History UsefulNotes / AustralianPolitics

20th Apr '16 2:53:37 AM Laevatein
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Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]; additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In the Senate, there are currently four independents: [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]], ex-DLP member John Madigan, and ex-Palmer United members Jacqui Lambie and Glen Lazarus.

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Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]; additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In the Senate, there are currently four independents: [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]], who has formed a sort-of-party called the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]), ex-DLP member John Madigan, and ex-Palmer United members Jacqui Lambie and Glen Lazarus.
19th Apr '16 2:32:28 PM JohnPrestwick
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Since this sets up room for plenty of conflict, there exists a procedure called a '''double dissolution'''. If the Senate rejects bills from the House of Representatives under certain conditions, the government can dissolve ''both'' chambers. In this case, each state elects 12 senators in one go and they take their seats immediately. The next Senate changeover takes place in the second month of July to occur after the election, so another Senate election must be take place before then. There have been 6 double dissolutions in the history of Australia - the most recent was in 1987.

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Since this sets up room for plenty of conflict, there exists a procedure called a '''double dissolution'''. If the Senate rejects bills from the House of Representatives under certain conditions, the government can dissolve ''both'' chambers. In this case, each state elects 12 senators in one go and they take their seats immediately. The next Senate changeover takes place in the second third month of July to occur after the election, so another Senate election must be take place before then. There have been 6 double dissolutions in the history of Australia - the most recent was in 1987.
19th Jan '16 10:56:36 AM tsstevens
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After an unpopular budget in 2014, that cut spending Abbott's popularity dropped and never recovered. Conservative even in relation to his own party, Abbott was mocked for being nostalgic for decisions such as reintroducing knighthoods and refusing to let his party members vote on gay marriage. Other controversies included trying to downplay the issue of climate change and (despite trying to fend off accusations of misogyny) appointing just one woman to the cabinet. He fulfilled his promise to abolish the carbon tax, in favour of a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute. He also developed a reputation for being gaffe-prone and for engaging in rather odd and eccentric behaviour. In foreign policy, his government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians, and they entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS.\\

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After an unpopular budget in 2014, 2014 (to writ, one of the items included young people who lose their job to get no benefits for six months, then apply for forty a month to be entitled to them,) that cut spending Abbott's popularity dropped and never recovered. Conservative even in relation to his own party, Abbott was mocked for being nostalgic for decisions such as reintroducing knighthoods and refusing to let his party members vote on gay marriage. Other controversies included trying to downplay the issue of climate change and (despite trying to fend off accusations of misogyny) appointing just one woman to the cabinet. He fulfilled his promise to abolish the carbon tax, in favour of a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute. He also developed a reputation for being gaffe-prone and for engaging in rather odd and eccentric behaviour. In foreign policy, his government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians, and they entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS.\\
19th Jan '16 10:33:41 AM nombretomado
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* '''John Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\

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* '''John Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] Creator/AbbottAndCostello (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\
11th Jan '16 12:20:49 PM JohnPrestwick
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* '''Sir Edmund Barton''' (Protectionist Party) was Australia's first prime minister, from 1901 to 1903. A key member of the Federation movement in the 1890's, he was conservative, rich and racist -- the first law his government passed was the foundation of the White Australia Policy, which effectively banned non-white people from immigrating to Australia. Media nickname "Toby Tosspot", owing to his fondness of long dinners and [[TheAlcoholic the bottle]]. He actually didn't really achieve much as Prime Minister at all, as the main focus of the inaugural government was to organise the country's first federal elections - which the Protectonists ended up winning with support from the Labour Party. One thing the Barton Goverment did achieve was to give women the right to vote - which happened in 1902. Resigned to become one of the founding High Court judges. He was a pretty so-so High Court Judge too, and acted much the same way as he did as Prime Minister. Died in 1920.

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* '''Sir Edmund '''Edmund Barton''' (Protectionist Party) was Australia's first prime minister, from 1901 to 1903. A key member of the Federation movement in the 1890's, he was conservative, rich and racist -- the first law his government passed was the foundation of the White Australia Policy, which effectively banned non-white people from immigrating to Australia. Media nickname "Toby Tosspot", owing to his fondness of long dinners and [[TheAlcoholic the bottle]]. He actually didn't really achieve much as Prime Minister at all, as the main focus of the inaugural government was to organise the country's first federal elections - which the Protectonists ended up winning with support from the Labour Party. One thing the Barton Goverment did achieve was to give women the right to vote - which happened in 1902. Resigned to become one of the founding High Court judges. He was a pretty so-so High Court Judge too, and acted much the same way as he did as Prime Minister. Died in 1920.



* '''John Christian Watson''' (Labour Party), Prime Minister for four months in 1904 after Deakin's resignation. He was the ALP's first ever Prime Minister, at 37 the youngest person ever to hold the Prime Ministership, and the first Prime Minister to come from a Labour Party in the entire world... but he couldn't really achieve much in his brief tenure, generally having more success in wringing concessions out of Protectionist Party governments. He suffered the same problem that Deakin had due to the three major parties having about equal power, so couldn't accomplish much more than passing supply bills - though it is generally agreed that had it not been for these circumstances, he would have made a fine Prime Minister. When he couldn't persuade the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament and call an early election, he resigned as PM. Continued on as Labour leader until resigning in 1907 in favour of Andrew Fisher due to his wife's ill health. Was regarded as a moderate and pragmatist, and later in life defected to the Nationalist Party after being expelled from the Labor Party along with Billy Hughes and several others in 1916. Also noteworthy for having become Prime Minister without being an Australian citizen or even a British (Empire) subject: he was born in Valparaíso (Chile) to a German-Chilean father and a New Zealander mother, and was never naturalised. Died in 1941.

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* '''John Christian '''Chris Watson''' (Labour Party), Prime Minister for four months in 1904 after Deakin's resignation. He was the ALP's first ever Prime Minister, at 37 the youngest person ever to hold the Prime Ministership, and the first Prime Minister to come from a Labour Party in the entire world... but he couldn't really achieve much in his brief tenure, generally having more success in wringing concessions out of Protectionist Party governments. He suffered the same problem that Deakin had due to the three major parties having about equal power, so couldn't accomplish much more than passing supply bills - though it is generally agreed that had it not been for these circumstances, he would have made a fine Prime Minister. When he couldn't persuade the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament and call an early election, he resigned as PM. Continued on as Labour leader until resigning in 1907 in favour of Andrew Fisher due to his wife's ill health. Was regarded as a moderate and pragmatist, and later in life defected to the Nationalist Party after being expelled from the Labor Party along with Billy Hughes and several others in 1916. Also noteworthy for having become Prime Minister without being an Australian citizen or even a British (Empire) subject: he was born in Valparaíso (Chile) to a German-Chilean father and a New Zealander mother, and was never naturalised. Died in 1941.



* '''Sir George Houstoun Reid''' (Free Trade Party), Prime Minister 1904-1905. He was the earliest-born of all Prime Ministers (in 1845) and the only Free Trade Prime Minister. In the event, he accomplished very little as PM, like Watson and Deakin before him. Aware that he would only be able to serve for a brief period of time, he waited until the unofficial Protectionist-Labour alliance was re-established which they did in July 1905, at which point he stepped down from the Prime Ministership gracefully. He spent a much longer period of time as Leader of the Opposition. Also served as Premier of New South Wales during the 1890's, where he is generally considered to have been more effective than as PM. Changed the name of the Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906 in order to remain relevant and to differentiate themselves from the other major parties. Opposed the idea of The Fusion, Reid stepped down as the Anti-Socialist leader in 1908 in favour of Joseph Cook, and retired from Parliament the following year. Later became Australia's first High Commissioner in London, where he proved to be extremely popular. As a result, he ended up joining the House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party, and served until his death in 1918 - the first former Prime Minister to die.

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* '''Sir George Houstoun '''George Reid''' (Free Trade Party), Prime Minister 1904-1905. He was the earliest-born of all Prime Ministers (in 1845) and the only Free Trade Prime Minister. In the event, he accomplished very little as PM, like Watson and Deakin before him. Aware that he would only be able to serve for a brief period of time, he waited until the unofficial Protectionist-Labour alliance was re-established which they did in July 1905, at which point he stepped down from the Prime Ministership gracefully. He spent a much longer period of time as Leader of the Opposition. Also served as Premier of New South Wales during the 1890's, where he is generally considered to have been more effective than as PM. Changed the name of the Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906 in order to remain relevant and to differentiate themselves from the other major parties. Opposed the idea of The Fusion, Reid stepped down as the Anti-Socialist leader in 1908 in favour of Joseph Cook, and retired from Parliament the following year. Later became Australia's first High Commissioner in London, where he proved to be extremely popular. As a result, he ended up joining the House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party, and served until his death in 1918 - the first former Prime Minister to die.



* '''Sir Joseph Cook''' (Commonwealth Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1913 to 1914. Former member of the Labour Party who steadily moved to the Right. Understandably fed up with governing with a one-seat majority and a hostile Senate, he obtained a double-dissolution election, the first in Australia's history - right before the outbreak of WorldWarOne. Thrown into an accidental khaki election, Cook and the Commonwealth Liberals ended up losing to Fisher and Labor. Died in 1947.

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* '''Sir Joseph '''Joseph Cook''' (Commonwealth Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1913 to 1914. Former member of the Labour Party who steadily moved to the Right. Understandably fed up with governing with a one-seat majority and a hostile Senate, he obtained a double-dissolution election, the first in Australia's history - right before the outbreak of WorldWarOne. Thrown into an accidental khaki election, Cook and the Commonwealth Liberals ended up losing to Fisher and Labor. Died in 1947.



* '''William Morris Hughes''' (Labor Party, then National Labor Party, then Nationalist Party) succeeded Fisher. The most xenophobic PM Australia has had (Former PM Malcolm Fraser even referred to his politics as 'evil'). He was kicked out of the Labor Party in 1916 over the issue of conscription (which he supported and most of the party didn't), but stayed Prime Minister by merging his small band of expelled supporters into the Commonwealth Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party, which formed the new government and won a huge majority in 1917, although conscription failed to pass in a plebiscite. Hughes was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1919 (but came one seat short of a majority in the House, relying on cross-bencher support), and from 1920 onwards he steadily lost the support of right-wing Nationalists. The 1922 election returned a hung parliament, and the Nationalists formed an official coalition with the new Country Party to stay in government[[note]]the coalition still lasts to this day, now as the Liberal/National Coalition[[/note]] the price of the agreement was that Hughes was forced to resign as Prime Minister, as the Country Party didn't trust him due to his Labor background. Hughes spent his entire career jumping from party to party -- Labor to National Labor to Nationalist to independent to Australian to United Australia to independent to Liberal.[[note]]On one occasion when it was referenced that the Country Party was seemingly the only party he never joined, Hughes commented "No, I had to draw the line somewhere."[[/note]] He sat in Parliament for fifty-one years, a record that has yet to be surpassed. Died in 1952 as the last remaining serving MP from Federation as well as second-last surviving (King O'Malley outliving him by around a year).

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* '''William Morris '''Billy Hughes''' (Labor Party, then National Labor Party, then Nationalist Party) succeeded Fisher. The most xenophobic PM Australia has had (Former PM Malcolm Fraser even referred to his politics as 'evil'). He was kicked out of the Labor Party in 1916 over the issue of conscription (which he supported and most of the party didn't), but stayed Prime Minister by merging his small band of expelled supporters into the Commonwealth Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party, which formed the new government and won a huge majority in 1917, although conscription failed to pass in a plebiscite. Hughes was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1919 (but came one seat short of a majority in the House, relying on cross-bencher support), and from 1920 onwards he steadily lost the support of right-wing Nationalists. The 1922 election returned a hung parliament, and the Nationalists formed an official coalition with the new Country Party to stay in government[[note]]the coalition still lasts to this day, now as the Liberal/National Coalition[[/note]] the price of the agreement was that Hughes was forced to resign as Prime Minister, as the Country Party didn't trust him due to his Labor background. Hughes spent his entire career jumping from party to party -- Labor to National Labor to Nationalist to independent to Australian to United Australia to independent to Liberal.[[note]]On one occasion when it was referenced that the Country Party was seemingly the only party he never joined, Hughes commented "No, I had to draw the line somewhere."[[/note]] He sat in Parliament for fifty-one years, a record that has yet to be surpassed. Died in 1952 as the last remaining serving MP from Federation as well as second-last surviving (King O'Malley outliving him by around a year).



* '''Stanley Melbourne Bruce''' (Nationalist Party), Prime Minister 1922 to 1929. When the Country Party forced Billy Hughes to resign as PM as a price for entering coalition with the Nationalists, Bruce was picked as his replacement. A veteran of the First World War, he was a conservative, stuck-up, condescending bastard who constantly wore an expression of deep disdain for those around him. His major political achievements were his "Men, Money, Markets" policies (increased immigration, increased government spending, more international trade) which had the cumulative result of driving the country to the ground in the Great Depression, thanks to enormous debt and a uniform economy. Bruce ended up being brought down by the man he replaced: in 1929, Hughes and a few other Nationalists crossed the floor on a crucial bill and were expelled from the Nationalists, forcing a federal election -- an election which Bruce not only lost, but in which he became the first sitting Prime Minister to actually lose his own seat in Parliament (The only other sitting Prime Minister who lost his seat so far was John Howard in 2007). He was also infamously known for his irrational hatred of unions and the labour movement in general, and passed extremely harsh strike-breaking laws. Later went on to a distinguished, and highly successful diplomatic career. Died in 1967.
* '''James Henry Scullin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1929 to 1932, and the first Catholic and Redhead PM. Was sworn in two days before the Wall Street Crash, which made his entire tenure as Prime Minister all about the Great Depression. Ended up acting as Treasurer as well after the first one, Ted Theodore, was forced to resign in scandal. Spent the entire second half of 1930 in England begging for a loan; he left James Fenton as acting PM and Joseph Lyons as acting Treasurer, who drastically changed government policy to cut spending while he was away. After returning he tried to reinstate Theodore as Treasurer -- as a result, his party suffered two splits at once: a faction of rightists (who included Fenton and Lyons) thought Theodore was too radical, and defected to the opposition; another faction (known as "Lang Labor", led by Jack Lang) thought Theodore wasn't radical ''enough''. An early election was forced and Scullin lost in landslide. Stayed on as Labor leader until 1935, upon which he stepped down in favour of John Curtin. Became an elder statesman in the Labor Party, whose members often turned to him for advice. Died in 1953.
* '''Joseph Aloysius Lyons''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister 1932 to 1939. Formerly a Labor minister under Scullin, he left the party along with four other [=MP=]s in 1931 -- they combined with the Nationalist Party plus three other independent [=MP=]s to form the United Australia Party (the Liberal Party's immediate predecessor). Is generally remembered favourably, though reviled by the Labor Party as a rat. The first Australian prime minister to die in office, succumbing to a heart attack in April 1939.
* '''Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page''' (Country Party), served as caretaker Prime Minister for nineteen days in April 1939, taking over after Lyons' death. Only served as PM until the United Australia Party, as the dominant party in the Coalition, could elect a new leader -- who turned out to be Robert Menzies, whom Sir Earle hated. Well-known for being strongly against government spending... unless it was directed at rural areas, in which case he was all for it. The third-longest serving federal MP in Australia, after Philip Ruddock (who is still serving) and fellow former PM Billy Hughes. Also the only sitting Prime Minister to have been knighted (several others were also knighted, but only after their times in office). Died in 1961, days after losing his seat in that year's election - apparently never found out the results.
* '''Sir Robert Gordon Menzies''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister on two non-consecutive occasions between 1939 and 1966, and Australia's longest-serving PM. Hugely anti-communist, and massive Britphile -- once proclaimed that Australians were "British to [their] bootstraps", and had ambitions to become Prime Minister of the UK someday (obviously, never fulfilled). He ended up founding the Liberal Party, and is regarded as a founding father of modern Australian conservatism.

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* '''Stanley Melbourne Bruce''' (Nationalist Party), Prime Minister 1922 to 1929. When the Country Party forced Billy Hughes to resign as PM as a price for entering coalition with the Nationalists, Bruce was picked as his replacement. A veteran of the First World War, he was a conservative, stuck-up, condescending bastard who constantly wore an expression of deep disdain for those around him. His major political achievements were his "Men, Money, Markets" policies (increased immigration, increased government spending, more international trade) which had the cumulative result of driving the country to the ground in the Great Depression, thanks to enormous debt and a uniform economy. Bruce ended up being brought down by the man he replaced: in 1929, Hughes and a few other Nationalists crossed the floor on a crucial bill and were expelled from the Nationalists, forcing a federal election -- an election which Bruce not only lost, but in which he became the first sitting Prime Minister to actually lose his own seat in Parliament (The only other sitting Prime Minister who lost his seat so far was John Howard in 2007). He was also infamously known for his irrational hatred of unions and the labour movement in general, and passed extremely harsh strike-breaking laws. Later went on to a distinguished, and highly successful diplomatic career. Died in 1967.
* '''James Henry Scullin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1929 to 1932, and the first Catholic and Redhead PM. Was sworn in two days before the Wall Street Crash, which made his entire tenure as Prime Minister all about the Great Depression. Ended up acting as Treasurer as well after the first one, Ted Theodore, was forced to resign in scandal. Spent the entire second half of 1930 in England begging for a loan; he left James Fenton as acting PM and Joseph Lyons as acting Treasurer, who drastically changed government policy to cut spending while he was away. After returning he tried to reinstate Theodore as Treasurer -- as a result, his party suffered two splits at once: a faction of rightists (who included Fenton and Lyons) thought Theodore was too radical, and defected to the opposition; another faction (known as "Lang Labor", led by Jack Lang) thought Theodore wasn't radical ''enough''. An early election was forced and Scullin lost in landslide. Stayed on as Labor leader until 1935, upon which he stepped down in favour of John Curtin. Became an elder statesman in the Labor Party, whose members often turned to him for advice. Died in 1953.
* '''Joseph Aloysius Lyons''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister 1932 to 1939. Formerly a Labor minister under Scullin, he left the party along with four other [=MP=]s in 1931 -- they combined with the Nationalist Party plus three other independent [=MP=]s to form the United Australia Party (the Liberal Party's immediate predecessor). Is generally remembered favourably, though reviled by the Labor Party as a rat. The first Australian prime minister to die in office, succumbing to a heart attack in April 1939.
* '''Sir Earle Christmas Grafton '''Earle Page''' (Country Party), served as caretaker Prime Minister for nineteen days in April 1939, taking over after Lyons' death. Only served as PM until the United Australia Party, as the dominant party in the Coalition, could elect a new leader -- who turned out to be Robert Menzies, whom Sir Earle hated. Well-known for being strongly against government spending... unless it was directed at rural areas, in which case he was all for it. The third-longest serving federal MP in Australia, after Philip Ruddock (who is still serving) and fellow former PM Billy Hughes. Also the only sitting Prime Minister to have been knighted (several others were also knighted, but only after their times in office). Died in 1961, days after losing his seat in that year's election - apparently never found out the results.
* '''Sir Robert Gordon '''Robert Menzies''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister on two non-consecutive occasions between 1939 and 1966, and Australia's longest-serving PM. Hugely anti-communist, and massive Britphile -- once proclaimed that Australians were "British to [their] bootstraps", and had ambitions to become Prime Minister of the UK someday (obviously, never fulfilled). He ended up founding the Liberal Party, and is regarded as a founding father of modern Australian conservatism.



* '''Sir Arthur William Fadden''' (Country Party), became Prime Minister in 1941 after Menzies' resignation, despite being from the Country Party and not the UAP (mainly because of Hughes's advanced age). He only lasted 40 days before the independents who held the balance of power switched their support to Labor -- which may have been some small consolation to Menzies. Stayed on as the Country Party leader and became Treasurer after the Coalition returned to power, retiring in 1958 to be replaced by John [=McEwen=]. Died in 1973.
* '''John Joseph Curtin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1941 to 1945, and also the first agnostic PM. Led Australia during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and is credited with starting Australia's close alliance with the US. Considered one of our great Prime Ministers, for his war-time leadership, great oratory and general sympathy for the poor guy. Had ill health all through his tenure and ended up being the second Australian Prime Minister to die in office - from heart disease on the eve of victory in the Pacific, in July 1945.
* '''Francis Michael Forde''' (Labor Party), caretaker Prime Minister for seven days in July 1945 after Curtin's death, until losing a ballot for the Labor Leadership to Ben Chifley -- the shortest tenure in the history of the country. Was deputy leader of the Labor Party from 1932 until he lost his seat in 1946. Well remembered for his loyalty to his party, and gave his full support to Chifley. Was also remembered for being the longest-lived Prime Minister (having lived to age 92 years, 194 days) until his record was surpassed by Gough Whitlam in 2009. Died in 1983.
* '''Joseph Benedict Chifley''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1945 to 1949. Became Prime Minister one week after John Curtin died, and was re-elected the following year (defeating former Prime Minister Robert Menzies, the first leader of the Liberal Party). The last truly socialist Prime Minister of Australia, and one of the most influential. Is something of a hero of the Australian left, for introducing a large number of social programs. Ended up suffering a huge backlash in 1948 and 1949 for trying to nationalise the banks and for a crippling coal strike which Menzies exploited to portray Labor as soft on the Communists. Ended up losing to Menzies in a rematch election in December 1949. Died in 1951 shortly after losing the election that year.

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* '''Sir Arthur William '''Arthur Fadden''' (Country Party), became Prime Minister in 1941 after Menzies' resignation, despite being from the Country Party and not the UAP (mainly because of Hughes's advanced age). He only lasted 40 days before the independents who held the balance of power switched their support to Labor -- which may have been some small consolation to Menzies. Stayed on as the Country Party leader and became Treasurer after the Coalition returned to power, retiring in 1958 to be replaced by John [=McEwen=]. Died in 1973.
* '''John Joseph Curtin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1941 to 1945, and also the first agnostic PM. Led Australia during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and is credited with starting Australia's close alliance with the US. Considered one of our great Prime Ministers, for his war-time leadership, great oratory and general sympathy for the poor guy. Had ill health all through his tenure and ended up being the second Australian Prime Minister to die in office - from heart disease on the eve of victory in the Pacific, in July 1945.
* '''Francis Michael Forde''' (Labor Party), caretaker Prime Minister for seven days in July 1945 after Curtin's death, until losing a ballot for the Labor Leadership to Ben Chifley -- the shortest tenure in the history of the country. Was deputy leader of the Labor Party from 1932 until he lost his seat in 1946. Well remembered for his loyalty to his party, and gave his full support to Chifley. Was also remembered for being the longest-lived Prime Minister (having lived to age 92 years, 194 days) until his record was surpassed by Gough Whitlam in 2009. Died in 1983.
* '''Joseph Benedict '''Ben Chifley''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1945 to 1949. Became Prime Minister one week after John Curtin died, and was re-elected the following year (defeating former Prime Minister Robert Menzies, the first leader of the Liberal Party). The last truly socialist Prime Minister of Australia, and one of the most influential. Is something of a hero of the Australian left, for introducing a large number of social programs. Ended up suffering a huge backlash in 1948 and 1949 for trying to nationalise the banks and for a crippling coal strike which Menzies exploited to portray Labor as soft on the Communists. Ended up losing to Menzies in a rematch election in December 1949. Died in 1951 shortly after losing the election that year.



* '''Sir Robert Gordon Menzies''' again (Liberal Party), for a ''long'' time this time.

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* '''Sir Robert Gordon '''Robert Menzies''' again (Liberal Party), for a ''long'' time this time.



* '''Harold Edward Holt''' (Liberal Party) -- Prime Minister from 1966 to 1967, taking over after Menzies' retirement and winning re-election later that year. Didn't make much of a mark during his relatively short tenure: he was mainly known for winning the largest victory at an election during the Coalition rule in 1966, being a strong supporter of the Vietnam War (which was popular at the time), expanding Australia's troop commitment and coming up with the quote "All the way with [[UsefulNotes/LyndonJohnson LBJ]]." Holt and his successors were less conservative than Menzies, and began to further ease restrictions on Asians and other non-White people, and drop the inter-changeability of 'British' and 'Australian'. What Holt is most famous for nowadays is how he died -- or rather, how he [[NeverFoundTheBody disappeared without a trace]]. One day in December 1967, after a few drinks and a tough day at the office, Harold Holt plunged into the surf at Portsea to impress a woman generally considered his mistress, and was never seen again.

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* '''Harold Edward Holt''' (Liberal Party) -- Prime Minister from 1966 to 1967, taking over after Menzies' retirement and winning re-election later that year. Didn't make much of a mark during his relatively short tenure: he was mainly known for winning the largest victory at an election during the Coalition rule in 1966, being a strong supporter of the Vietnam War (which was popular at the time), expanding Australia's troop commitment and coming up with the quote "All the way with [[UsefulNotes/LyndonJohnson LBJ]]." Holt and his successors were less conservative than Menzies, and began to further ease restrictions on Asians and other non-White people, and drop the inter-changeability of 'British' and 'Australian'. What Holt is most famous for nowadays is how he died -- or rather, how he [[NeverFoundTheBody disappeared without a trace]]. One day in December 1967, after a few drinks and a tough day at the office, Harold Holt plunged into the surf at Portsea to impress a woman generally considered his mistress, and was never seen again.



* '''Sir John [=McEwen=]''' (Country Party), caretaker Prime Minister after Holt's disappearance from 1967 to 1968... well, actually it was only 23 days, but it lasted over the New Year. [=McEwen=] was leader of the Country Party[[note]]and is still remembered fondly by Nationals supporters for his tenure as leader to this day[[/note]]. It was expected that the Liberals' deputy leader William [=McMahon=] would take over as PM in short order -- but [=McEwen=], who hated [=McMahon=], officially said "No way in hell" and refused to let [=McMahon=]'s candidacy even be considered, throwing the Coalition into crisis. The job inevitably went to the newly-elected Liberal leader John Gorton, who then made [=McEwen=] the first official Deputy Prime Minister. Retired in 1971, with Doug Anthony replacing him as Country leader. Interestingly, he is the only Prime Minister to have committed suicide, starving himself to death in 1980.
* '''Sir John Grey Gorton''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1968 to 1971, and the first openly non-religious PM. Can be best summed up as being Australia's GeraldFord. After Harold Holt disappeared, Gorton was plucked from the Senate to be his permanent replacement, being selected after a lot of factional in-fighting within the Coalition over who'd take over. Described by John Howard as a "Tory Larrikin" and "Australian to the boot-heels", Gorton was a proud nationalist who fought as a fighter pilot in WorldWarTwo and was severely wounded several times (his face literally bearing the scars of war). He single-handedly revitalised the Australian film industry, and gave vital government support to the arts. Gorton ended up losing much of his initial popularity (largely due to the rise of Gough Whitlam), just scraping re-election in 1969 (and only then due to DLP preferences), and losing a leadership challenge to William [=McMahon=] 18 months later. Died in 2002.

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* '''Sir John '''John [=McEwen=]''' (Country Party), caretaker Prime Minister after Holt's disappearance from 1967 to 1968... well, actually it was only 23 days, but it lasted over the New Year. [=McEwen=] was leader of the Country Party[[note]]and is still remembered fondly by Nationals supporters for his tenure as leader to this day[[/note]]. It was expected that the Liberals' deputy leader William [=McMahon=] would take over as PM in short order -- but [=McEwen=], who hated [=McMahon=], officially said "No way in hell" and refused to let [=McMahon=]'s candidacy even be considered, throwing the Coalition into crisis. The job inevitably went to the newly-elected Liberal leader John Gorton, who then made [=McEwen=] the first official Deputy Prime Minister. Retired in 1971, with Doug Anthony replacing him as Country leader. Interestingly, he is the only Prime Minister to have committed suicide, starving himself to death in 1980.
* '''Sir John Grey '''John Gorton''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1968 to 1971, and the first openly non-religious PM. Can be best summed up as being Australia's GeraldFord. After Harold Holt disappeared, Gorton was plucked from the Senate to be his permanent replacement, being selected after a lot of factional in-fighting within the Coalition over who'd take over. Described by John Howard as a "Tory Larrikin" and "Australian to the boot-heels", Gorton was a proud nationalist who fought as a fighter pilot in WorldWarTwo and was severely wounded several times (his face literally bearing the scars of war). He single-handedly revitalised the Australian film industry, and gave vital government support to the arts. Gorton ended up losing much of his initial popularity (largely due to the rise of Gough Whitlam), just scraping re-election in 1969 (and only then due to DLP preferences), and losing a leadership challenge to William [=McMahon=] 18 months later. Died in 2002.



* '''Sir William [=McMahon=]''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1971 to 1972. After being barred from becoming Prime Minister in 1967 and with an increasingly-unpopular John Gorton in the top job, [=McMahon=] finally seized his chance to become PM after [=McEwen=]'s retirement. Never actually won an election: he became PM through a leadership challenge and lost the election the following year. Billy [=McMahon=] is generally remembered for being the father of actor [[Series/NipTuck Julian [=McMahon=]]], for rumours that he was gay, and for being the guy who lost a federal election to Labor after 23 years in power. Generally considered to be the worst Prime Minister, and disliked by his colleagues and opponents alike. Also known for having the nickname "Billy Big Ears". Died in 1988.

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* '''Sir William '''William [=McMahon=]''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1971 to 1972. After being barred from becoming Prime Minister in 1967 and with an increasingly-unpopular John Gorton in the top job, [=McMahon=] finally seized his chance to become PM after [=McEwen=]'s retirement. Never actually won an election: he became PM through a leadership challenge and lost the election the following year. Billy [=McMahon=] is generally remembered for being the father of actor [[Series/NipTuck Julian [=McMahon=]]], for rumours that he was gay, and for being the guy who lost a federal election to Labor after 23 years in power. Generally considered to be the worst Prime Minister, and disliked by his colleagues and opponents alike. Also known for having the nickname "Billy Big Ears". Died in 1988.



* '''Edward Gough Whitlam''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 1972 to 1975 and longest-lived former PM. Made an astonishing number of reforms during his brief tenure, and [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome completely changed Australia]] as a result. Huge increases in education funding, universal health care, decriminalisation of homosexual acts, withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, abolished conscription, the final and public abandonment of the White Australia Policy, introducing the Racial Discrimination Act, granting Aboriginal land rights, ambitious new cultural policies, urban renewal projects for Australia's impoverished communities, free tertiary education, [[http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gough-whitlam-left-a-long-list-of-achievements-20141021-119cpu.html etc]]. Faced several scandals in government and severe inflation, owing largely to the fact that his ministers (none of whom had ever held government before) wanted to accomplish all their projects as quickly as possible and damn the consequences -- in his own words, "Crash or crash through". In 1975, a hostile senate refused to pass the government supply bill (i.e. the budget) unless an early election was held. Governor-General John Kerr broke the face-off by dismissing the Whitlam Government and appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser as caretaker PM. Though Whitlam advised supporters to "maintain the rage", Fraser won the election by a landslide a month later. The left idolises Whitlam for his reforms (and despises John Kerr), while the right hates him with a passion. Not only did he live to the longest age (98 years) but he was the last Australian Prime Minister whose lifespan overlapped with that of every other PM to date. Died in 2014.

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* '''Edward Gough '''Gough Whitlam''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 1972 to 1975 and longest-lived former PM. Made an astonishing number of reforms during his brief tenure, and [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome completely changed Australia]] as a result. Huge increases in education funding, universal health care, decriminalisation of homosexual acts, withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, abolished conscription, the final and public abandonment of the White Australia Policy, introducing the Racial Discrimination Act, granting Aboriginal land rights, ambitious new cultural policies, urban renewal projects for Australia's impoverished communities, free tertiary education, [[http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gough-whitlam-left-a-long-list-of-achievements-20141021-119cpu.html etc]]. Faced several scandals in government and severe inflation, owing largely to the fact that his ministers (none of whom had ever held government before) wanted to accomplish all their projects as quickly as possible and damn the consequences -- in his own words, "Crash or crash through". In 1975, a hostile senate refused to pass the government supply bill (i.e. the budget) unless an early election was held. Governor-General John Kerr broke the face-off by dismissing the Whitlam Government and appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser as caretaker PM. Though Whitlam advised supporters to "maintain the rage", Fraser won the election by a landslide a month later. The left idolises Whitlam for his reforms (and despises John Kerr), while the right hates him with a passion. Not only did he live to the longest age (98 years) but he was the last Australian Prime Minister whose lifespan overlapped with that of every other PM to date. Died in 2014.



* '''John Malcolm Fraser''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1975 to 1983. Instrumental in bringing down ''two'' Prime Ministers - Gorton and Whitlam. Won the 1975 election against Whitlam after getting media support from Rupert Murdoch's papers, economic problems, the numerous scandals by Whitlam government ministers, and giving the reassurance that, unlike Gough, you could trust him not to change too much too quickly. His time as PM isn't approved of by the left or right -- the left revile him for his role in "The Dismissal", while the right regard his government as a wasted opportunity because he wasn't enough like MargaretThatcher. After being voted out of office he gradually became estranged from the Liberal Party, eventually leaving them altogether in 2009 when Tony Abbott became the Liberal Leader (saying that the Liberal Party was "no longer a liberal party but a conservative party"), and patched things up with Gough (the two campaigned together in support of a republic for the 1999 referendum). Died in 2015.

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* '''John Malcolm '''Malcolm Fraser''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1975 to 1983. Instrumental in bringing down ''two'' Prime Ministers - Gorton and Whitlam. Won the 1975 election against Whitlam after getting media support from Rupert Murdoch's papers, economic problems, the numerous scandals by Whitlam government ministers, and giving the reassurance that, unlike Gough, you could trust him not to change too much too quickly. His time as PM isn't approved of by the left or right -- the left revile him for his role in "The Dismissal", while the right regard his government as a wasted opportunity because he wasn't enough like MargaretThatcher. After being voted out of office he gradually became estranged from the Liberal Party, eventually leaving them altogether in 2009 when Tony Abbott became the Liberal Leader (saying that the Liberal Party was "no longer a liberal party but a conservative party"), and patched things up with Gough (the two campaigned together in support of a republic for the 1999 referendum). Died in 2015.



* '''Robert James Lee Hawke''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1983 to 1991, elected with a landslide majority less than a month after becoming Labor leader. Famous for his blokeiness: he held the world record for drinking an entire yard glass of beer (eleven seconds, during his days at [[{{Oxbridge}} Oxford]]), and after Australia's win in the 1983 America's Cup he proclaimed "Any boss who sacks a bloke because he doesn't turn up for work today is a bum!" After decades of almost unbroken defeats, Hawke developed an innovative new strategy for the Labor Party: be the Liberal Party instead. Hawke (or more precisely, treasurer Paul Keating) actually presided over the most extensive and thorough regime of deregulation and privatisation the Australian economy has ever seen, before or since. Even centrist and leftist academic economists accept the benefits brought by his reforms, and these were combined with the establishment of Medicare (Fraser having previously watered down Whitlam's universal healthcare program), increased funding for schools, public housing, welfare funds, and the introduction of occupational superannuation. Defeated in a leadership challenge by Keating in 1991. Currently the oldest-living former Prime Minister.
* '''Paul John Keating''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1991 to 1996. Is remembered for being PM during the "recession we had to have", in his words, and for making the Redfern speech. Despite low popularity he won the "unwinnable" 1993 election often attributed to his small-l liberal Liberal (told you it was confusing) opponent Dr John Hewson being unable to explain the GST in layman's terms on national television, but lost the 1996 election due to John Howard taking out the lower-middle-class support base -- "Howard's battlers". His time as PM polarises people to this day, though most agree that he was one of Australia's greatest treasurers when he served under Hawke. Has the honour of being the only Australian Prime Minister to have a musical dedicated to him: ''Theatre/KeatingTheMusical''. Like Menzies and Whitlam, Keating is also notorious for his zingers - a good sampling appears on the page for the aforementioned musical.
* '''John Winston Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\

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* '''Robert James Lee '''Bob Hawke''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1983 to 1991, elected with a landslide majority less than a month after becoming Labor leader. Famous for his blokeiness: he held the world record for drinking an entire yard glass of beer (eleven seconds, during his days at [[{{Oxbridge}} Oxford]]), and after Australia's win in the 1983 America's Cup he proclaimed "Any boss who sacks a bloke because he doesn't turn up for work today is a bum!" After decades of almost unbroken defeats, Hawke developed an innovative new strategy for the Labor Party: be the Liberal Party instead. Hawke (or more precisely, treasurer Paul Keating) actually presided over the most extensive and thorough regime of deregulation and privatisation the Australian economy has ever seen, before or since. Even centrist and leftist academic economists accept the benefits brought by his reforms, and these were combined with the establishment of Medicare (Fraser having previously watered down Whitlam's universal healthcare program), increased funding for schools, public housing, welfare funds, and the introduction of occupational superannuation. Defeated in a leadership challenge by Keating in 1991. Currently the oldest-living former Prime Minister.
* '''Paul John Keating''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1991 to 1996. Is remembered for being PM during the "recession we had to have", in his words, and for making the Redfern speech. Despite low popularity he won the "unwinnable" 1993 election often attributed to his small-l liberal Liberal (told you it was confusing) opponent Dr John Hewson being unable to explain the GST in layman's terms on national television, but lost the 1996 election due to John Howard taking out the lower-middle-class support base -- "Howard's battlers". His time as PM polarises people to this day, though most agree that he was one of Australia's greatest treasurers when he served under Hawke. Has the honour of being the only Australian Prime Minister to have a musical dedicated to him: ''Theatre/KeatingTheMusical''. Like Menzies and Whitlam, Keating is also notorious for his zingers - a good sampling appears on the page for the aforementioned musical.
* '''John Winston Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\



* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' (Labor Party), a.k.a. "Kevin07", "Kevin24/7", "Kevvie" or "K-Rudd"[[note]]the first was his own campaign slogan; the rest are nicknames[[/note]], Prime Minister 2007 to 2010. Looks a lot like an overgrown schoolboy, speaks Mandarin. Presented himself as a moderate fiscal conservative. His Prime Ministership involved successfully guiding Australia through the recession, making the first official apology to Indigenous Australians, and abolishing overseas detention centres for asylum seekers [[note]]and instead processing refugees on Australian soil[[/note]]. Failed attempts at reform include a 40% profit tax on mining companies and a draconian attempt to set up a [[CulturePolice mandatory internet filter]]. He's in about as many rap songs as John Howard, usually in reference to replacing him. \\

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* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' (Labor Party), a.k.a. "Kevin07", "Kevin24/7", "Kevvie" or "K-Rudd"[[note]]the first was his own campaign slogan; the rest are nicknames[[/note]], Prime Minister 2007 to 2010. Looks a lot like an overgrown schoolboy, speaks Mandarin. Presented himself as a moderate fiscal conservative. His Prime Ministership involved successfully guiding Australia through the recession, making the first official apology to Indigenous Australians, and abolishing overseas detention centres for asylum seekers [[note]]and instead processing refugees on Australian soil[[/note]]. Failed attempts at reform include a 40% profit tax on mining companies and a draconian attempt to set up a [[CulturePolice mandatory internet filter]]. He's in about as many rap songs as John Howard, usually in reference to replacing him. \\



* '''Julia Eileen Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters]] that led to a decline in the polls. Rudd quit the cabinet after failing to defeat her in a leadership challenge in February 2012, before he finally succeeded in June 2013.\\

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* '''Julia Eileen Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters]] that led to a decline in the polls. Rudd quit the cabinet after failing to defeat her in a leadership challenge in February 2012, before he finally succeeded in June 2013.\\



* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, before his party was defeated. His most noteworthy action during this time was to become the first PM to support gay marriage.
* '''Anthony John Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[{{Irony}} many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\

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* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, before his party was defeated. His most noteworthy action during this time was to become the first PM to support gay marriage.
* '''Anthony John '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[{{Irony}} many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\



* '''Malcolm Bligh Turnbull''' (Liberal Party), as of September 14 2015. When things were getting ''really bad'' for the government, Turnbull finally stepped in and ousted Abbott in a quick and relatively bloodless contest that was over by midnight the day he announced it, with Julie Bishop supporting him as deputy leader of the Liberals. While it is still early days on Turnbull's leadership, the coup was cathartic for the left-wing and anyone else who disliked Abbott's tenure, and a nightmare for the hard right, to say the least.

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* '''Malcolm Bligh Turnbull''' (Liberal Party), as of since 14 September 14 2015. When things were getting ''really bad'' for the government, Turnbull finally stepped in and ousted Abbott in a quick and relatively bloodless contest that was over by midnight the day he announced it, with Julie Bishop supporting him as deputy leader of the Liberals. While it is still early days on Turnbull's leadership, the coup was cathartic for largely welcomed by the left-wing and anyone else who disliked Abbott's tenure, and Australian public, although it was a nightmare for the hard right, to say the least.
least. For the left, it's a mixed blessing: Turnbull is more moderate than Abbott, but probably harder to beat at the next federal election, which is expected in late 2016.
1st Jan '16 4:08:41 AM bluesno1fann
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* '''Edmund Barton''' (Protectionist Party) was Australia's first prime minister, from 1901 to 1903. A key member of the Federation movement in the 1890's, he was conservative, rich and racist -- the first law his government passed was the foundation of the White Australia Policy, which effectively banned non-white people from immigrating to Australia. Media nickname "Toby Tosspot", owing to his fondness of long dinners and [[TheAlcoholic the bottle]]. He actually didn't really achieve much as Prime Minister at all, as the main focus of the inaugural government was to organise the country's first federal elections - which the Protectonists ended up winning with support from the Labour Party. One thing the Barton Goverment did achieve was to give women the right to vote - which happened in 1902. Resigned to become one of the founding High Court judges. He was a pretty so-so High Court Judge too, and acted much the same way as he did as Prime Minister. Died in 1920.

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* '''Edmund '''Sir Edmund Barton''' (Protectionist Party) was Australia's first prime minister, from 1901 to 1903. A key member of the Federation movement in the 1890's, he was conservative, rich and racist -- the first law his government passed was the foundation of the White Australia Policy, which effectively banned non-white people from immigrating to Australia. Media nickname "Toby Tosspot", owing to his fondness of long dinners and [[TheAlcoholic the bottle]]. He actually didn't really achieve much as Prime Minister at all, as the main focus of the inaugural government was to organise the country's first federal elections - which the Protectonists ended up winning with support from the Labour Party. One thing the Barton Goverment did achieve was to give women the right to vote - which happened in 1902. Resigned to become one of the founding High Court judges. He was a pretty so-so High Court Judge too, and acted much the same way as he did as Prime Minister. Died in 1920.



* '''Chris Watson''' (Labour Party), Prime Minister for four months in 1904 after Deakin's resignation. He was the ALP's first ever Prime Minister, at 37 the youngest person ever to hold the Prime Ministership, and the first Prime Minister to come from a Labour Party in the entire world... but he couldn't really achieve much in his brief tenure, generally having more success in wringing concessions out of Protectionist Party governments. He suffered the same problem that Deakin had due to the three major parties having about equal power, so couldn't accomplish much more than passing supply bills - though it is generally agreed that had it not been for these circumstances, he would have made a fine Prime Minister. When he couldn't persuade the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament and call an early election, he resigned as PM. Continued on as Labour leader until resigning in 1907 in favour of Andrew Fisher due to his wife's ill health. Was regarded as a moderate and pragmatist, and later in life defected to the Nationalist Party after being expelled from the Labor Party along with Billy Hughes and several others in 1916. Also noteworthy for having become Prime Minister without being an Australian citizen or even a British (Empire) subject: he was born in Valparaíso (Chile) to a German-Chilean father and a New Zealander mother, and was never naturalised. Died in 1941.

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* '''Chris '''John Christian Watson''' (Labour Party), Prime Minister for four months in 1904 after Deakin's resignation. He was the ALP's first ever Prime Minister, at 37 the youngest person ever to hold the Prime Ministership, and the first Prime Minister to come from a Labour Party in the entire world... but he couldn't really achieve much in his brief tenure, generally having more success in wringing concessions out of Protectionist Party governments. He suffered the same problem that Deakin had due to the three major parties having about equal power, so couldn't accomplish much more than passing supply bills - though it is generally agreed that had it not been for these circumstances, he would have made a fine Prime Minister. When he couldn't persuade the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament and call an early election, he resigned as PM. Continued on as Labour leader until resigning in 1907 in favour of Andrew Fisher due to his wife's ill health. Was regarded as a moderate and pragmatist, and later in life defected to the Nationalist Party after being expelled from the Labor Party along with Billy Hughes and several others in 1916. Also noteworthy for having become Prime Minister without being an Australian citizen or even a British (Empire) subject: he was born in Valparaíso (Chile) to a German-Chilean father and a New Zealander mother, and was never naturalised. Died in 1941.



* '''George Reid''' (Free Trade Party), Prime Minister 1904-1905. He was the earliest-born of all Prime Ministers (in 1845) and the only Free Trade Prime Minister. In the event, he accomplished very little as PM, like Watson and Deakin before him. Aware that he would only be able to serve for a brief period of time, he waited until the unofficial Protectionist-Labour alliance was re-established which they did in July 1905, at which point he stepped down from the Prime Ministership gracefully. He spent a much longer period of time as Leader of the Opposition. Also served as Premier of New South Wales during the 1890's, where he is generally considered to have been more effective than as PM. Changed the name of the Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906 in order to remain relevant and to differentiate themselves from the other major parties. Opposed the idea of The Fusion, Reid stepped down as the Anti-Socialist leader in 1908 in favour of Joseph Cook, and retired from Parliament the following year. Later became Australia's first High Commissioner in London, where he proved to be extremely popular. As a result, he ended up joining the House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party, and served until his death in 1918 - the first former Prime Minister to die.

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* '''George '''Sir George Houstoun Reid''' (Free Trade Party), Prime Minister 1904-1905. He was the earliest-born of all Prime Ministers (in 1845) and the only Free Trade Prime Minister. In the event, he accomplished very little as PM, like Watson and Deakin before him. Aware that he would only be able to serve for a brief period of time, he waited until the unofficial Protectionist-Labour alliance was re-established which they did in July 1905, at which point he stepped down from the Prime Ministership gracefully. He spent a much longer period of time as Leader of the Opposition. Also served as Premier of New South Wales during the 1890's, where he is generally considered to have been more effective than as PM. Changed the name of the Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906 in order to remain relevant and to differentiate themselves from the other major parties. Opposed the idea of The Fusion, Reid stepped down as the Anti-Socialist leader in 1908 in favour of Joseph Cook, and retired from Parliament the following year. Later became Australia's first High Commissioner in London, where he proved to be extremely popular. As a result, he ended up joining the House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party, and served until his death in 1918 - the first former Prime Minister to die.



* '''Joseph Cook''' (Commonwealth Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1913 to 1914. Former member of the Labour Party who steadily moved to the Right. Understandably fed up with governing with a one-seat majority and a hostile Senate, he obtained a double-dissolution election, the first in Australia's history - right before the outbreak of WorldWarOne. Thrown into an accidental khaki election, Cook and the Commonwealth Liberals ended up losing to Fisher and Labor. Died in 1947.

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* '''Joseph '''Sir Joseph Cook''' (Commonwealth Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1913 to 1914. Former member of the Labour Party who steadily moved to the Right. Understandably fed up with governing with a one-seat majority and a hostile Senate, he obtained a double-dissolution election, the first in Australia's history - right before the outbreak of WorldWarOne. Thrown into an accidental khaki election, Cook and the Commonwealth Liberals ended up losing to Fisher and Labor. Died in 1947.



* '''Billy Hughes''' (Labor Party, then National Labor Party, then Nationalist Party) succeeded Fisher. The most xenophobic PM Australia has had (Former PM Malcolm Fraser even referred to his politics as 'evil'). He was kicked out of the Labor Party in 1916 over the issue of conscription (which he supported and most of the party didn't), but stayed Prime Minister by merging his small band of expelled supporters into the Commonwealth Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party, which formed the new government and won a huge majority in 1917, although conscription failed to pass in a plebiscite. Hughes was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1919 (but came one seat short of a majority in the House, relying on cross-bencher support), and from 1920 onwards he steadily lost the support of right-wing Nationalists. The 1922 election returned a hung parliament, and the Nationalists formed an official coalition with the new Country Party to stay in government[[note]]the coalition still lasts to this day, now as the Liberal/National Coalition[[/note]] the price of the agreement was that Hughes was forced to resign as Prime Minister, as the Country Party didn't trust him due to his Labor background. Hughes spent his entire career jumping from party to party -- Labor to National Labor to Nationalist to independent to Australian to United Australia to independent to Liberal.[[note]]On one occasion when it was referenced that the Country Party was seemingly the only party he never joined, Hughes commented "No, I had to draw the line somewhere."[[/note]] He sat in Parliament for fifty-one years, a record that has yet to be surpassed. Died in 1952 as the last remaining serving MP from Federation as well as second-last surviving (King O'Malley outliving him by around a year).

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* '''Billy '''William Morris Hughes''' (Labor Party, then National Labor Party, then Nationalist Party) succeeded Fisher. The most xenophobic PM Australia has had (Former PM Malcolm Fraser even referred to his politics as 'evil'). He was kicked out of the Labor Party in 1916 over the issue of conscription (which he supported and most of the party didn't), but stayed Prime Minister by merging his small band of expelled supporters into the Commonwealth Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party, which formed the new government and won a huge majority in 1917, although conscription failed to pass in a plebiscite. Hughes was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1919 (but came one seat short of a majority in the House, relying on cross-bencher support), and from 1920 onwards he steadily lost the support of right-wing Nationalists. The 1922 election returned a hung parliament, and the Nationalists formed an official coalition with the new Country Party to stay in government[[note]]the coalition still lasts to this day, now as the Liberal/National Coalition[[/note]] the price of the agreement was that Hughes was forced to resign as Prime Minister, as the Country Party didn't trust him due to his Labor background. Hughes spent his entire career jumping from party to party -- Labor to National Labor to Nationalist to independent to Australian to United Australia to independent to Liberal.[[note]]On one occasion when it was referenced that the Country Party was seemingly the only party he never joined, Hughes commented "No, I had to draw the line somewhere."[[/note]] He sat in Parliament for fifty-one years, a record that has yet to be surpassed. Died in 1952 as the last remaining serving MP from Federation as well as second-last surviving (King O'Malley outliving him by around a year).



* '''Stanley Bruce''' (Nationalist Party), Prime Minister 1922 to 1929. When the Country Party forced Billy Hughes to resign as PM as a price for entering coalition with the Nationalists, Bruce was picked as his replacement. A veteran of the First World War, he was a conservative, stuck-up, condescending bastard who constantly wore an expression of deep disdain for those around him. His major political achievements were his "Men, Money, Markets" policies (increased immigration, increased government spending, more international trade) which had the cumulative result of driving the country to the ground in the Great Depression, thanks to enormous debt and a uniform economy. Bruce ended up being brought down by the man he replaced: in 1929, Hughes and a few other Nationalists crossed the floor on a crucial bill and were expelled from the Nationalists, forcing a federal election -- an election which Bruce not only lost, but in which he became the first sitting Prime Minister to actually lose his own seat in Parliament (The only other sitting Prime Minister who lost his seat so far was John Howard in 2007). He was also infamously known for his irrational hatred of unions and the labour movement in general, and passed extremely harsh strike-breaking laws. Later went on to a distinguished, and highly successful diplomatic career. Died in 1967.
* '''James Scullin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1929 to 1932, and the first Catholic and Redhead PM. Was sworn in two days before the Wall Street Crash, which made his entire tenure as Prime Minister all about the Great Depression. Ended up acting as Treasurer as well after the first one, Ted Theodore, was forced to resign in scandal. Spent the entire second half of 1930 in England begging for a loan; he left James Fenton as acting PM and Joseph Lyons as acting Treasurer, who drastically changed government policy to cut spending while he was away. After returning he tried to reinstate Theodore as Treasurer -- as a result, his party suffered two splits at once: a faction of rightists (who included Fenton and Lyons) thought Theodore was too radical, and defected to the opposition; another faction (known as "Lang Labor", led by Jack Lang) thought Theodore wasn't radical ''enough''. An early election was forced and Scullin lost in landslide. Stayed on as Labor leader until 1935, upon which he stepped down in favour of John Curtin. Became an elder statesman in the Labor Party, whose members often turned to him for advice. Died in 1953.
* '''Joseph Lyons''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister 1932 to 1939. Formerly a Labor minister under Scullin, he left the party along with four other [=MP=]s in 1931 -- they combined with the Nationalist Party plus three other independent [=MP=]s to form the United Australia Party (the Liberal Party's immediate predecessor). Is generally remembered favourably, though reviled by the Labor Party as a rat. The first Australian prime minister to die in office, succumbing to a heart attack in April 1939.
* '''Sir Earle Page''' (Country Party), served as caretaker Prime Minister for nineteen days in April 1939, taking over after Lyons' death. Only served as PM until the United Australia Party, as the dominant party in the Coalition, could elect a new leader -- who turned out to be Robert Menzies, whom Sir Earle hated. Well-known for being strongly against government spending... unless it was directed at rural areas, in which case he was all for it. The third-longest serving federal MP in Australia, after Philip Ruddock (who is still serving) and fellow former PM Billy Hughes. Also the only sitting Prime Minister to have been knighted (several others were also knighted, but only after their times in office). Died in 1961, days after losing his seat in that year's election - apparently never found out the results.
* '''Robert Menzies''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister on two non-consecutive occasions between 1939 and 1966, and Australia's longest-serving PM. Hugely anti-communist, and massive Britphile -- once proclaimed that Australians were "British to [their] bootstraps", and had ambitions to become Prime Minister of the UK someday (obviously, never fulfilled). He ended up founding the Liberal Party, and is regarded as a founding father of modern Australian conservatism.

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* '''Stanley Melbourne Bruce''' (Nationalist Party), Prime Minister 1922 to 1929. When the Country Party forced Billy Hughes to resign as PM as a price for entering coalition with the Nationalists, Bruce was picked as his replacement. A veteran of the First World War, he was a conservative, stuck-up, condescending bastard who constantly wore an expression of deep disdain for those around him. His major political achievements were his "Men, Money, Markets" policies (increased immigration, increased government spending, more international trade) which had the cumulative result of driving the country to the ground in the Great Depression, thanks to enormous debt and a uniform economy. Bruce ended up being brought down by the man he replaced: in 1929, Hughes and a few other Nationalists crossed the floor on a crucial bill and were expelled from the Nationalists, forcing a federal election -- an election which Bruce not only lost, but in which he became the first sitting Prime Minister to actually lose his own seat in Parliament (The only other sitting Prime Minister who lost his seat so far was John Howard in 2007). He was also infamously known for his irrational hatred of unions and the labour movement in general, and passed extremely harsh strike-breaking laws. Later went on to a distinguished, and highly successful diplomatic career. Died in 1967.
* '''James Henry Scullin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1929 to 1932, and the first Catholic and Redhead PM. Was sworn in two days before the Wall Street Crash, which made his entire tenure as Prime Minister all about the Great Depression. Ended up acting as Treasurer as well after the first one, Ted Theodore, was forced to resign in scandal. Spent the entire second half of 1930 in England begging for a loan; he left James Fenton as acting PM and Joseph Lyons as acting Treasurer, who drastically changed government policy to cut spending while he was away. After returning he tried to reinstate Theodore as Treasurer -- as a result, his party suffered two splits at once: a faction of rightists (who included Fenton and Lyons) thought Theodore was too radical, and defected to the opposition; another faction (known as "Lang Labor", led by Jack Lang) thought Theodore wasn't radical ''enough''. An early election was forced and Scullin lost in landslide. Stayed on as Labor leader until 1935, upon which he stepped down in favour of John Curtin. Became an elder statesman in the Labor Party, whose members often turned to him for advice. Died in 1953.
* '''Joseph Aloysius Lyons''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister 1932 to 1939. Formerly a Labor minister under Scullin, he left the party along with four other [=MP=]s in 1931 -- they combined with the Nationalist Party plus three other independent [=MP=]s to form the United Australia Party (the Liberal Party's immediate predecessor). Is generally remembered favourably, though reviled by the Labor Party as a rat. The first Australian prime minister to die in office, succumbing to a heart attack in April 1939.
* '''Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page''' (Country Party), served as caretaker Prime Minister for nineteen days in April 1939, taking over after Lyons' death. Only served as PM until the United Australia Party, as the dominant party in the Coalition, could elect a new leader -- who turned out to be Robert Menzies, whom Sir Earle hated. Well-known for being strongly against government spending... unless it was directed at rural areas, in which case he was all for it. The third-longest serving federal MP in Australia, after Philip Ruddock (who is still serving) and fellow former PM Billy Hughes. Also the only sitting Prime Minister to have been knighted (several others were also knighted, but only after their times in office). Died in 1961, days after losing his seat in that year's election - apparently never found out the results.
* '''Robert '''Sir Robert Gordon Menzies''' (United Australia Party), Prime Minister on two non-consecutive occasions between 1939 and 1966, and Australia's longest-serving PM. Hugely anti-communist, and massive Britphile -- once proclaimed that Australians were "British to [their] bootstraps", and had ambitions to become Prime Minister of the UK someday (obviously, never fulfilled). He ended up founding the Liberal Party, and is regarded as a founding father of modern Australian conservatism.



* '''Arthur Fadden''' (Country Party), became Prime Minister in 1941 after Menzies' resignation, despite being from the Country Party and not the UAP (mainly because of Hughes's advanced age). He only lasted 40 days before the independents who held the balance of power switched their support to Labor -- which may have been some small consolation to Menzies. Stayed on as the Country Party leader and became Treasurer after the Coalition returned to power, retiring in 1958 to be replaced by John [=McEwen=]. Died in 1973.
* '''John Curtin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1941 to 1945, and also the first agnostic PM. Led Australia during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and is credited with starting Australia's close alliance with the US. Considered one of our great Prime Ministers, for his war-time leadership, great oratory and general sympathy for the poor guy. Had ill health all through his tenure and ended up being the second Australian Prime Minister to die in office - from heart disease on the eve of victory in the Pacific, in July 1945.
* '''Frank Forde''' (Labor Party), caretaker Prime Minister for seven days in July 1945 after Curtin's death, until losing a ballot for the Labor Leadership to Ben Chifley -- the shortest tenure in the history of the country. Was deputy leader of the Labor Party from 1932 until he lost his seat in 1946. Well remembered for his loyalty to his party, and gave his full support to Chifley. Was also remembered for being the longest-lived Prime Minister (having lived to age 92 years, 194 days) until his record was surpassed by Gough Whitlam in 2009. Died in 1983.
* '''Ben Chifley''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1945 to 1949. Became Prime Minister one week after John Curtin died, and was re-elected the following year (defeating former Prime Minister Robert Menzies, the first leader of the Liberal Party). The last truly socialist Prime Minister of Australia, and one of the most influential. Is something of a hero of the Australian left, for introducing a large number of social programs. Ended up suffering a huge backlash in 1948 and 1949 for trying to nationalise the banks and for a crippling coal strike which Menzies exploited to portray Labor as soft on the Communists. Ended up losing to Menzies in a rematch election in December 1949. Died in 1951 shortly after losing the election that year.

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* '''Arthur '''Sir Arthur William Fadden''' (Country Party), became Prime Minister in 1941 after Menzies' resignation, despite being from the Country Party and not the UAP (mainly because of Hughes's advanced age). He only lasted 40 days before the independents who held the balance of power switched their support to Labor -- which may have been some small consolation to Menzies. Stayed on as the Country Party leader and became Treasurer after the Coalition returned to power, retiring in 1958 to be replaced by John [=McEwen=]. Died in 1973.
* '''John Joseph Curtin''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1941 to 1945, and also the first agnostic PM. Led Australia during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and is credited with starting Australia's close alliance with the US. Considered one of our great Prime Ministers, for his war-time leadership, great oratory and general sympathy for the poor guy. Had ill health all through his tenure and ended up being the second Australian Prime Minister to die in office - from heart disease on the eve of victory in the Pacific, in July 1945.
* '''Frank '''Francis Michael Forde''' (Labor Party), caretaker Prime Minister for seven days in July 1945 after Curtin's death, until losing a ballot for the Labor Leadership to Ben Chifley -- the shortest tenure in the history of the country. Was deputy leader of the Labor Party from 1932 until he lost his seat in 1946. Well remembered for his loyalty to his party, and gave his full support to Chifley. Was also remembered for being the longest-lived Prime Minister (having lived to age 92 years, 194 days) until his record was surpassed by Gough Whitlam in 2009. Died in 1983.
* '''Ben '''Joseph Benedict Chifley''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1945 to 1949. Became Prime Minister one week after John Curtin died, and was re-elected the following year (defeating former Prime Minister Robert Menzies, the first leader of the Liberal Party). The last truly socialist Prime Minister of Australia, and one of the most influential. Is something of a hero of the Australian left, for introducing a large number of social programs. Ended up suffering a huge backlash in 1948 and 1949 for trying to nationalise the banks and for a crippling coal strike which Menzies exploited to portray Labor as soft on the Communists. Ended up losing to Menzies in a rematch election in December 1949. Died in 1951 shortly after losing the election that year.



* '''Robert Menzies''' again (Liberal Party), for a ''long'' time this time.

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* '''Robert '''Sir Robert Gordon Menzies''' again (Liberal Party), for a ''long'' time this time.



* '''Harold Holt''' (Liberal Party) -- Prime Minister from 1966 to 1967, taking over after Menzies' retirement and winning re-election later that year. Didn't make much of a mark during his relatively short tenure: he was mainly known for winning the largest victory at an election during the Coalition rule in 1966, being a strong supporter of the Vietnam War (which was popular at the time), expanding Australia's troop commitment and coming up with the quote "All the way with [[UsefulNotes/LyndonJohnson LBJ]]." Holt and his successors were less conservative than Menzies, and began to further ease restrictions on Asians and other non-White people, and drop the inter-changeability of 'British' and 'Australian'. What Holt is most famous for nowadays is how he died -- or rather, how he [[NeverFoundTheBody disappeared without a trace]]. One day in December 1967, after a few drinks and a tough day at the office, Harold Holt plunged into the surf at Portsea to impress a woman generally considered his mistress, and was never seen again.

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* '''Harold Edward Holt''' (Liberal Party) -- Prime Minister from 1966 to 1967, taking over after Menzies' retirement and winning re-election later that year. Didn't make much of a mark during his relatively short tenure: he was mainly known for winning the largest victory at an election during the Coalition rule in 1966, being a strong supporter of the Vietnam War (which was popular at the time), expanding Australia's troop commitment and coming up with the quote "All the way with [[UsefulNotes/LyndonJohnson LBJ]]." Holt and his successors were less conservative than Menzies, and began to further ease restrictions on Asians and other non-White people, and drop the inter-changeability of 'British' and 'Australian'. What Holt is most famous for nowadays is how he died -- or rather, how he [[NeverFoundTheBody disappeared without a trace]]. One day in December 1967, after a few drinks and a tough day at the office, Harold Holt plunged into the surf at Portsea to impress a woman generally considered his mistress, and was never seen again.



* '''John [=McEwen=]''' (Country Party), caretaker Prime Minister after Holt's disappearance from 1967 to 1968... well, actually it was only 23 days, but it lasted over the New Year. [=McEwen=] was leader of the Country Party[[note]]and is still remembered fondly by Nationals supporters for his tenure as leader to this day[[/note]]. It was expected that the Liberals' deputy leader William [=McMahon=] would take over as PM in short order -- but [=McEwen=], who hated [=McMahon=], officially said "No way in hell" and refused to let [=McMahon=]'s candidacy even be considered, throwing the Coalition into crisis. The job inevitably went to the newly-elected Liberal leader John Gorton, who then made [=McEwen=] the first official Deputy Prime Minister. Retired in 1971, with Doug Anthony replacing him as Country leader. Interestingly, he is the only Prime Minister to have committed suicide, starving himself to death in 1980.
* '''John Gorton''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1968 to 1971, and the first openly non-religious PM. Can be best summed up as being Australia's GeraldFord. After Harold Holt disappeared, Gorton was plucked from the Senate to be his permanent replacement, being selected after a lot of factional in-fighting within the Coalition over who'd take over. Described by John Howard as a "Tory Larrikin" and "Australian to the boot-heels", Gorton was a proud nationalist who fought as a fighter pilot in WorldWarTwo and was severely wounded several times (his face literally bearing the scars of war). He single-handedly revitalised the Australian film industry, and gave vital government support to the arts. Gorton ended up losing much of his initial popularity (largely due to the rise of Gough Whitlam), just scraping re-election in 1969 (and only then due to DLP preferences), and losing a leadership challenge to William [=McMahon=] 18 months later. Died in 2002.

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* '''John '''Sir John [=McEwen=]''' (Country Party), caretaker Prime Minister after Holt's disappearance from 1967 to 1968... well, actually it was only 23 days, but it lasted over the New Year. [=McEwen=] was leader of the Country Party[[note]]and is still remembered fondly by Nationals supporters for his tenure as leader to this day[[/note]]. It was expected that the Liberals' deputy leader William [=McMahon=] would take over as PM in short order -- but [=McEwen=], who hated [=McMahon=], officially said "No way in hell" and refused to let [=McMahon=]'s candidacy even be considered, throwing the Coalition into crisis. The job inevitably went to the newly-elected Liberal leader John Gorton, who then made [=McEwen=] the first official Deputy Prime Minister. Retired in 1971, with Doug Anthony replacing him as Country leader. Interestingly, he is the only Prime Minister to have committed suicide, starving himself to death in 1980.
* '''John '''Sir John Grey Gorton''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1968 to 1971, and the first openly non-religious PM. Can be best summed up as being Australia's GeraldFord. After Harold Holt disappeared, Gorton was plucked from the Senate to be his permanent replacement, being selected after a lot of factional in-fighting within the Coalition over who'd take over. Described by John Howard as a "Tory Larrikin" and "Australian to the boot-heels", Gorton was a proud nationalist who fought as a fighter pilot in WorldWarTwo and was severely wounded several times (his face literally bearing the scars of war). He single-handedly revitalised the Australian film industry, and gave vital government support to the arts. Gorton ended up losing much of his initial popularity (largely due to the rise of Gough Whitlam), just scraping re-election in 1969 (and only then due to DLP preferences), and losing a leadership challenge to William [=McMahon=] 18 months later. Died in 2002.



* '''William [=McMahon=]''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1971 to 1972. After being barred from becoming Prime Minister in 1967 and with an increasingly-unpopular John Gorton in the top job, [=McMahon=] finally seized his chance to become PM after [=McEwen=]'s retirement. Never actually won an election: he became PM through a leadership challenge and lost the election the following year. William [=McMahon=] is generally remembered for being the father of actor [[Series/NipTuck Julian [=McMahon=]]], for rumours that he was gay, and for being the guy who lost a federal election to Labor after 23 years in power. Generally considered to be the worst Prime Minister, and disliked by his colleagues and opponents alike. Also known for having the nickname "Billy Big Ears". Died in 1988.

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* '''William '''Sir William [=McMahon=]''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1971 to 1972. After being barred from becoming Prime Minister in 1967 and with an increasingly-unpopular John Gorton in the top job, [=McMahon=] finally seized his chance to become PM after [=McEwen=]'s retirement. Never actually won an election: he became PM through a leadership challenge and lost the election the following year. William Billy [=McMahon=] is generally remembered for being the father of actor [[Series/NipTuck Julian [=McMahon=]]], for rumours that he was gay, and for being the guy who lost a federal election to Labor after 23 years in power. Generally considered to be the worst Prime Minister, and disliked by his colleagues and opponents alike. Also known for having the nickname "Billy Big Ears". Died in 1988.



* '''Gough Whitlam''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 1972 to 1975 and longest-lived former PM. Made an astonishing number of reforms during his brief tenure, and [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome completely changed Australia]] as a result. Huge increases in education funding, universal health care, decriminalisation of homosexual acts, withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, abolished conscription, the final and public abandonment of the White Australia Policy, introducing the Racial Discrimination Act, granting Aboriginal land rights, ambitious new cultural policies, urban renewal projects for Australia's impoverished communities, free tertiary education, [[http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gough-whitlam-left-a-long-list-of-achievements-20141021-119cpu.html etc]]. Faced several scandals in government and severe inflation, owing largely to the fact that his ministers (none of whom had ever held government before) wanted to accomplish all their projects as quickly as possible and damn the consequences -- in his own words, "Crash or crash through". In 1975, a hostile senate refused to pass the government supply bill (i.e. the budget) unless an early election was held. Governor-General John Kerr broke the face-off by dismissing the Whitlam Government and appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser as caretaker PM. Though Whitlam advised supporters to "maintain the rage", Fraser won the election by a landslide a month later. The left idolises Whitlam for his reforms (and despises John Kerr), while the right hates him with a passion. Not only did he live to the longest age (98 years) but he was the last Australian Prime Minister whose lifespan overlapped with that of every other PM to date. Died in 2014.

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* '''Gough '''Edward Gough Whitlam''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 1972 to 1975 and longest-lived former PM. Made an astonishing number of reforms during his brief tenure, and [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome completely changed Australia]] as a result. Huge increases in education funding, universal health care, decriminalisation of homosexual acts, withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, abolished conscription, the final and public abandonment of the White Australia Policy, introducing the Racial Discrimination Act, granting Aboriginal land rights, ambitious new cultural policies, urban renewal projects for Australia's impoverished communities, free tertiary education, [[http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gough-whitlam-left-a-long-list-of-achievements-20141021-119cpu.html etc]]. Faced several scandals in government and severe inflation, owing largely to the fact that his ministers (none of whom had ever held government before) wanted to accomplish all their projects as quickly as possible and damn the consequences -- in his own words, "Crash or crash through". In 1975, a hostile senate refused to pass the government supply bill (i.e. the budget) unless an early election was held. Governor-General John Kerr broke the face-off by dismissing the Whitlam Government and appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser as caretaker PM. Though Whitlam advised supporters to "maintain the rage", Fraser won the election by a landslide a month later. The left idolises Whitlam for his reforms (and despises John Kerr), while the right hates him with a passion. Not only did he live to the longest age (98 years) but he was the last Australian Prime Minister whose lifespan overlapped with that of every other PM to date. Died in 2014.



* '''Malcolm Fraser''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1975 to 1983. Instrumental in bringing down ''two'' Prime Ministers - Gorton and Whitlam. Won the 1975 election against Whitlam after getting media support from Rupert Murdoch's papers, economic problems, the numerous scandals by Whitlam government ministers, and giving the reassurance that, unlike Gough, you could trust him not to change too much too quickly. His time as PM isn't approved of by the left or right -- the left revile him for his role in "The Dismissal", while the right regard his government as a wasted opportunity because he wasn't enough like MargaretThatcher. After being voted out of office he gradually became estranged from the Liberal Party, eventually leaving them altogether in 2009 when Tony Abbott became the Liberal Leader (saying that the Liberal Party was "no longer a liberal party but a conservative party"), and patched things up with Gough (the two campaigned together in support of a republic for the 1999 referendum). Died in 2015.

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* '''Malcolm '''John Malcolm Fraser''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister from 1975 to 1983. Instrumental in bringing down ''two'' Prime Ministers - Gorton and Whitlam. Won the 1975 election against Whitlam after getting media support from Rupert Murdoch's papers, economic problems, the numerous scandals by Whitlam government ministers, and giving the reassurance that, unlike Gough, you could trust him not to change too much too quickly. His time as PM isn't approved of by the left or right -- the left revile him for his role in "The Dismissal", while the right regard his government as a wasted opportunity because he wasn't enough like MargaretThatcher. After being voted out of office he gradually became estranged from the Liberal Party, eventually leaving them altogether in 2009 when Tony Abbott became the Liberal Leader (saying that the Liberal Party was "no longer a liberal party but a conservative party"), and patched things up with Gough (the two campaigned together in support of a republic for the 1999 referendum). Died in 2015.



* '''Bob Hawke''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1983 to 1991, elected with a landslide majority less than a month after becoming Labor leader. Famous for his blokeiness: he held the world record for drinking an entire yard glass of beer (eleven seconds, during his days at [[{{Oxbridge}} Oxford]]), and after Australia's win in the 1983 America's Cup he proclaimed "Any boss who sacks a bloke because he doesn't turn up for work today is a bum!" After decades of almost unbroken defeats, Hawke developed an innovative new strategy for the Labor Party: be the Liberal Party instead. Hawke (or more precisely, treasurer Paul Keating) actually presided over the most extensive and thorough regime of deregulation and privatisation the Australian economy has ever seen, before or since. Even centrist and leftist academic economists accept the benefits brought by his reforms, and these were combined with the establishment of Medicare (Fraser having previously watered down Whitlam's universal healthcare program), increased funding for schools, public housing, welfare funds, and the introduction of occupational superannuation. Defeated in a leadership challenge by Keating in 1991. Currently the oldest-living former Prime Minister.
* '''Paul Keating''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1991 to 1996. Is remembered for being PM during the "recession we had to have", in his words, and for making the Redfern speech. Despite low popularity he won the "unwinnable" 1993 election often attributed to his small-l liberal Liberal (told you it was confusing) opponent Dr John Hewson being unable to explain the GST in layman's terms on national television, but lost the 1996 election due to John Howard taking out the lower-middle-class support base -- "Howard's battlers". His time as PM polarises people to this day, though most agree that he was one of Australia's greatest treasurers when he served under Hawke. Has the honour of being the only Australian Prime Minister to have a musical dedicated to him: ''Theatre/KeatingTheMusical''. Like Menzies and Whitlam, Keating is also notorious for his zingers - a good sampling appears on the page for the aforementioned musical.
* '''John Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\

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* '''Bob '''Robert James Lee Hawke''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1983 to 1991, elected with a landslide majority less than a month after becoming Labor leader. Famous for his blokeiness: he held the world record for drinking an entire yard glass of beer (eleven seconds, during his days at [[{{Oxbridge}} Oxford]]), and after Australia's win in the 1983 America's Cup he proclaimed "Any boss who sacks a bloke because he doesn't turn up for work today is a bum!" After decades of almost unbroken defeats, Hawke developed an innovative new strategy for the Labor Party: be the Liberal Party instead. Hawke (or more precisely, treasurer Paul Keating) actually presided over the most extensive and thorough regime of deregulation and privatisation the Australian economy has ever seen, before or since. Even centrist and leftist academic economists accept the benefits brought by his reforms, and these were combined with the establishment of Medicare (Fraser having previously watered down Whitlam's universal healthcare program), increased funding for schools, public housing, welfare funds, and the introduction of occupational superannuation. Defeated in a leadership challenge by Keating in 1991. Currently the oldest-living former Prime Minister.
* '''Paul John Keating''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister 1991 to 1996. Is remembered for being PM during the "recession we had to have", in his words, and for making the Redfern speech. Despite low popularity he won the "unwinnable" 1993 election often attributed to his small-l liberal Liberal (told you it was confusing) opponent Dr John Hewson being unable to explain the GST in layman's terms on national television, but lost the 1996 election due to John Howard taking out the lower-middle-class support base -- "Howard's battlers". His time as PM polarises people to this day, though most agree that he was one of Australia's greatest treasurers when he served under Hawke. Has the honour of being the only Australian Prime Minister to have a musical dedicated to him: ''Theatre/KeatingTheMusical''. Like Menzies and Whitlam, Keating is also notorious for his zingers - a good sampling appears on the page for the aforementioned musical.
* '''John Winston Howard''' (Liberal Party), Prime Minister 1996 to 2007. Famed for his huge eyebrows and ridiculous voice, loved by political cartoonists everywhere. A friend of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush, Howard instituted the Pacific Solution to deal with asylum seekers which was rather controversial (later dismantled by Rudd, and re-introduced by Gillard). Won a narrow victory (losing the popular vote) in 1998, exploited voters' fears of "illegal" brown people coming to Australia to win the 2001 election, and cruised to a victory in 2004 over the loud-mouthed and slightly unhinged [[AxCrazy Mark Latham]]. Actually had two ministers named [[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello]] (Health minister Tony Abbott and Treasurer Peter Costello, who often give off the vibe of absolutely hating one another). \\



* '''Kevin Rudd''' (Labor Party), a.k.a. "Kevin07", "Kevin24/7", "Kevvie" or "K-Rudd"[[note]]the first was his own campaign slogan; the rest are nicknames[[/note]], Prime Minister 2007 to 2010. Looks a lot like an overgrown schoolboy, speaks Mandarin. Presented himself as a moderate fiscal conservative. His Prime Ministership involved successfully guiding Australia through the recession, making the first official apology to Indigenous Australians, and abolishing overseas detention centres for asylum seekers [[note]]and instead processing refugees on Australian soil[[/note]]. Failed attempts at reform include a 40% profit tax on mining companies and a draconian attempt to set up a [[CulturePolice mandatory internet filter]]. He's in about as many rap songs as John Howard, usually in reference to replacing him. \\

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* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' (Labor Party), a.k.a. "Kevin07", "Kevin24/7", "Kevvie" or "K-Rudd"[[note]]the first was his own campaign slogan; the rest are nicknames[[/note]], Prime Minister 2007 to 2010. Looks a lot like an overgrown schoolboy, speaks Mandarin. Presented himself as a moderate fiscal conservative. His Prime Ministership involved successfully guiding Australia through the recession, making the first official apology to Indigenous Australians, and abolishing overseas detention centres for asylum seekers [[note]]and instead processing refugees on Australian soil[[/note]]. Failed attempts at reform include a 40% profit tax on mining companies and a draconian attempt to set up a [[CulturePolice mandatory internet filter]]. He's in about as many rap songs as John Howard, usually in reference to replacing him. \\



* '''Julia Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters]] that led to a decline in the polls. Rudd quit the cabinet after failing to defeat her in a leadership challenge in February 2012, before he finally succeeded in June 2013.\\

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* '''Julia Eileen Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters]] that led to a decline in the polls. Rudd quit the cabinet after failing to defeat her in a leadership challenge in February 2012, before he finally succeeded in June 2013.\\



* '''Kevin Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, before his party was defeated. His most noteworthy action during this time was to become the first PM to support gay marriage.
* '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[{{Irony}} many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\

to:

* '''Kevin Michael Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, before his party was defeated. His most noteworthy action during this time was to become the first PM to support gay marriage.
* '''Tony '''Anthony John Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[{{Irony}} many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\



* '''Malcolm Turnbull''' (Liberal Party), as of September 14 2015. When things were getting ''really bad'' for the government, Turnbull finally stepped in and ousted Abbott in a quick and relatively bloodless contest that was over by midnight the day he announced it, with Julie Bishop supporting him as deputy leader of the Liberals. While it is still early days on Turnbull's leadership, the coup was cathartic for the left-wing and anyone else who disliked Abbott's tenure, and a nightmare for the hard right, to say the least.

to:

* '''Malcolm Bligh Turnbull''' (Liberal Party), as of September 14 2015. When things were getting ''really bad'' for the government, Turnbull finally stepped in and ousted Abbott in a quick and relatively bloodless contest that was over by midnight the day he announced it, with Julie Bishop supporting him as deputy leader of the Liberals. While it is still early days on Turnbull's leadership, the coup was cathartic for the left-wing and anyone else who disliked Abbott's tenure, and a nightmare for the hard right, to say the least.
2nd Dec '15 4:49:34 AM DoctorNemesis
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After an unpopular budget in 2014, that cut spending Abbott's popularity dropped and never recovered. Conservative even in relation to his own party, Abbott was mocked for being nostalgic for decisions such as reintroducing knighthoods and refusing to let his party members vote on gay marriage. Other controversies included trying to downplay the issue of climate change and (despite trying to fend off accusations of misogyny) appointing just one woman to the cabinet. He fulfilled his promise to abolish the carbon tax, in favour of a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute. In foreign policy, his government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians, and they entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS.\\

to:

After an unpopular budget in 2014, that cut spending Abbott's popularity dropped and never recovered. Conservative even in relation to his own party, Abbott was mocked for being nostalgic for decisions such as reintroducing knighthoods and refusing to let his party members vote on gay marriage. Other controversies included trying to downplay the issue of climate change and (despite trying to fend off accusations of misogyny) appointing just one woman to the cabinet. He fulfilled his promise to abolish the carbon tax, in favour of a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute. He also developed a reputation for being gaffe-prone and for engaging in rather odd and eccentric behaviour. In foreign policy, his government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians, and they entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS.\\
8th Nov '15 8:53:09 PM nombretomado
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** His wife, Sonia, is also remembered for wearing a scandalous (at the time) side-split dress to meet RichardNixon at the White House.

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** His wife, Sonia, is also remembered for wearing a scandalous (at the time) side-split dress to meet RichardNixon UsefulNotes/RichardNixon at the White House.
24th Oct '15 2:58:12 AM tsstevens
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* '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[Irony many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\

to:

* '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the 2013 election resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor government, and [[Irony [[{{Irony}} many voters thought that his would be able to avoid this]].\\
15th Oct '15 11:56:24 AM JohnPrestwick
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Rudd's policy decisions, to use his own words, caused a [[VideoGame/MassEffect2 political shit-storm]] alienating several figures in his party and he was eventually ousted in a leadership challenge on 23-24 June, 2010 (when his own party pulled a Praetorian Guard on him), being replaced by then-Deputy PM Julia Gillard. After the following election, he was appointed to Gillard's Cabinet as the Foreign Minister, but abruptly quit the role in February 2012 under [[WeAreStrugglingTogether some incredibly silly circumstances]].
* '''Julia Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters that led to a decline in the polls. \\

to:

Rudd's policy decisions, to use his own words, caused a [[VideoGame/MassEffect2 political shit-storm]] alienating several figures in his party and he was eventually ousted in a leadership challenge on 23-24 June, 2010 (when his own party pulled a Praetorian Guard on him), being replaced by then-Deputy PM Julia Gillard. After the following election, he was appointed to Gillard's Cabinet as the Foreign Minister, but abruptly quit the role in February 2012 under [[WeAreStrugglingTogether some incredibly silly circumstances]].
Gillard.
* '''Julia Gillard''' (Labor Party), Prime Minister from 2010 to 2013. Australia's first female Prime Minister -- although interestingly, she is not the first atheist [[note]]there's been at least one other (John Gorton) plus three agnostics (John Curtin, Gough Whitlam and Bob Hawke)[[/note]] or the first redhead.[[note]]James Scullin[[/note]] She replaced Kevin Rudd after a leadership challenge and narrowly stayed in power after the 2010 election produced a hung parliament, thanks support of one Greens MP and three independents. She generally been portrayed by satirists, comedians, and the press in general as a backstabber for ousting Rudd (cartoonists also tend to [[GagNose drastically exaggerate her nose]]). Her government was overshadowed by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether infighting between the Rudd and Gillard supporters supporters]] that led to a decline in the polls. Rudd quit the cabinet after failing to defeat her in a leadership challenge in February 2012, before he finally succeeded in June 2013.\\



Gillard's political platform consists of a lot of social conservatism (i.e. reduction in overall immigration, attempts to follow Howard's offshore processing of asylum seekers to avoid 'European-style social unrest', and a stance against gay marriage) but with less economic statism than Rudd tended to advocate. However, she did allow Labor to hold a conscience vote on same-sex marriage, and as a result supporting marriage equality is now part of the party platform (but were prevented from enacting it by Abbott's continuing refusal to allow a conscience vote). In 2012 she made a speech which excoriated Opposition Leader Tony Abbott for his various controversial remarks that she argued are sexist. This was following Abbott's claim that she was supporting a misogynist in parliament, to which she made [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihd7ofrwQX0 this now famous response]].
* '''Kevin Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, after a leadership spill with the vote going 57 his way compared to Julia's 45 - third time's the charm, it seems. Rudd was the first Australian Prime Minister to support gay marriage, having changed his stance since his last stint at the job.
* '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. After just under 4 years as opposition leader, the man once considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand Australian counterpart to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush gets the top job in a resounding victory... Only to have his government's approval ratings plummet immediately after.[[note]]It's fairly agreed on that the election was more about voting Labor ''out'' than voting Abbott ''in'', and the electorate got buyers remorse quickly afterwards.[[/note]] His initial agenda focused on getting rid of the carbon tax[[note]] to replace it with a carbon excise and levy, in other words a tax[[/note]], stopping asylum seeking arriving by boat, stopping the carbon tax, acquiring the controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, [[RuleOfThree removing the carbon tax,]] a fully paid parental scheme, a full abolishing of the carbon tax, more money for roads, [[RunningGag no money for the carbon tax,]] a cheaper though less impressive NBN[[note]]which has ended up being half as effective but twice as expensive than Labor's[[/note]], [[OverlyLongGag and also taking out the carbon tax]]. He really didn't like the carbon tax. \\

to:

Gillard's political platform consists of a lot of policies included some social conservatism (i.e. reduction in overall (such as reducing immigration, attempts to follow Howard's offshore processing of asylum seekers to avoid 'European-style social unrest', and a stance against declining to support gay marriage) marriage until after she left office) but with less economic statism than Rudd tended to advocate. However, she did allow Labor to hold a conscience vote on same-sex marriage, and as a result supporting marriage equality is now part of the party platform (but were prevented from enacting it by Abbott's continuing refusal to allow a conscience vote). In 2012 2012, she made a speech which excoriated the now-famous ''Misogyny speech'' that drew international attention. Opposition Leader Tony Abbott had criticised her for his various controversial remarks that she argued are sexist. This was following Abbott's claim that she was supporting a misogynist in parliament, to which she made defending the scandal-tainted and "misogynist" Speaker Pete Slipper. [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihd7ofrwQX0 this now In her famous response]].
response, Gillard accusing Abbott of being a misogynist himself.]]
* '''Kevin Rudd''' again (Labor Party), for three months in 2013, after a leadership spill with the vote going 57 before his way compared to Julia's 45 - third time's the charm, it seems. Rudd party was defeated. His most noteworthy action during this time was to become the first Australian Prime Minister PM to support gay marriage, having changed his stance since his last stint at the job.
marriage.
* '''Tony Abbott''' (Liberal Party), 2013 to 2015. After just under 4 years as opposition leader, the man once He was initially considered an unelectable budgie-smugglers-wearing Catholic firebrand Australian counterpart to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush gets when he became opposition leader in 2009. Yet Abbott won the top job in a resounding victory... Only to have his government's approval ratings plummet immediately after.[[note]]It's fairly agreed on that the 2013 election was more about voting resoundingly, in part because voters were fed up with the fratricidal Labor ''out'' than voting Abbott ''in'', government, and the electorate got buyers remorse quickly afterwards.[[/note]] His initial agenda focused on getting rid of the carbon tax[[note]] [[Irony many voters thought that his would be able to replace it with a carbon excise and levy, in other words a tax[[/note]], stopping asylum seeking arriving by boat, stopping the carbon tax, acquiring the controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, [[RuleOfThree removing the carbon tax,]] a fully paid parental scheme, a full abolishing of the carbon tax, more money for roads, [[RunningGag no money for the carbon tax,]] a cheaper though less impressive NBN[[note]]which has ended up being half as effective but twice as expensive than Labor's[[/note]], [[OverlyLongGag and also taking out the carbon tax]]. He really didn't like the carbon tax. avoid this]].\\



Abbott's unpopular 2014 budget was largely seen as punishing the poor and middle class in favour of the rich [[note]]Specific controversial policies include: establishing a $7 fee to visit the doctor, deregulation of university funding, cuts to health, education, the ABC and SBS, and requiring the unemployment to be in a work-for-the-dole scheme for six months before being given the dole (ie. unemployment benefits)[[/note]]. Other controversies include Abbott appointing only one female cabinet minister, job losses at Holden and Qantas, increased tensions with Indonesia after Australia was caught spying on the Indonesian president and his wife, and a botched attempt at trying to repeal part of the Racial Discrimination Act which fell apart when Attorney General George Brandis tried to argue that "people have the right to be bigots" [[note]]The repeal was a response to conservative columnist (and Abbott's friend) Andrew Bolt having breached the law. His article arguing 'white' Aborigines claimed to be Aboriginal for special privileges (relying in part on factual errors) was intended to slur people of that racial background (so the court held) in the manner deemed unlawful by the Racial Discrimination Act[[/note]]. The repeal was dropped in favour of stronger counter-terrorism legislation - which has been controversial in and of itself. Regarding foreign policy, however, the government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians. Foreign Minister and Deputy Liberal Leader[[note]]But not Deputy Prime Minister. That would be Warren Truss, the Leader of the National Party (the other party in the Coalition).[[/note]] Julie Bishop has come in for particular praise -- Abbott's only female cabinet minister. Abbott entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS. On the flip-side, however, the government's handling of hosting the G20 conference was seen by many as a complete shambles [[note]]Mainly because 1) the government's attempts at trying to keep climate policies off the agenda only for climate policy changes (mainly the US's surprise emissions mitigation deal with China) to be the only thing to come out of the conference that actually got any attention (UsefulNotes/BarackObama's speech at the University of Queensland being a thinly-veiled critique of the government's climate policies did not help), 2) Abbott's opening speech to the conference was basically him playing up domestic achievements (including removing the carbon tax) and whining about how the senate won't pass his budget measures, resulting in the speech becoming the target of endless mockery both domestically and internationally, and 3) he boasted before the conference to "shirt-front" Vladimir Putin over MH17, which he never went through with[[/note]], and there was talk over possible friction between Bishop (plus other ministers) and Abbott [[note]]partly because of the micro-managing control-freak nature of the Prime Minister's office, especially his chief of staff, Peta Credlin, whom many ministers in the party have criticised (Abbott proceeded to defend her [[{{Hypocrite}} by accusing her critics of misogyny]]), and Bishop's request to go to the Peru climate talks was first denied by the PM's office, when she brought it up again in the party room, her request was accepted only on the condition that another minister accompany her, which reportedly ''completely infuriated'' her[[/note]].\\

to:

After an unpopular budget in 2014, that cut spending Abbott's unpopular 2014 budget popularity dropped and never recovered. Conservative even in relation to his own party, Abbott was largely seen as punishing the poor and middle class in favour of the rich [[note]]Specific controversial policies include: establishing a $7 fee to visit the doctor, deregulation of university funding, cuts to health, education, the ABC and SBS, and requiring the unemployment to be in a work-for-the-dole scheme mocked for six months before being given the dole (ie. unemployment benefits)[[/note]]. nostalgic for decisions such as reintroducing knighthoods and refusing to let his party members vote on gay marriage. Other controversies include Abbott included trying to downplay the issue of climate change and (despite trying to fend off accusations of misogyny) appointing only just one female cabinet minister, job losses at Holden and Qantas, increased tensions with Indonesia after Australia was caught spying on woman to the Indonesian president and cabinet. He fulfilled his wife, and a botched attempt at trying promise to repeal part of abolish the Racial Discrimination Act which fell apart when Attorney General George Brandis tried to argue that "people have the right to be bigots" [[note]]The repeal was a response to conservative columnist (and Abbott's friend) Andrew Bolt having breached the law. His article arguing 'white' Aborigines claimed to be Aboriginal for special privileges (relying in part on factual errors) was intended to slur people of that racial background (so the court held) in the manner deemed unlawful by the Racial Discrimination Act[[/note]]. The repeal was dropped carbon tax, in favour of stronger counter-terrorism legislation - which has been controversial in and of itself. Regarding a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute. In foreign policy, however, the his government received praise for its handling of the downing of Flight [=MH17=], which killed 38 Australians. Foreign Minister Australians, and Deputy Liberal Leader[[note]]But not Deputy Prime Minister. That would be Warren Truss, the Leader of the National Party (the other party in the Coalition).[[/note]] Julie Bishop has come in for particular praise -- Abbott's only female cabinet minister. Abbott they entered Australia into combat operations in Iraq in response to the rise of ISIS. On the flip-side, however, the government's handling of hosting the G20 conference was seen by many as a complete shambles [[note]]Mainly because 1) the government's attempts at trying to keep climate policies off the agenda only for climate policy changes (mainly the US's surprise emissions mitigation deal with China) to be the only thing to come out of the conference that actually got any attention (UsefulNotes/BarackObama's speech at the University of Queensland being a thinly-veiled critique of the government's climate policies did not help), 2) Abbott's opening speech to the conference was basically him playing up domestic achievements (including removing the carbon tax) and whining about how the senate won't pass his budget measures, resulting in the speech becoming the target of endless mockery both domestically and internationally, and 3) he boasted before the conference to "shirt-front" Vladimir Putin over MH17, which he never went through with[[/note]], and there was talk over possible friction between Bishop (plus other ministers) and Abbott [[note]]partly because of the micro-managing control-freak nature of the Prime Minister's office, especially his chief of staff, Peta Credlin, whom many ministers in the party have criticised (Abbott proceeded to defend her [[{{Hypocrite}} by accusing her critics of misogyny]]), and Bishop's request to go to the Peru climate talks was first denied by the PM's office, when she brought it up again in the party room, her request was accepted only on the condition that another minister accompany her, which reportedly ''completely infuriated'' her[[/note]].ISIS.\\



With Abbott and his party's approval ratings still in the toilet after just under two years [[note]]And despite surviving the ''first'' leadership spill attempt where there were no immediate challengers, where about 40% of the party room ''effectively voted for an empty chair'' over Abbot, the supposed near-death experience still didn't change much, as the often-mocked "good government starts today" quote foreshadowed[[/note]], history quickly repeated itself. Abbott was defeated in a leadership challenge by his predecessor (seen below). As he said over Australian deaths in Iraq, shit happens. And the greatest irony of all? He destroyed two prime ministers, but failed to outlast either of them.

to:

With Discontent grew against Abbott and within his party's approval ratings still in the toilet after just under two years [[note]]And despite surviving the ''first'' party, with his subordinates disliking his centralised leadership spill attempt where there were no immediate challengers, where about 40% of and the party room ''effectively voted for an empty chair'' over Abbot, the supposed near-death experience still didn't change much, as the often-mocked "good government starts today" quote foreshadowed[[/note]], history powerful role he gave to his chief of staff Peta Credlin.[[note]](Abbott proceeded to defend her [[{{Hypocrite}} by accusing her critics of misogyny]])[[/note]] History quickly repeated itself. Abbott was defeated in a leadership challenge by his predecessor (seen below). As he said over Australian deaths in Iraq, shit happens. "shit happens." And the greatest irony of all? He destroyed two prime ministers, but failed to outlast either of them.
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