various anti-conservative forces. It was during the Revolution, that the modern German flag (in tricolor format, in the mode of the French) of black, red and gold first made its appearance, as did the popularity of the song that became the national anthem. The Revolutionaries were crushed, many of them became emigres and exiles, many of them going to America and becoming active in the Abolitionist and Radical Republican causes (including Carl Schurz, an actual Forty-Eighter revolutionary, and cartoonist Thomas Nast, the son of one). Others stayed in Europe and went underground eventually forming the core of the socialist and social democrat movements, including but not limited to, Creator/KarlMarx and Friedrich Engels.

The Revolution failed [[NothingIsTheSameAnymore but it did shatter the Conservative Order]] in place since Waterloo and eventually the same conservatives who clamped down on German Unification came around to it, albeit for its own terms and interests. UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck, depending on your views a MagnificentBastard or just a [[ManipulativeBastard regular]] [[BastardBastard bastard]], started a shift among the German conservatives to "a revolution from above". Nationalism, formerly a liberal and left-wing idea, was co-opted by the right and a new majoritarian idea of a unified Germany started to surface. Through diplomatic cunning and careful manipulation, Bismarck managed to weaken non-Prussian states, so that Prussia alone would be the cradle and prime mover and shaker of German Unification, all to better benefit the Junker class. Victory in the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar
led to the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, which reflected the ''Kleindeutsche Lösung'' (solution of a small Germany)-- the unification of all German countries except Austria.[[note]]The reason the Prussians and their allies wanted Austria excluded were twofold. First and most important, Austria was predominantly Catholic, while Prussia and most other northern German states were primarily Protestant. Second, [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria already had its own multicultural empire]]; the Prussians did not want such a huge influx of non-Germans into the new Germany, while Austria's Habsburg monarchs would never dream of renouncing rule over the non-German half of their empire.[[/note]]

The next forty
Third, the Prussian Junker class were ''technically'' the new kids on the block and feared that their seniority would be contested by the older and more prestigious Austrian claims, and there were also rivalries between Prussia and Austria going back to the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar[[/note]]. This led to the formation of UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany which became a model for rapid industrialization and modernization. Within a few years saw the rapid rise of beginning industrialization, Germany rapidly closed the gap between itself, France and Britain and became the richest and most developed nation in Continental Europe, with the largest population. Visitors from other countries, such as the formerly isolationist UsefulNotes/{{Japan}} sent a great power. delegation to Europe and became very interested in German advancement and this inspired the government structure of UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan which also formed its own "revolution from above" and the reason why the Parliament in Japan is also called "Diet".

Being late to unify, the country was able to only establish a handful of colonies in Africa and the Pacific. German industry saw the establishment of a strong economy, and their education system saw the cultivation of some of the finest scientists of the turn of the century, such as Wilhelm Röntgen, who discovered X-rays, and theoretical physicists Max Planck and Albert Einstein. However, the meteoric rise fact that the country was met with a degree of concern formed from Britain above by a state-directed economy led by an aristocratic-warrior caste of Junkers meant that it could not escape the militaristic and expansionist nature of its founding. Imperial German had a Parliament (called the Reichstag) whose lower houses were elected by universal manhood suffrage but they had no say in domestic and foreign policy which was entirely in the hands of the Kaiser and his fellow chancellors and advisers. The Junkers who owned the majority of land in Prussia and who were active and over-represented in the German government refused to allow agrarian reform and instead proposed satisfying the demands of land by colonization or expanding eastwards, just like the Teutonic Knights did, and just like Frederick the Great did when he invaded and broke apart Poland. This authoritarian form of representative government was proudly declared by German conservatives to signify the "special path" (Sonderweg) of modernization that allowed them to sit on the [[GoldenMeanFallacy golden mean]] that allowed them to avoid the decadent autocracy of the East (Russia), and the decadent democracy of the West (England, France, who quickly asserted themselves as America). In the second half of the 20th Century, the word Sonderweg would be reinterpreted to signify how Germany's principal rivals.

Then came
path to modernization did not lead to liberal institutions and allowed archaic aristocratic and feudal characteristics to coexist with a modernized industrial state.

Anyone who proposed curtailing
the [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI privileges of the Junkers, such as the Chancellor Caprivi who succeeded Bismarck, was unceremoniously sacked and removed from power. The Germans were paranoid about encirclement by France and Russia, and Bismarck had done his best to prevent or halt an alliance between them, but at the same time they were fearful that Russia belatedly commencing industrialization, with its much larger population, would surpass and overtake them, neutering their advantages. Germans first European unpleasantness]] over a silly thing helped Russians with loans for advancement but then passive-aggressively denied or slow-dragged payments, forcing the Russians to turn to the French instead. Likewise, within Germany, social democratic parties were making gains and the growing prosperity only made the demands for increasing rights for workers at home harder to ignore. As such, in the Balkans. Long story short, lead-up to UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, many of Germany's war planners such as Moltke the Younger, and von Falkenhayn as well as Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, thought that a war could solve their problems. They hoped that Britain would not be involved, but they did hope that war could allow Germans to expand in the East and in Africa (Mitteleuropa and Mittelafrika was the name of the plans), halt, delay or hamper Russia's industrialization and armament, or possibly trigger its disintegration, and likewise weaken France to the point that it became little more than a client state, while also shutting up the socialists, communists and social democrats. UsefulNotes/WorldWarI didn't go exactly according to plan. By the end, the war caused another revolution in Germany, triggered by a mutiny in the naval ranks and supported by the army, Germans were facing the prospect of a famine, and then the Kaiser was forced to AbdicateTheThrone, departing to Holland (passing the rest of his life as a mere footnote), while the German generals made way for President Friedrich Ebert of the newly formed UsefulNotes/TheWeimarRepublic to negotiate and accept the terms of surrender at the Treaty of Versailles, thereby allowing them to lie about the war effort being "Stabbed-in-the-Back" by disloyal Judeo-Bolshevik Socialists.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Weimar Republic--Nazizeit]]
The UsefulNotes/WeimarRepublic was formed in the aftermath of wartime defeat, loss of territory, and the stigma of being forced to pay reparations, as such those on the Liberal Left were not too buoyant about the fact that
Germany lost finally had an actual democracy. Indeed they refused to call it "Republik" and a [[UsefulNotes/WeimarRepublic republic]] still called it Deutsches Reich. The Imperial Germans forced harsh reparations on France after the Franco-Prussian War, and forced even harsher terms on the emerging Soviet Union during the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so the burden of reparations involves as much as going [[MoralMyopia from being the extortionist to being extorted from as much as the actual cost]]. As it happened, the reparations did not quite cripple the German Economy as early observers such as J. M. Keynes predicted. The early years of the Republic were quite harsh but much of this was declared.due to the Spanish Flu epidemic and the small economic depression but the conditions for recovery were present since very little of the war had been fought in German territory, and the Treaty of Versailles was politically humiliating but thanks to American and British sentimentalism, was not as punitive as the French wanted, and it allowed the conditions of German recovery and military rearmament. This was the reason why Marshal Ferdinand Foch said that the Treaty was merely an armistice for another war[[note]]It's often misunderstood to mean the treaty was too harsh on Germany, Foch meant it was too lenient[[/note]]. Still the Weimar Republic did improve its formerly belligerent foreign policy and amend it from early years, with Gustav Stresemann winning a Nobel Prize for Peace, for healing some of the French-German tensions that had been soured for more than fifty years at that point. The Republic also engaged in trade with the USSR at a time when they weren't recognized by many of the world's powers.

The Nazis and conservatives were fond of seeing the Weimar Republic as doomed to failure and "decadent" permanently haunted by the defeat of the war, but the Weimar years was one of recovery and change. Berlin became the largest city in Europe, and one of the largest in the world, with the biggest population in Europe. Germany became the heart of 20th Century modernism, with Bauhaus architecture, caberet culture, modern graphic design, and GermanExpressionism forming itself in this era. Likewise, this was also an era of advancement, with the modern gay rights movement, which had originated in the Imperial years, finding new impetus through the works of Magnus Hirschfield who advocated for LGBT rights. Nonetheless, there was sharp polarization between urban and rural areas, and the fears of revolution, memories of defeat, and fears of change were barely kept in lid. TheGreatDepression brought these tensions to the surface resulting in the momentous election of 1933 and the rise of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany who it must be said ruled for 12 years (1933-1945), shorter than the Weimar Republic, the Kaisserreich and greatly exceeded by succeeding governments of West, East and Modern Germany. But those 12 years, to the people living through them really did have enough incidents and memories that made it feel like Hitler's promised thousand year reich, leading to judicial murder, purges, autocracy, mass propaganda, rapid rearmament, and genocide against Jews, Romani, Homosexuals, Communists, Slavs, Russians and the disabled.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:1945--Present]]

Humiliated by the defeat and territorial losses and burdened by the reparations mandated by the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Republic was off to a bad start. It was plagued by political instability (in the 14 years of its existence, it had 14 chancellors) and economic troubles--all of which destroyed the credibility of the government. This and a number of other factors contributed to the rise of UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler and the subsequent [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII second European unpleasantness]].


Added DiffLines:

[[/folder]]
18th Jun '17 1:33:28 AM JulianLapostat
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The late 17th and early 18th Century is seen as the Golden Age, where Germans contributed heavily to UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, and became known as ''The Land of [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker Poets and Thinkers]]''. This was the age of Kant, Gauss, Leibniz, Goethe, Schiller, Lessing among others. German writers were among the European avant-garde, being the first to challenge Neoclassicism and playing a major role in making Creator/WilliamShakespeare a major European writer, as opposed to an English one. In this same time, Prussia under UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat became a major new power in the Continent, strengthened by the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and playing a major part in the dissolution of the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth. And then came UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He steamrolled most of Europe, defeated the traditional monarchies and basically forced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. Many of the larger German nations fought a resistance campaign against Napoleon for nearly a decade.

to:

The late 17th and early 18th Century is seen as the Golden Age, where Germans contributed heavily to UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, and became known as ''The Land of [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker Poets and Thinkers]]''. This was the age of Kant, Gauss, Leibniz, Goethe, Schiller, Lessing among others. German writers were among the European avant-garde, being the first to challenge Neoclassicism and playing a major role in making Creator/WilliamShakespeare a major European writer, as opposed to an English one. In this same time, Prussia under UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat became a major new power in the Continent, strengthened by the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and playing a major part in the dissolution of the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth. And then came UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He steamrolled most UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution once again divided Germany. Jacobin clubs began forming in parts of Europe, defeated Germany, with prominent voices advocating for revolution and democracy, and some such as Metz briefly became an independent republic supported by the traditional monarchies French before being crushed. There was no mass support or grounds for the same at the time and basically forced the dissolution German Noble hierarchy, aided by French aristocratic emigres were firmly counter-revolutionary, which was reinforced by the recurring victories of the French Revolutionary Army. When UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte became emperor and war was breaking out, he pre-emptively invaded Austria and Germany, ending the Holy Roman Empire.Empire permanently and then more or less rewriting and reordering the boundaries of Germany. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. Many of More important however was the larger German nations fought impact of his reforms in Germany. He introduced meritocracy and administrative modernity, his Civil Code, and most crucially, the de-ghettoization of Jews. At the time, Jews, having been expelled previously from France, Spain, and only recently being allowed back in England, were most prominent in Central Europe (hence the AllJewsAreAshkenazi trope, Ashkenazis are Jews of Central Europe, whose language was Yiddish, formed by a resistance campaign against mix of Hebrew and German). Under Napoleon, Jews were allowed equal rights, access to education, work and jobs[[note]]The fathers and ancestors of UsefulNotes/KarlMarx, UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud and UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein to name a few were all beneficiaries of Napoleon's reforms which should give you some idea of how momentous an event this was[[/note]]. However, Napoleon was also...well Napoleon. His rule over Germany did not always endear him, what his execution of publisher Joseph Philip Palm who published a pro-independence publication. Some Germans supported Napoleon while others didn't. The Prussian Army developed a fierce dislike for nearly a decade.
Napoleon and his supporters, and the military-aristocratic elite formed the core of anti-Napoleonic resistance. After Napoleon's invasion of Russia, he faced his major defeat at the Battle of Leipzig (which was the largest battle in Europe until World War I).
18th Jun '17 12:49:59 AM JulianLapostat
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This ancient outline already reveals much of the divisions that made periodic unification and division a recurring problem for Germany. German historians and thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century were fond of pointing out that if one looks closely at the Catholic-Protestant divide of Germany, -- Protestants are predominantly in Northern Germany and Catholics in South Germany, then one can find that Protestantism took root in those parts that were unconquered by the Romans, while those that fell under Roman influence went Catholic. Protestantism also took hold among those lands colonized and settled or influenced by those same unconquered Germans (Scandinavia and England[[note]]Settled once by the Saxons, and a second time by the Vikings[[/note]]). The end of the Western Empire, led to the formation of new states and lands, and Germanic tribes stepped into the vacuum. Rome was occupied by the Ostragoths, descendants of Odoacer who recent scholarship credit for actually assimilating and briefly attempting to continue the institutions of Rome, albeit hampered by the general decay of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Ostragoths work would be undone by the campaigns of Belisarius which devastated Italy, and nearly left Rome depopulated. Meanwhile, the Franks under UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} formed the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (so bestowed by the Pope to spite the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) and Charlemagne succeeded in Christianizing the remaining pagan holdouts, albeit with famous brutality.

to:

This ancient outline already reveals much of the divisions that made periodic unification and division a recurring problem for Germany. German historians and thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century were fond of pointing out that if one looks closely at the Catholic-Protestant divide of Germany, -- Protestants are predominantly in Northern Germany and Catholics in South Germany, then one can find that Protestantism took root in those parts that were unconquered by the Romans, while those that fell under Roman influence went Catholic. Protestantism also took hold among those lands colonized and settled or influenced by those same unconquered Germans (Scandinavia and England[[note]]Settled once by the Saxons, and a second time by the Vikings[[/note]]).Vikings, [[BreadEggsBreadedEggs and a third time by Normans, who were Vikings who turned French]], who were originally Franks[[/note]]). The end of the Western Empire, led to the formation of new states and lands, and Germanic tribes stepped into the vacuum. Rome was occupied by the Ostragoths, descendants of Odoacer who recent scholarship credit for actually assimilating and briefly attempting to continue the institutions of Rome, albeit hampered by the general decay of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Ostragoths work would be undone by the campaigns of Belisarius which devastated Italy, and nearly left Rome depopulated. Meanwhile, the Franks under UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} formed the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (so bestowed by the Pope to spite the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) and Charlemagne succeeded in Christianizing the remaining pagan holdouts, albeit with famous brutality.



Germany became the center of the Reformation.

With the Reformation came the slow development of a standard UsefulNotes/GermanLanguage, which would ultimately foster a spirit of common German-ness, but first led to horrific religious bloodshed and was another nail in the coffin of the Holy Roman Empire (which became mostly an additional title for the Habsburg monarchs-- although technically the Holy Roman Empire was elected among the princes of Germany, it was held by someone from the house of Habsburg from 1415 until 1806 with only a short break from 1742-1745). Rome and the Papacy still look at anything the German Catholics cook up with a lot of skepticism--after all, those same Catholics also cooked up the Reformation.

And then came UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He steamrolled most of Europe, defeated the traditional monarchies and basically forced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. Many of the larger German nations fought a resistance campaign against Napoleon for nearly a decade.

to:

During TheMiddleAges, the Holy Roman Empire became involved in UsefulNotes/TheCrusades. Jews who had settled in the Rhineland became victims of the first pogroms in European history during the People's Crusade. A crusading order called UsefulNotes/TheTeutonicKnights played a major role in Christianizing the Baltic regions, eventually setting up shop in UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, the region of Germany that would become the most powerful domain of the HRE and eventually unify and modernize Germany. The Teutonic Knights [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostsiedlung also encouraged colonization and settlement]] across Eastern Europe. The Guelph-Ghillebine conflict between the Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire would weaken it in favour of the other Kingdoms, especially the French. Towards the end of UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance, Germany became the center of the Reformation.

Reformation, when Martin Luther aided by the Printing Press developed by Johannes Gutenburg, sparked a religious movement that led to the German Peasants War. The spread of Protestantism with its emphasis on work, literacy and a personal connection to God, led to the formation of the Protestant Ethic that led to the development of industry and capitalism. With the Reformation came the slow development of a standard UsefulNotes/GermanLanguage, which would ultimately foster a spirit of common German-ness, but first led to horrific actual German unity was delayed on account of the religious bloodshed divides and was another nail in the coffin violence of the Holy Roman Empire (which UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar, which proportionately is still considered the most destructive war in German history.

The late 17th and early 18th Century is seen as the Golden Age, where Germans contributed heavily to UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, and
became mostly an additional title for known as ''The Land of [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker Poets and Thinkers]]''. This was the Habsburg monarchs-- although technically the Holy Roman Empire was elected age of Kant, Gauss, Leibniz, Goethe, Schiller, Lessing among others. German writers were among the princes of Germany, it was held by someone from European avant-garde, being the house of Habsburg from 1415 until 1806 with only a short break from 1742-1745). Rome first to challenge Neoclassicism and the Papacy still look at anything the German Catholics cook up with playing a lot of skepticism--after all, those major role in making Creator/WilliamShakespeare a major European writer, as opposed to an English one. In this same Catholics also cooked up time, Prussia under UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat became a major new power in the Reformation.

Continent, strengthened by the UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar and playing a major part in the dissolution of the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth. And then came UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He steamrolled most of Europe, defeated the traditional monarchies and basically forced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Thanks to his influence, the borders were radically restructured and of hundreds of states, only around forty were left. Many of the larger German nations fought a resistance campaign against Napoleon for nearly a decade.
18th Jun '17 12:22:01 AM JulianLapostat
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The Germanic tribes were already known to UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic and UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire. Unlike the Celts, the Iberians, the Helvetians, the Gauls, the Illyrians, a good contingent of them resisted subjugation and inflicted on the Romans [[ShockingDefeatLegacy one of its most famous defeats]] at the Battle of Teutoburg (albeit led by Arminius, who fought in the Roman army, learnt their tactics and then schooled his Germans to better resist them[[note]]He was rewarded for his trouble by being killed by his own tribesmen who were afraid he was growing too powerful[[/note]]). Other Germanic tribes faced poorly against the Romans, chiefly the Marcomanni, a Confederation of Tribes across Central Europe, who were subjugated by Marcus Aurelius. Still other tribes however, became employed as mercenaries by Romans, and near the end of the Western Roman Empire, these mercenaries (eternally called barbarians by the Romans) had actually become the major fighting force of the Romans, and were schooled in Roman tactics and fighting methods but who were denied rights of Roman citizenship and promotion out of old prejudices. This eventually led to the end of the Western Roman Empire, the deposition of Romulus Augustus and Julius Nepos in favour of Odoacer. These Germanic tribes eventually became the Visigoths, the Ostragoths and the Franks. As for the part of Germany that was unconquered, it is believed they interacted and traded and settled in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea with the tribes of the Scandinavian nations resulting in the spread of [[Myth/NorseMythology the Germanic religion and its gods]].

This ancient outline already reveals much of the divisions that made periodic unification and division a recurring problem for Germany. German historians and thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century were fond of pointing out that if one looks closely at the Catholic-Protestant divide of Germany, -- Protestants are predominantly in Northern Germany and Catholics in South Germany, then one can find that Protestantism took root in those parts that were unconquered by the Romans, while those that fell under Roman influence went Catholic. Protestantism also took hold among those lands colonized and settled or influenced by those same unconquered Germans (Scandinavia and England[[note]]Settled once by the Saxons, and a second time by the Vikings[[/note]]). The end of the Western Empire, led to the formation of new states and lands, and Germanic tribes stepped into the vacuum. Rome was occupied by the Ostragoths, descendants of Odoacer who recent scholarship credit for actually assimilating and briefly attempting to continue the institutions of Rome, albeit hampered by the general decay of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Ostragoths work would be undone by the campaigns of Belisarius which devastated Italy, and nearly left Rome depopulated. Meanwhile, the Franks under UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} formed the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (so bestowed by the Pope to spite the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) and Charlemagne succeeded in Christianizing the remaining pagan holdouts, albeit with famous brutality. The Holy Roman Empire would in time become InNameOnly but in its early years it actually for a time united France, Germany and North Italy.

After Charlemagne, the Empire splintered with one region becoming the separate kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{France}}, while the Empire fractured into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. Unusually for the time, the Empire became an ElectiveMonarchy, but this Electorate was restricted to feudal nobility creating a state that had the problems of feudalism (i.e. make the King dependent on local lords and lower nobility for their army) with none of its advantages (i.e. a strong independent King who had the power to unify, and establish order by means of justice and force). The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hanseatic League could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a strong German Kingdom on the model of UsefulNotes/{{England}}, UsefulNotes/{{France}}, UsefulNotes/{{Spain}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} in the comparative timeframe.

to:

The Germanic tribes were already known to UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic and UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire. Unlike the Celts, the Iberians, the Helvetians, the Gauls, the Illyrians, a good contingent of them resisted subjugation and inflicted on the Romans [[ShockingDefeatLegacy one of its most famous defeats]] at the Battle of Teutoburg (albeit led by Arminius, who fought in the Roman army, learnt their tactics and then schooled his Germans to better resist them[[note]]He was rewarded for his trouble by being killed by his own tribesmen who were afraid he was growing too powerful[[/note]]). Other Germanic tribes faced poorly against the Romans, chiefly the Marcomanni, a Confederation of Tribes across Central Europe, who were subjugated by Marcus Aurelius. Still other tribes however, became employed conquered and assimilated into Rome, with some parts of Germany being founded and established by the Romans (such as Cologne which incidentally was a place where Roman Jews settled in 321 CE [[note]]UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud was fond of remarking in TheTwenties and TheThirties that [[WhileYouWereInDiapers there were Jews in Germany]] long before Germany was invented as a nationality and ethnicity[[/note]]). Germanic soldiers were conscripted as mercenaries by Romans, to supplement the Roman legions, and near the end of the Western Roman Empire, these mercenaries (eternally called barbarians by the Romans) had actually become the major fighting force of the Romans, and were schooled in Roman tactics and fighting methods but who were denied rights of Roman citizenship and promotion out of old prejudices. This eventually led to the end of the Western Roman Empire, the deposition of Romulus Augustus and Julius Nepos in favour of Odoacer. These Germanic tribes eventually became the Visigoths, the Ostragoths and the Franks. As for the part of Germany that was unconquered, it is believed they interacted and traded and settled in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea with the tribes of the Scandinavian nations resulting in the spread of [[Myth/NorseMythology the Germanic religion and its gods]].

This ancient outline already reveals much of the divisions that made periodic unification and division a recurring problem for Germany. German historians and thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century were fond of pointing out that if one looks closely at the Catholic-Protestant divide of Germany, -- Protestants are predominantly in Northern Germany and Catholics in South Germany, then one can find that Protestantism took root in those parts that were unconquered by the Romans, while those that fell under Roman influence went Catholic. Protestantism also took hold among those lands colonized and settled or influenced by those same unconquered Germans (Scandinavia and England[[note]]Settled once by the Saxons, and a second time by the Vikings[[/note]]). The end of the Western Empire, led to the formation of new states and lands, and Germanic tribes stepped into the vacuum. Rome was occupied by the Ostragoths, descendants of Odoacer who recent scholarship credit for actually assimilating and briefly attempting to continue the institutions of Rome, albeit hampered by the general decay of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Ostragoths work would be undone by the campaigns of Belisarius which devastated Italy, and nearly left Rome depopulated. Meanwhile, the Franks under UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} formed the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (so bestowed by the Pope to spite the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) and Charlemagne succeeded in Christianizing the remaining pagan holdouts, albeit with famous brutality. The Holy Roman Empire would in time become InNameOnly but in its early years it actually for a time united France, Germany and North Italy.

After Charlemagne, the Empire splintered with one region becoming the separate kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{France}}, while the Empire fractured into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. Unusually for the time, the Empire became an ElectiveMonarchy, but this Electorate was restricted to feudal nobility creating a state that had the problems of feudalism (i.e. make the King dependent on local lords and lower nobility for their army) with none of its advantages (i.e. a strong independent King who had the power to unify, and establish order by means of justice and force). The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hanseatic League could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a strong German Kingdom on the model of UsefulNotes/{{England}}, [[UsefulNotes/UnitedKingdom England}}, UsefulNotes/{{France}}, UsefulNotes/{{Spain}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} in the comparative timeframe.
timeframe.

Germany became the center of the Reformation.
18th Jun '17 12:12:01 AM JulianLapostat
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Germany ('''German:''' ''Deutschland''), officially known as the Federal Republic of Germany ('''German:''' ''Bundesrepublik Deutschland''), is a federal republic in central Europe with a complicated and troubled history. Modern-day Germany is a major economic power and a member of UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, [[GroupOfEight G8]] and the UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} after it had spent the UsefulNotes/ColdWar [[UsefulNotes/BerlinWall divided]] into two countries--UsefulNotes/EastGermany and UsefulNotes/WestGermany.

to:

Germany ('''German:''' ''Deutschland''), officially known as the Federal Republic of Germany ('''German:''' ''Bundesrepublik Deutschland''), is a federal republic in central Europe with a complicated and troubled history. Europe. Modern-day Germany is a major economic power and power, a member of UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, [[GroupOfEight G8]] and the UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} UsefulNotes/{{NATO}}, and the most developed and richest economy of Europe, with the second largest population in Europe (after UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}).

For most of its history, there was no unified German state. The area of land that comprises Germany evolved and shifted repeatedly, over the centuries, being divided, subdivided and combined at various times, with the current territorial boundary determined by the second unification of 1990, when UsefulNotes/EastGermany and UsefulNotes/WestGermany were finally united into a single nation,
after it had spent spending the UsefulNotes/ColdWar [[UsefulNotes/BerlinWall divided]] into two countries--UsefulNotes/EastGermany republics. Parts of Germany were parceled out to UsefulNotes/{{Poland}}, UsefulNotes/TheCzechRepublic while Russia holds the enclave of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg, hometown and UsefulNotes/WestGermany.
stomping grounds of Immanuel Kant[[note]]He was known for walking around the town on his daily routines which was so unwavering that townsfolk apparently measured time by his movements[[/note]]), with the modern borders on the East being the Oder-Neisse line as outlined and demanded by UsefulNotes/JosefStalin.



The Germanic tribes were already known to the [[AncientRome Romans]], and despite a series of bloody wars, they were never all incorporated into the empire. After the fall of Rome, they expanded into what are today France (also giving it its name), Italy and Eastern Europe, laying the foundation for the historical borders of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire.

Under the Frankish and Carolingian Empires, the German(ic) tribes were united, but that didn't last and the various German nations spent the next millennium broken up into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hansa could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a national mentality of one German nation until much later, and regionalism prevails until today.

With the Reformation came the slow development of a standard UsefulNotes/GermanLanguage, which would ultimately foster a spirit of common German-ness, but first led to horrific religious bloodshed and was another nail in the coffin of the Holy Roman Empire (which became mostly an additional title for the Habsburg monarchs-- although technically the Holy Roman Empire was elected among the princes of Germany, it was held by someone from the house of Habsburg from 1415 until 1806 with only a short break from 1742-1745). The reformation itself, incidentally, went only half-way. Today, about half the Germans are Protestants and half are Catholic, split fairly evenly with the former being predominantly in Northern Germany and the latter in the South (particularly in Bavaria). Rome and the Papacy still look at anything the German Catholics cook up with a lot of skepticism--after all, those same Catholics also cooked up the Reformation.

to:

The Germanic tribes were already known to UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic and UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire. Unlike the [[AncientRome Romans]], Celts, the Iberians, the Helvetians, the Gauls, the Illyrians, a good contingent of them resisted subjugation and despite a series inflicted on the Romans [[ShockingDefeatLegacy one of bloody wars, they its most famous defeats]] at the Battle of Teutoburg (albeit led by Arminius, who fought in the Roman army, learnt their tactics and then schooled his Germans to better resist them[[note]]He was rewarded for his trouble by being killed by his own tribesmen who were never all incorporated into afraid he was growing too powerful[[/note]]). Other Germanic tribes faced poorly against the empire. After Romans, chiefly the fall Marcomanni, a Confederation of Rome, they expanded into what are today France (also giving it its name), Italy and Eastern Tribes across Central Europe, laying who were subjugated by Marcus Aurelius. Still other tribes however, became employed as mercenaries by Romans, and near the foundation end of the Western Roman Empire, these mercenaries (eternally called barbarians by the Romans) had actually become the major fighting force of the Romans, and were schooled in Roman tactics and fighting methods but who were denied rights of Roman citizenship and promotion out of old prejudices. This eventually led to the end of the Western Roman Empire, the deposition of Romulus Augustus and Julius Nepos in favour of Odoacer. These Germanic tribes eventually became the Visigoths, the Ostragoths and the Franks. As for the historical borders part of Germany that was unconquered, it is believed they interacted and traded and settled in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea with the tribes of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire.Scandinavian nations resulting in the spread of [[Myth/NorseMythology the Germanic religion and its gods]].

Under This ancient outline already reveals much of the Frankish divisions that made periodic unification and Carolingian Empires, division a recurring problem for Germany. German historians and thinkers of the German(ic) 19th and 20th Century were fond of pointing out that if one looks closely at the Catholic-Protestant divide of Germany, -- Protestants are predominantly in Northern Germany and Catholics in South Germany, then one can find that Protestantism took root in those parts that were unconquered by the Romans, while those that fell under Roman influence went Catholic. Protestantism also took hold among those lands colonized and settled or influenced by those same unconquered Germans (Scandinavia and England[[note]]Settled once by the Saxons, and a second time by the Vikings[[/note]]). The end of the Western Empire, led to the formation of new states and lands, and Germanic tribes were united, stepped into the vacuum. Rome was occupied by the Ostragoths, descendants of Odoacer who recent scholarship credit for actually assimilating and briefly attempting to continue the institutions of Rome, albeit hampered by the general decay of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Ostragoths work would be undone by the campaigns of Belisarius which devastated Italy, and nearly left Rome depopulated. Meanwhile, the Franks under UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} formed the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire (so bestowed by the Pope to spite the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) and Charlemagne succeeded in Christianizing the remaining pagan holdouts, albeit with famous brutality. The Holy Roman Empire would in time become InNameOnly but that didn't last in its early years it actually for a time united France, Germany and North Italy.

After Charlemagne,
the various German nations spent Empire splintered with one region becoming the next millennium broken up separate kingdom of UsefulNotes/{{France}}, while the Empire fractured into hundreds of kingdoms, duchies, margraviates, bishoprics, merchant republics and others. Unusually for the time, the Empire became an ElectiveMonarchy, but this Electorate was restricted to feudal nobility creating a state that had the problems of feudalism (i.e. make the King dependent on local lords and lower nobility for their army) with none of its advantages (i.e. a strong independent King who had the power to unify, and establish order by means of justice and force). The smaller ones were usually to some extent dominated by their bigger neighbors, such as [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria]], Bavaria or Brandenburg (and latter UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}), although the filthy rich city states that were a member of the Hansa Hanseatic League could practically buy and sell fate. This splintering and constant infighting prevented the development of a national mentality of one strong German nation until much later, Kingdom on the model of UsefulNotes/{{England}}, UsefulNotes/{{France}}, UsefulNotes/{{Spain}}, and regionalism prevails until today.

UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} in the comparative timeframe.

With the Reformation came the slow development of a standard UsefulNotes/GermanLanguage, which would ultimately foster a spirit of common German-ness, but first led to horrific religious bloodshed and was another nail in the coffin of the Holy Roman Empire (which became mostly an additional title for the Habsburg monarchs-- although technically the Holy Roman Empire was elected among the princes of Germany, it was held by someone from the house of Habsburg from 1415 until 1806 with only a short break from 1742-1745). The reformation itself, incidentally, went only half-way. Today, about half the Germans are Protestants and half are Catholic, split fairly evenly with the former being predominantly in Northern Germany and the latter in the South (particularly in Bavaria). Rome and the Papacy still look at anything the German Catholics cook up with a lot of skepticism--after all, those same Catholics also cooked up the Reformation.
7th Jun '17 3:44:00 AM Hakko504
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