History UsefulNotes / Evolution

5th Oct '17 5:31:57 PM slvstrChung
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* The second incorrect assumption is that evolution is a ladder of progress, and that an entire species must evolve into a different species that ''supplants'' the original species, leaving no members of it behind. Evolution, in fact, is not a ladder so much as a ''branching tree'' of contingency. Speciation usually occurs when a ''small group'' from a much larger population is ''reproductively isolated'' from the rest of that population, most often through geographic isolation. This smaller population continues to breed amongst themselves, and will generally be operating under different selection pressures than the population they came from. Eventually, so many genetic differences will accrue that the members of this new population can no longer interbreed with the other population, and it's at this point that we say a new species has arisen. We started with ''one species'', and ended up with ''two species.''\\

to:

* The second incorrect assumption is that evolution is a ladder of progress, and that an entire species must evolve into a different species that ''supplants'' the original species, leaving no members of it behind. Evolution, in fact, is not a ladder so much as a ''branching tree'' of contingency. Speciation usually occurs when a ''small group'' from a much larger population is ''reproductively isolated'' from the rest of that population, most often through geographic isolation. This smaller population continues to breed amongst themselves, and will generally be operating under different selection pressures than the population they came from. Eventually, so many genetic differences will accrue that the members of this new population can no longer interbreed with the other population, and it's at this point that we say a new species has arisen. We started with ''one species'', and ended up with ''two species.''\\species,'' and the second one is good at thriving in its new, different, environment.\\



This same mechanism happened with our ancient ancestors: We started with one large population pool in Africa that was pretty much chimp-like, then about 4-6 million years ago some of those chimp-like ancestors got separated from the rest of them and began exploiting a slightly different biological niche in a different part of Africa, until they'd diverged far enough from their ancestors that they could no longer interbreed with the rest of the chimp-like creatures. Meanwhile, because those original chimp-like creatures were now isolated from ''us'', they went on to become modern chimps.

to:

This same mechanism happened with our ancient ancestors: We started with one large population pool in Africa that was pretty much chimp-like, then about 4-6 million years ago some of those chimp-like ancestors got separated from the rest of them and began exploiting a slightly different biological niche in a different part of Africa, until they'd diverged far enough from their ancestors that they could no longer interbreed with the rest of the chimp-like creatures. Meanwhile, because those original chimp-like creatures were now isolated from ''us'', they went on to become modern chimps.
chimps.\\
\\
In short, the question is a little like claiming that airplanes should have obsoleted cars. True, the two objects share a purpose -- getting human beings from Here to There -- but have different operating requirements and thrive under different conditions. Airplanes should ''not'' have replaced cars because airplanes are not good at doing what cars are good at doing, and vice versa.
8th Aug '17 5:50:36 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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** Evolutionary arms races can lead to adaptations that through cost of having it outways the benefits it provides will cause one or both species to go extinct and if a predator causes it's food source to go extinct it will go extinct too.

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** Evolutionary arms races can lead to adaptations that that, through cost of having it outways outweighing the benefits it provides provides, will cause one or both species to go extinct and extinct; if a predator causes it's its food source to go extinct extinct, it will go extinct too.
8th Aug '17 12:41:32 AM jate88
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Added DiffLines:

** Evolutionary arms races can lead to adaptations that through cost of having it outways the benefits it provides will cause one or both species to go extinct and if a predator causes it's food source to go extinct it will go extinct too.
6th Jan '17 2:53:59 PM jate88
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** Added on to this idea is the idea of competitive altruism. Where organisms have to find the right balance between being cooperative and beinng choosy. If they are too cooperative than they can easily get taken advantage of. If they are too choosy then they won't be trusted because they barely help out.

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** Added on to this idea is the idea of competitive altruism. Where organisms have to find the right balance between being cooperative and beinng choosy. If they are too cooperative than then they can easily get taken advantage of. If they are too choosy then they won't be trusted because they barely help out.
6th Jan '17 2:51:58 PM jate88
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** Memetics is the theory that ideas are alive just like organisms. While bacteria reproduce through dividing and many animals reproduce through sex ideas reproduce by getting their host to use language to implant them into another hosts brain. In theory they can do this even at the cost of genetic fitness to the host organism. For instance the Shakers of the 1800's were able to survive for a while despite one of their doctrines being that adherents can't ever reproduce. They did this by taking in the many orphans and widows of Victorian society.

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** Memetics is the theory that ideas ideas(or memes) are alive just like organisms. While bacteria reproduce through dividing and many animals reproduce through sex ideas reproduce by getting their host to use language to implant them into another hosts brain. In theory they can do this even at the cost of genetic fitness to the host organism. For instance the Shakers of the 1800's were able to survive for a while despite one of their doctrines being that adherents can't ever reproduce. They did this by taking in the many orphans and widows of Victorian society.
6th Jan '17 2:38:42 PM jate88
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Added on to this idea is the idea of competitive altruism. Where organisms have to find the right balance between being cooperative and beinng choosy. If they are too cooperative than they can easily get taken advantage of. If they are too choosy then they won't be trusted because they barely help out.

to:

Added **Added on to this idea is the idea of competitive altruism. Where organisms have to find the right balance between being cooperative and beinng choosy. If they are too cooperative than they can easily get taken advantage of. If they are too choosy then they won't be trusted because they barely help out.
6th Jan '17 2:37:43 PM jate88
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Added DiffLines:


*Specific phenomena cited as mechanisms organisms can use to overcome nature's every organism for themselves free for all include kin selection, reciprocal altruism, and memetics.
**Kin Selection centers around the idea that genes are what's selected for instead of organisms. A gene competes not only with the genes in other organisms but also the other genes in the organism it is a part of. Most genes aren't present in a single organism though and are present across multiple organisms so it makes sense for the same genes in different organisms to cooperate with each other to increase their presence in the next generation.
**Reciprocal altruism is where one organism helps out another organism in exchange for help from that organism in the future. For instance if a monkey wasn't able to find food that day but other monkeys in the group found more than they need. The monkey with an excess can give some to the monkey who doesn't have any in the hopes that the monkey without any food will return the favor in the future when the monkey with an excess needs help. This can be seen as taking out an insurance policy for when times get rough.
Added on to this idea is the idea of competitive altruism. Where organisms have to find the right balance between being cooperative and beinng choosy. If they are too cooperative than they can easily get taken advantage of. If they are too choosy then they won't be trusted because they barely help out.
**Memetics is the theory that ideas are alive just like organisms. While bacteria reproduce through dividing and many animals reproduce through sex ideas reproduce by getting their host to use language to implant them into another hosts brain. In theory they can do this even at the cost of genetic fitness to the host organism. For instance the Shakers of the 1800's were able to survive for a while despite one of their doctrines being that adherents can't ever reproduce. They did this by taking in the many orphans and widows of Victorian society.
22nd Jul '16 6:41:37 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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The word "evolution" in its most basic terms simply means "change over time". In biological terms, it is the inheritance of genetic traits within populations of organisms through successive generations. Evolution is one of the most strongly supported scientific theories, and is in fact the cornerstone of modern biology.

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The word "evolution" in its most basic terms simply means "change over time". In biological terms, it is the inheritance of genetic traits within populations of organisms through successive generations. Evolution is one of the most strongly supported scientific theories, theories and is in fact the cornerstone of modern biology.
21st Jul '16 9:29:07 PM PaulA
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-> "''One general law, leading to the advancement of all organic beings, namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die."''
--> -- '''CharlesDarwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''

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-> "''One ->''"One general law, leading to the advancement of all organic beings, namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die."''
--> -- '''CharlesDarwin''', -->-- '''UsefulNotes/CharlesDarwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''



-->''"I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection."''
-->-'''Charles Darwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''

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-->''"I ->''"I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection."''
-->-'''Charles -->-- '''Charles Darwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''



-->''"Of course, like every other man of intelligence and education I do believe in organic evolution. It surprises me that at this late date such questions should be raised."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson'''. In 1922.

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-->''"Of ->''"Of course, like every other man of intelligence and education I do believe in organic evolution. It surprises me that at this late date such questions should be raised."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson'''.-->-- '''UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson'''. In 1922.



-->''"In any developing science there are disagreements. But scientists — and here is what separates real scientists from the pseudoscientists of the school of intelligent design — always know what evidence it would take to change their minds."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', "The Illusion of Design"

to:

-->''"In ->''"In any developing science there are disagreements. But scientists — and here is what separates real scientists from the pseudoscientists of the school of intelligent design — always know what evidence it would take to change their minds."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', -->-- '''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', "The Illusion of Design"



-->''"'''D'''ear '''K'''ing '''P'''hilip '''C'''ame '''O'''ver '''F'''or '''G'''ood '''S'''oup"''[[note]](Motherfucker ''loved'' [[Literature/TheTaleOfDespereaux soup]].)[[/note]]
-->-''Mnemonic''

to:

-->''"'''D'''ear ->''"'''D'''ear '''K'''ing '''P'''hilip '''C'''ame '''O'''ver '''F'''or '''G'''ood '''S'''oup"''[[note]](Motherfucker ''loved'' [[Literature/TheTaleOfDespereaux soup]].)[[/note]]
-->-''Mnemonic''
-->-- ''Mnemonic''



-->''"Another curious aspect of the theory of evolution is that everybody thinks he understands it. I mean philosophers, social scientists, and so on. While in fact very few people understand it, actually, as it stands, even as it stood when Darwin expressed it, and even less as we now may be able to understand it in biology."''
-->-'''Jacques Monod''', ''On the Molecular Theory of Evolution''

to:

-->''"Another ->''"Another curious aspect of the theory of evolution is that everybody thinks he understands it. I mean philosophers, social scientists, and so on. While in fact very few people understand it, actually, as it stands, even as it stood when Darwin expressed it, and even less as we now may be able to understand it in biology."''
-->-'''Jacques -->-- '''Jacques Monod''', ''On the Molecular Theory of Evolution''



-->''"[Natural Selection] has not vision, no foresight, no sight at all. If it can be said to be play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is the blind watchmaker."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', ''The Blind Watchmaker''

to:

-->''"[Natural ->''"[Natural Selection] has not vision, no foresight, no sight at all. If it can be said to be play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is the blind watchmaker."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', -->-- '''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', ''The Blind Watchmaker''



-->''"Darwinian man though well behaved, is at best just a monkey shaved!"''
-->-'''GilbertAndSullivan''', ''Princess Ida''

to:

-->''"Darwinian ->''"Darwinian man though well behaved, is at best just a monkey shaved!"''
-->-'''GilbertAndSullivan''', ''Princess Ida''
-->-- ''Theatre/PrincessIda''



-->''"Mere chance ... alone would never account for so habitual and large an amount of difference as that between varieties of the same species and species of the same genus."''
-->-'''Charles Darwin'''

to:

-->''"Mere ->''"Mere chance ... alone would never account for so habitual and large an amount of difference as that between varieties of the same species and species of the same genus."''
-->-'''Charles -->-- '''Charles Darwin'''



-->''"Organisms [...] are directed and limited by their past. They must remain imperfect in their form and function, and to that extent unpredictable since they are not optimal machines. We cannot know their future with certainty, if only because a myriad of quirky functional shifts lie within the capacity of any feature, however well adapted to a present role."''
-->-'''Steven Jay Gould''', ''Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes''

to:

-->''"Organisms ->''"Organisms [...] are directed and limited by their past. They must remain imperfect in their form and function, and to that extent unpredictable since they are not optimal machines. We cannot know their future with certainty, if only because a myriad of quirky functional shifts lie within the capacity of any feature, however well adapted to a present role."''
-->-'''Steven -->-- '''Steven Jay Gould''', ''Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes''



-->''"The important point is that since the origin of life belongs in the category of at-least-once phenomena, time is on its side. However improbable we regard this event, or any of the steps which it involves, given enough time it will almost certainly happen at least once. And for life as we know it, with its capacity for growth and reproduction, once may be enough."''
-->-'''George Wald'''

to:

-->''"The ->''"The important point is that since the origin of life belongs in the category of at-least-once phenomena, time is on its side. However improbable we regard this event, or any of the steps which it involves, given enough time it will almost certainly happen at least once. And for life as we know it, with its capacity for growth and reproduction, once may be enough."''
-->-'''George -->-- '''George Wald'''



-->''"Let’s say upfront that asking 'if humans/apes evolved from monkeys, why are there still monkeys?' is exactly the same as saying 'if there are snakes, why are there still lizards?', 'if there are tetrapods, why are there still fish', or 'if there are European Americans, why are there still Europeans?'."''
-->-'''[[Blog/TetrapodZoology Darren Naish]]'''


to:

-->''"Let’s ->''"Let's say upfront that asking 'if humans/apes evolved from monkeys, why are there still monkeys?' is exactly the same as saying 'if there are snakes, why are there still lizards?', 'if there are tetrapods, why are there still fish', or 'if there are European Americans, why are there still Europeans?'."''
-->-'''[[Blog/TetrapodZoology -->-- '''[[Blog/TetrapodZoology Darren Naish]]'''

Naish]]'''



-->''"The tautology attack is an attack against wording, not substance"''
-->-'''talk.origins''', [[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolphil/tautology.html here]]

to:

-->''"The ->''"The tautology attack is an attack against wording, not substance"''
-->-'''talk.-->-- '''talk.origins''', [[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolphil/tautology.html here]]



-->''"One of the most prominent icons of modern day Christianity, the Crocoduck is capable of dispelling all arguments in favour of Atheism and Darwinism simply by not existing. Its sworn enemy is the platypus, which, in harsh contrast, is capable of proving god does not exist by existing.”''
-->-'''UrbanDictionary'''

to:

-->''"One ->''"One of the most prominent icons of modern day Christianity, the Crocoduck is capable of dispelling all arguments in favour of Atheism and Darwinism simply by not existing. Its sworn enemy is the platypus, which, in harsh contrast, is capable of proving god does not exist by existing.”''
-->-'''UrbanDictionary'''
"''
-->-- '''Website/UrbanDictionary'''



-->''"What? Charmander is evolving!..Congratulations! Your Charmander evolved into Charmeleon!"''
-->-'''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}'''

to:

-->''"What? ->''"What? Charmander is evolving!..Congratulations! Your Charmander evolved into Charmeleon!"''
-->-'''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}'''
-->-- ''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}''



-->''"Owing to this struggle for life, any variation, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if it be in any degree profitable to an individual of any species, in its infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to external nature, will tend to the preservation of that individual, and will generally be inherited by its offspring."''
-->- '''Charles Darwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''

to:

-->''"Owing ->''"Owing to this struggle for life, any variation, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if it be in any degree profitable to an individual of any species, in its infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to external nature, will tend to the preservation of that individual, and will generally be inherited by its offspring."''
-->- -->-- '''Charles Darwin''', ''On the Origin of Species''



-->''"The second law of thermodynamics argument is one of the hoariest, silliest claims in the creationist collection. It's self-refuting. Point to the creationist: ask whether he was a baby once. Has he grown? Has he become larger and more complex? Isn't he standing there in violation of the second law himself? Demand that he immediately regress to a slimy puddle of mingled menses and semen."''
-->-'''PZ Meyers'''

to:

-->''"The ->''"The second law of thermodynamics argument is one of the hoariest, silliest claims in the creationist collection. It's self-refuting. Point to the creationist: ask whether he was a baby once. Has he grown? Has he become larger and more complex? Isn't he standing there in violation of the second law himself? Demand that he immediately regress to a slimy puddle of mingled menses and semen."''
-->-'''PZ -->-- '''PZ Meyers'''



-->''"In fact, there is not a population on the planet that is free from the forces of nature in this way, and in fact it is hard to imagine how there ever could be."''
-->-'''Ian Rickard'''

to:

-->''"In ->''"In fact, there is not a population on the planet that is free from the forces of nature in this way, and in fact it is hard to imagine how there ever could be."''
-->-'''Ian -->-- '''Ian Rickard'''



-->''"In those days, the first everything was crawling up out of the sea: the first snake. The first chicken. Crab grass. The first real estate salesman."''
-->-''WesternAnimation/GarfieldHis9Lives''

to:

-->''"In ->''"In those days, the first everything was crawling up out of the sea: the first snake. The first chicken. Crab grass. The first real estate salesman."''
-->-''WesternAnimation/GarfieldHis9Lives''
-->-- ''WesternAnimation/GarfieldHis9Lives''



-->'''Cueball''': ''Look, I'm doing my best, but the fact is your Savannah ancestors just didn't prepare you for doing abstract math.''
-->'''Megan''': ''That's just the kind of sexism that discredits evo-psych! Your "evolutionary histories" always seem tuned to produce 1950s gender roles!''
-->'''Cueball''': ''Evolutionary wha-? I meant Savannah, ''Georgia.
-->'''Megan''': ''Hey! Leave my mom out of this!''
-->-''Webcomic/{{xkcd}}''

to:

-->'''Cueball''': ''Look, ->'''Cueball:''' Look, I'm doing my best, but the fact is your Savannah ancestors just didn't prepare you for doing abstract math.''
-->'''Megan''': ''That's
\\
'''Megan:''' That's
just the kind of sexism that discredits evo-psych! Your "evolutionary histories" always seem tuned to produce 1950s gender roles!''
-->'''Cueball''': ''Evolutionary wha-?
roles!\\
'''Cueball:''' Evolutionary wha--?
I meant Savannah, ''Georgia.
-->'''Megan''': ''Hey!
''Georgia''.\\
'''Megan:''' Hey!
Leave my mom out of this!''
-->-''Webcomic/{{xkcd}}''
this!
-->-- ''Webcomic/{{xkcd}}''



-->''"[Creationists] make it sound as though a "theory" is something you dreamt up after being drunk all night."''
-->-'''Creator/IsaacAsimov'''

to:

-->''"[Creationists] ->''"[Creationists] make it sound as though a "theory" is something you dreamt up after being drunk all night."''
-->-'''Creator/IsaacAsimov'''
-->-- '''Creator/IsaacAsimov'''



-->''"People sometimes try to score debating points by saying, "Evolution is only a theory." That is correct, but it's important to understand what that means. It is also only a theory that the world goes round the Sun -- it's just a theory for which there is an immense amount of evidence."''
-->-'''Richard Dawkins'''

to:

-->''"People ->''"People sometimes try to score debating points by saying, "Evolution is only a theory." That is correct, but it's important to understand what that means. It is also only a theory that the world goes round the Sun -- it's just a theory for which there is an immense amount of evidence."''
-->-'''Richard -->-- '''Richard Dawkins'''



-->''"In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense — not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species''"
-->'''Peter Kropotkin''', ''Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution''

to:

-->''"In ->''"In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense — not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species''"
-->'''Peter -->-- '''Peter Kropotkin''', ''Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution''



-> ''"It is no accident that we see green almost wherever we look. It is no accident that we find ourselves perched on one tiny twig in the midst of a blossoming and flourishing tree of life; no accident that we are surrounded by millions of other species, eating, growing, rotting, swimming, walking, flying, burrowing, stalking, chasing, fleeing, outpacing, outwitting. Without green plants to outnumber us at least ten to one there would be no energy to power us. Without the ever-escalating arms races between predators and prey, parasites and hosts, without Darwin’s ‘war of nature’, without his ‘famine and death’ there would be no nervous systems capable of seeing anything at all, let alone of appreciating and understanding it. We are surrounded by endless forms, most beautiful and most wonderful, and it is no accident, but the direct consequence of evolution by non-random natural selection – the only game in town, the greatest show on Earth."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', ''The Greatest Show on Earth''

to:

-> ''"It ->''"It is no accident that we see green almost wherever we look. It is no accident that we find ourselves perched on one tiny twig in the midst of a blossoming and flourishing tree of life; no accident that we are surrounded by millions of other species, eating, growing, rotting, swimming, walking, flying, burrowing, stalking, chasing, fleeing, outpacing, outwitting. Without green plants to outnumber us at least ten to one there would be no energy to power us. Without the ever-escalating arms races between predators and prey, parasites and hosts, without Darwin’s ‘war of nature’, without his ‘famine and death’ there would be no nervous systems capable of seeing anything at all, let alone of appreciating and understanding it. We are surrounded by endless forms, most beautiful and most wonderful, and it is no accident, but the direct consequence of evolution by non-random natural selection – the only game in town, the greatest show on Earth."''
-->-'''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', -->-- '''UsefulNotes/RichardDawkins''', ''The Greatest Show on Earth''
21st Jul '16 9:21:22 PM PaulA
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-->-'''IsaacAsimov'''

to:

-->-'''IsaacAsimov'''
-->-'''Creator/IsaacAsimov'''
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