History UsefulNotes / AustralianPolitics

21st Aug '16 6:26:09 AM Doug86
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** Hughes was also instrumental in insisting that the Treaty of Versailles should oblige Germany to pay war reparations, ganging up with French PM Georges Clemenceau to browbeat Lloyd George into backing the measure. Reparations, of course, played a huge part in the collapse of the WeimarRepublic and the rise of Nazism. If only UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson's style had been less HolierThanThou professorial lecturing and more annoying politicking...

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** Hughes was also instrumental in insisting that the Treaty of Versailles should oblige Germany to pay war reparations, ganging up with French PM Georges Clemenceau to browbeat Lloyd George into backing the measure. Reparations, of course, played a huge part in the collapse of the WeimarRepublic UsefulNotes/WeimarRepublic and the rise of Nazism. If only UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson's style had been less HolierThanThou professorial lecturing and more annoying politicking...
9th Aug '16 8:03:59 PM LorienTheYounger
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** How did Hanson win as an independent in 1996? She was a Liberal who was dropped when they realised what she thought. Before the election, but too late to take her off the list.

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** How did Hanson win as an independent in 1996? 1996, in a safe Labor seat? She was a Liberal who was dropped when they realised what she thought. Before the election, but too late to take her off the list.ballot.



** In 2016 they changed the system yet again. Group Voting Tickets were abolished; voting for a group above-the-line became equivalent to ranking the candidates in that group from the top down; and voters no longer needed to rank every Senate candidate. Now, voters must rank a minimum of six groups above-the-line or twelve candidates below-the-line. If all their ranked candidates get eliminated during the count, their vote becomes "exhausted" and from then on is treated as informal.

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** * In 2016 they changed the system yet again. Group Voting Tickets were abolished; voting for a group above-the-line became equivalent to ranking the candidates in that group from the top down; and voters no longer needed to rank every Senate candidate. Now, voters must rank a minimum of six groups above-the-line or twelve candidates below-the-line. If all their ranked candidates get eliminated during the count, their vote becomes "exhausted" and from then on is treated as informal.
9th Aug '16 8:02:47 PM LorienTheYounger
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Australia uses "preferential voting" -- also known as the "Alternative Vote" system in the UK, or as "instant-runoff voting" (which despite initial hopes is not forcing pudgy, middle-aged politicians to sprint). Rather than voting for a singular candidate and have them win through a plurality (i.e. whoever wins the most votes) such as in other countries, Australians are made to vote for their members in order of preference, ranking them 1, 2, 3 and so on. If no one wins a majority (i.e. more than 50%) of #1 votes first off, then whoever got the least number is eliminated and those votes are distributed to whoever the voters ranked as #2 instead -- the process is repeated until someone gets a majority.

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Australia uses "preferential voting" -- also known as "Instant-Runoff Voting" (which disappointingly doesn't involve forcing pudgy middle-aged politicians to sprint) or as the "Alternative Vote" system in the UK, or as "instant-runoff voting" (which despite initial hopes is not forcing pudgy, middle-aged politicians to sprint).UK. Rather than voting for a singular candidate and have them win through a plurality (i.e. whoever wins the most votes) such as in other countries, Australians are made to vote for their members in order of preference, ranking them 1, 2, 3 and so on. If no one wins a majority (i.e. more than 50%) of #1 votes first off, then whoever got the least number is eliminated and those votes are distributed to whoever the voters ranked as #2 instead -- the process is repeated until someone gets a majority.
9th Aug '16 8:00:35 PM LorienTheYounger
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The system is slightly different in the Senate: it's a different preferential voting system called Single Transferrable Vote (STV). Voters still rank their preferred candidates in order but because each state elects six senators in an election, candidates need to win a quota of one-seventh of the total vote to win a seat. (In a double-dissolution election, where all 12 senators per state are elected, the quota is one-thirteenth. In the territories, which have two senators each, it's one-third.) If a candidate gets more than a full quota, the remaining votes are transferred to the next preference and the process repeats. (The transfer is totally proportional, meaning that candidates can get ''fractions'' of votes on preferences.)

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The system is slightly different in the Senate: it's a different preferential voting system called Single Transferrable Vote (STV). Voters still rank their preferred candidates in order but because each state elects six senators in an election, candidates need to win a quota of one-seventh of the total vote to win a seat. (In [[note]]In a double-dissolution election, where all 12 senators per state are elected, up for election at once, the quota is one-thirteenth. In the territories, which have two senators each, it's one-third.) [[/note]] If a candidate gets wins more than a full quota, the remaining votes are transferred to the next preference and the process repeats. (The transfer is totally proportional, meaning that candidates can get ''fractions'' of votes on preferences.)



* Unfortunately the system has it's weaknesses as you have to number ''every single'' candidate (who can number over a hundred) to choose which ones get your preference votes so very few voters do so. Also if you vote the simpler way of labelling a single party for your vote the preference votes are distributed amongst parties according to "preference deals" or agreements between the parties. After the 2013 election it became major issue when a minor candidate who have a tiny amount of votes gained a seat purely through preference deals.

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*
Unfortunately the system has it's weaknesses as you have to number ''every single'' candidate (who can number over a hundred) to choose which ones get your preference votes so very few and in certain high-profile seats that can have over a dozen candidates running, this makes things complicated.
* It used to be worse, when
voters do so. Also if you vote the simpler way of labelling a had to number every single party for your vote candidate on their Senate ballot who could number ''over a hundred''. Even though the preference votes are distributed amongst parties Senate ballot arranged candidates in groups according to party, informal voting was still through the roof.
* So, in the 1980s they introduced Group Voting Tickets, and you could now vote either "above the line" or "below the line". Above the eponymous horizontal line, each group had a single box: voters would just put a 1 in that box and it would be equivalent to ranking all preferences in the predetermined GVT order. Alternatively, below the line you could rank every single candidate in order just like before so naturally over 95% of people stuck to above-the-line voting.
** The trouble was, the party's predetermined preferences as ranked on their Group Voting Ticket often didn't reflect what their supporters actually wanted. Additionally, in the 2000s the minor parties and microparties began banding together to strike
"preference deals" or agreements between deals", where they would all rank each other first regardless of ideology in the parties. After hope that one of them would luck into a Senate seat. Things came to a head in the 2013 election when the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party won a Senate seat with just 0.5% of the state's primary vote, and it became major issue when a minor candidate who have a tiny amount apparent that the Senate voting system was no more representative than pulling names out of votes gained a seat purely through preference deals.
hat.
** In 2016 they changed the system yet again. Group Voting Tickets were abolished; voting for a group above-the-line became equivalent to ranking the candidates in that group from the top down; and voters no longer needed to rank every Senate candidate. Now, voters must rank a minimum of six groups above-the-line or twelve candidates below-the-line. If all their ranked candidates get eliminated during the count, their vote becomes "exhausted" and from then on is treated as informal.
9th Aug '16 7:30:56 PM LorienTheYounger
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Australia uses "preferential voting" -- also known as the "Alternative Vote" system in the UK, or as "instant-runoff voting" (which despite initial hopes is not forcing pudgy, middle-aged politicians to sprint). Rather than voting for a singular candidate and have them win through a plurality (i.e. whoever wins the most votes) such as in other countries, Australians are made to vote for their members in order of preference, ranking them 1, 2, 3 and so on. If no one wins a majority (i.e. more than 50%) of #1 votes first off, then whoever got the least number is eliminated and those votes are distributed to whoever the voters ranked as #2 instead -- the process is repeated until someone gets a majority.[[note]]The [[UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem Irish]] vote the same way, with one key difference: Aussie divisions for the House of Representatives are single-member, while constituencies for the Dáil in Ireland are multi-member (3-5 [=TDs=] per constituency), technically making it a different system called Single Transferable Vote. For reasons of complicated electoral maths, this has the effect that the Dáil is a quasi-proportional system and has a lot more parties than the House of Representatives. Even more confusingly, the Australian Senate uses the same system as the Irish Dáil, but still call it preferential voting. This (the system, not the name) is why you see all kinds of minor parties in the Senate that never or barely ever manage to win a seat in the House.[[/note]]

to:

Australia uses "preferential voting" -- also known as the "Alternative Vote" system in the UK, or as "instant-runoff voting" (which despite initial hopes is not forcing pudgy, middle-aged politicians to sprint). Rather than voting for a singular candidate and have them win through a plurality (i.e. whoever wins the most votes) such as in other countries, Australians are made to vote for their members in order of preference, ranking them 1, 2, 3 and so on. If no one wins a majority (i.e. more than 50%) of #1 votes first off, then whoever got the least number is eliminated and those votes are distributed to whoever the voters ranked as #2 instead -- the process is repeated until someone gets a majority.[[note]]The [[UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem Irish]] vote the same way, with one key difference: Aussie divisions for the House of Representatives are single-member, while constituencies for the Dáil in Ireland are multi-member (3-5 [=TDs=] per constituency), technically making it a different system called Single Transferable Vote. For reasons of complicated electoral maths, this has the effect that the Dáil is a quasi-proportional system and has a lot more parties than the House of Representatives. Even more confusingly, the Australian Senate uses the same system as the Irish Dáil, but still call it preferential voting. This (the system, not the name) is why you see all kinds of minor parties in the Senate that never or barely ever manage to win a seat in the House.[[/note]]
majority.



* Also of note is that voting is compulsory. You can generally get away with not voting but legally you're expected to vote. A $AUS20 fine applies for not voting.
** In some states, you're not obliged to mark the ballot in any way. If you genuinely don't care about your vote, you can just write "All politicians are wankers" on your ballot and put that in. Of course, if you vote correctly ''and'' write "All politicians are wankers" on the ballot, than the vote counters, while recounting everything, will see your vote half-a-dozen times.
*** There is a joke: "For Christ's sake don't vote informal! I wrote 'Useless bastards!' on a ballot paper in 1971, and they've been in office ever since."
** "Donkey voting" is nothing to do with the US Democrats[[note]]who have a donkey as their mascot[[/note]], but rather a type of formal (valid) vote, where the voter just numbers each box, consecutively 1-onwards, this is usually an "I don't care vote" but it can be helpful if there is a lot of candidates in a lower house election because a lower house ticket must be completely filled to be valid. Unfortunately, most media outlets, and thus most voters, use the terms informal and donkey interchangeably. They are not.
** A variation of donkey voting is to rank your favourite parties at the top, then rank all the others in the order they appear on the ballot paper, which is done by voters who have a preference but not interested in ranking the other candidates.
** Some people intentionally vote informal because they feel the compulsory voting system has driven both major parties to the centre, forcing them to pander to the 'swing' voters, turning elections into tax cut auctions and fights over which party hates brown people more. They might also feel that regardless of which way they vote, there won't be a recognisable change in leadership; just in the voice doing the 'leading', and so their 'say' is pointless regardless. (The fact that by doing so they are in fact [[SelfFulfillingProphecy making damned sure]] that their vote won't count rarely seems to occur to them.)

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* The system is slightly different in the Senate: it's a different preferential voting system called Single Transferrable Vote (STV). Voters still rank their preferred candidates in order but because each state elects six senators in an election, candidates need to win a quota of one-seventh of the total vote to win a seat. (In a double-dissolution election, where all 12 senators per state are elected, the quota is one-thirteenth. In the territories, which have two senators each, it's one-third.) If a candidate gets more than a full quota, the remaining votes are transferred to the next preference and the process repeats. (The transfer is totally proportional, meaning that candidates can get ''fractions'' of votes on preferences.)

Also of note is that voting is compulsory. You can generally get away with not voting but legally you're expected to vote. A $AUS20 fine applies for not voting.
** In some states, * Technically, you're not obliged to mark the ballot in any way. If you genuinely don't care about your vote, you can just write "All politicians are wankers" on your ballot and put that in. Of course, if you vote correctly ''and'' write "All politicians are wankers" on the ballot, than the vote counters, while recounting everything, will see your vote half-a-dozen times.
*** ** There is a joke: "For Christ's sake don't vote informal! I wrote 'Useless bastards!' on a ballot paper in 1971, and they've been in office ever since."
** * "Donkey voting" is nothing to do with the US Democrats[[note]]who have a donkey as their mascot[[/note]], but rather a type of formal (valid) vote, where the voter just numbers each box, consecutively 1-onwards, this is usually an "I don't care vote" but it can be helpful if there is a lot of candidates in a lower house election because a lower house ticket must be completely filled to be valid. Unfortunately, most media outlets, and thus most voters, use the terms informal and donkey interchangeably. They are not.
** * A variation of donkey voting is to rank your favourite parties at the top, then rank all the others in the order they appear on the ballot paper, which is done by voters who have a preference but not interested in ranking the other candidates.
** * Some people intentionally vote informal because they feel the compulsory voting system has driven both major parties to the centre, forcing them to pander to the 'swing' voters, turning elections into tax cut auctions and fights over which party hates brown people more. They might also feel that regardless of which way they vote, there won't be a recognisable change in leadership; just in the voice doing the 'leading', and so their 'say' is pointless regardless. (The fact that by doing so they are in fact [[SelfFulfillingProphecy making damned sure]] that their vote won't count rarely seems to occur to them.)



** Unfortunately the system has it's weaknesses as you have to number ''every single'' candidate (who can number over a hundred) to choose which ones get your preference votes so very few voters do so. Also if you vote the simpler way of labelling a single party for your vote the preference votes are distributed amongst parties according to "preference deals" or agreements between the parties. After the 2013 election it became major issue when a minor candidate who have a tiny amount of votes gained a seat purely through preference deals.

to:

** * Unfortunately the system has it's weaknesses as you have to number ''every single'' candidate (who can number over a hundred) to choose which ones get your preference votes so very few voters do so. Also if you vote the simpler way of labelling a single party for your vote the preference votes are distributed amongst parties according to "preference deals" or agreements between the parties. After the 2013 election it became major issue when a minor candidate who have a tiny amount of votes gained a seat purely through preference deals.
8th Aug '16 12:27:52 AM LorienTheYounger
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Discontent grew against Abbott within his party, with his subordinates disliking his centralised leadership and the powerful role he gave to his chief of staff Peta Credlin.[[note]](Abbott proceeded to defend her [[{{Hypocrite}} by accusing her critics of misogyny]])[[/note]] History quickly repeated itself. Abbott was defeated in a leadership challenge by his predecessor (seen below). As he said over Australian deaths in Iraq, "shit happens." And the greatest irony of all? He destroyed two prime ministers, but failed to outlast either of them.

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Discontent grew against Abbott within his party, with his subordinates disliking his centralised leadership and the powerful role he gave to his chief of staff Peta Credlin.[[note]](Abbott proceeded to defend her [[{{Hypocrite}} by accusing her critics of misogyny]])[[/note]] History quickly repeated itself. Abbott was defeated in a leadership challenge by his predecessor as opposition leader (seen below). As he said over Australian deaths in Iraq, "shit happens." And the greatest irony of all? He destroyed two prime ministers, but failed to outlast either of them.



By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin majority in the House of Representatives (literally only 76 seats, the bare minimum to acquire a majority, and that's presuming that one of those 76 is ''also'' the Speaker of the House as nobody outside the government wants the position, meaning the actual number would be 75, which is ''technically'' a minority government) and, despite previously changing the senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]], complete with ''two'' power blocs in the form of the Nick Xenophon Team and Pauline Hanson's One Nation, both of whom hate each other and are likely much less inclined to capitulate to the government than Clive Palmer ever was, ''[[FromBadToWorse and the government needs both their support to pass anything not supported by Labor or the Greens.]]'' It's been barely a month since the election and Turnbull has already had to deal with plenty of party infighting and an emboldened right-wing who are still very bitter over the Abbot coup ([[http://blogs.news.com.au/heraldsun/andrewbolt/index.php/heraldsun/comments/malcolm_turnbull_you_are_finished/ hell, the election result hadn't even been called before right-wing figures started calling for Turnbull's head]], forgetting that had Abbot taken his government to an election it would have been a ''bloodbath''). Turnbull has a monumental challenge before him, ''if'' he isn't the victim of a leadership coup during his term, [[HereWeGoAgain and people are already predicting he'll be out by the end of 2017...]]

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By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin only 76 seats out of 150 including the non-voting Speaker literally the smallest majority in the House of Representatives (literally only 76 seats, the bare minimum to acquire a majority, and that's presuming that one of those 76 is ''also'' the Speaker of the House as nobody outside the government wants the position, meaning the actual number would be 75, which is ''technically'' a minority government) and, possible. Plus, despite previously changing the senate changes in Senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing election returned an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]], before]] complete with ''two'' power blocs in the form of One Nation and the Nick Xenophon Team and Pauline Hanson's One Nation, Team, both of whom hate each other and are likely much less inclined to capitulate to the government than Clive Palmer ever was, ''[[FromBadToWorse and the government needs both their support to pass anything not supported by Labor or the Greens.]]'' It's been barely a month since the election and Turnbull has already had to deal with plenty of party infighting and an emboldened right-wing who are still very bitter over the Abbot coup ([[http://blogs.news.com.au/heraldsun/andrewbolt/index.php/heraldsun/comments/malcolm_turnbull_you_are_finished/ hell, the election result hadn't even been called before right-wing figures started calling for Turnbull's head]], forgetting that had Abbot taken his government to an election it would have been a ''bloodbath''). Turnbull has a monumental challenge before him, ''if'' he isn't the victim of a leadership coup during his term, [[HereWeGoAgain and people are already predicting he'll be out by the end of 2017...]]
8th Aug '16 12:15:28 AM LorienTheYounger
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* '''Nick Xenophon Team''': A political party founded by South Australian politician Nick Xenophon, as one of the latest in the trend of high-profile independent politicians forming minor political parties in their own image. Xenophon was first elected to the federal Senate in 2007, and is known for being centrist, anti-gambling and pro-pork-barrelling for his state. Thanks to Xenophon's popularity in South Australia, NXT's status in that state has rapidly risen to rival the major parties: in the 2016 federal election they won three of South Australia's Senate seats and one House seat. (Outside the state, their results were respectable but unimpressive.) This has effectively given them the balance of power in the Senate along with One Nation.

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* '''Nick Xenophon Team''': Team''' or '''NXT''' ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]): A political party founded by South Australian politician [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon, Xenophon]], as one of the latest in the trend of high-profile independent politicians forming minor political parties in their own image. Xenophon was first elected to the federal Senate in 2007, and is known for being centrist, anti-gambling and pro-pork-barrelling for his state. Thanks to Xenophon's popularity in South Australia, NXT's status in that state has rapidly risen to rival the major parties: in the 2016 federal election they won three of South Australia's Senate seats and one House seat. (Outside the state, their results were respectable but unimpressive.) This has effectively given them the balance of power in the Senate along with One Nation.



Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]); additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In the Senate, there are currently no independents, but there are two effectively-independent senators who have [[{{Egopolis}} formed microparties named after themselves]]: ex-Palmer United member Jacqui Lambie, of the "Jacqui Lambie Network"; and broadcaster Derryn Hinch, of Derryn Hinch's Justice Party. [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]] of the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]) is also a former independent.

to:

Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Representatives, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]); [=McGowan=]; additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In There are technically no independents currently in the Senate, there are currently no independents, but there are two effectively-independent senators who have thanks to a recent trend of well-known independent politicians [[{{Egopolis}} formed microparties forming minor parties named after themselves]]: ex-Palmer United member themselves]] hence the Senate now contains the ex-independents Nick Xenophon of the "Nick Xenophon Team" (along with two other NXT senators), Jacqui Lambie, Lambie of the "Jacqui Lambie Network"; Network" (also ex-Palmer United), and broadcaster Derryn Hinch, Hinch of Derryn "Derryn Hinch's Justice Party. [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]] of the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]) is also a former independent.Party".
8th Aug '16 12:03:14 AM LorienTheYounger
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* '''One Nation''' - A party standing for the age-old Australian values of intolerance, ignorance and fish and chips. Received massive publicity in the late '90s, until it became apparent that all involved had no idea what they were doing. Led by Pauline Hanson, a former fish and chips shop owner from Queensland, who unexpectedly won a seat in Federal Parliament as an independent in 1996. From her maiden speech, claiming that Australia was 'swamped' with Asians, the party went through an inexplicable storm of popularity. At its height, the party won 23% of the vote in Queensland in the 1998 state election, second only to Labor. (If you visit Queensland, and you look around, one in four of them voted for One Nation.) Hanson lost her seat in Parliament in 1998, and later left the party. One Nation spent more than a decade in the political wilderness until Hanson returned as leader they made a massive comeback in the 2016 federal election, winning three senate seats. One Nation now effectively holds the balance of power in the Senate along with NXT.

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* '''One Nation''' - A party standing for the age-old Australian values of intolerance, ignorance and fish and chips. Received massive publicity in the late '90s, until it became apparent that all involved had no idea what they were doing. Led by Pauline Hanson, a former fish and chips shop owner from Queensland, who unexpectedly won a seat in Federal Parliament as an independent in 1996. From her maiden speech, claiming that Australia was 'swamped' with Asians, the party went through an inexplicable storm of popularity. At its height, the party won 23% of the vote in Queensland in the 1998 state election, second only to Labor. (If you visit Queensland, and you look around, one in four of them voted for One Nation.) Hanson lost her seat in Parliament in 1998, and later left the party. One Nation spent more than a decade in the political wilderness until Hanson returned as leader they made a massive comeback in the 2016 federal election, winning three four senate seats. One Nation now effectively holds the balance of power in the Senate along with NXT.



** She finally won a seat in the 2016 federal election, being elected as a senator from Queensland with over a full quota.
* '''Nick Xenophon Team''': A political party founded by South Australian politician Nick Xenophon, who had been an independent senator in federal Parliament since 2007. Extremely popular in his own state, Xenophon is generally centrist, anti-gambling and pro-pork-barrelling for SA: the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT is a party made in his own image, in a similar mould to Katter's Australian Party and the Palmer United Party (see below). Made a very strong showing in the 2016 federal election, winning three senate seats and one House seat all from South Australia (outside the state, their results were respectable but unimpressive). Still, this has effectively given them the balance of power in the Senate along with One Nation.
* '''Katter's Australian Party''': Founded in 2011 by federal MP Bob Katter and his NiceHat, the party's positions are heavily based on those of Katter himself, a former Independent from North Queensland well known for his [[BunnyEarsLawyer eccentricity]] who shot to national fame in 2010 when the federal election resulted in a hung parliament. Originally named "The Australian Party", it was forced to change its name on the grounds of it being too generic. The party is best described as "agrarian socialist", with strong social conservatism combined with a protectionist and anti-privatisation economic policy. Made their strongest showing to date in the 2012 Queensland state election, where they won two seats and 11.5% of the primary vote. However, their vote has plummeted in subsequent elections as their thunder has been stolen by other minor parties (first Palmer United, then One Nation) while Katter is reliably re-elected in the federal House and the two state [=MPs=] have also been re-elected, they have consistently failed to win a senate seat and they also haven't caught on at all outside Queensland.

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** She finally won a seat in the 2016 federal election, being elected as a senator from Queensland. It was a double-dissolution election, so thanks to the reduced quota a second One Nation senator from Queensland was elected along with over a full quota.
her.
* '''Nick Xenophon Team''': A political party founded by South Australian politician Nick Xenophon, who had been an as one of the latest in the trend of high-profile independent senator politicians forming minor political parties in federal Parliament since 2007. Extremely popular in his their own state, image. Xenophon was first elected to the federal Senate in 2007, and is generally known for being centrist, anti-gambling and pro-pork-barrelling for SA: his state. Thanks to Xenophon's popularity in South Australia, NXT's status in that state has rapidly risen to rival the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT is a party made in his own image, in a similar mould to Katter's Australian Party and the Palmer United Party (see below). Made a very strong showing major parties: in the 2016 federal election, winning election they won three senate of South Australia's Senate seats and one House seat all from South Australia (outside seat. (Outside the state, their results were respectable but unimpressive). Still, this unimpressive.) This has effectively given them the balance of power in the Senate along with One Nation.
* '''Katter's Australian Party''': Founded in 2011 by federal MP Bob Katter and his NiceHat, the party's positions are heavily based on those of Katter himself, a himself. A former Independent from North Queensland well known for his [[BunnyEarsLawyer eccentricity]] who eccentricity]], Katter shot to national fame in 2010 when the federal election resulted in a hung parliament. Originally named "The Australian Party", it was forced to change its name on the grounds of it being too generic.parliament. The party is best described as "agrarian socialist", with strong social conservatism combined with a protectionist and anti-privatisation economic policy. Originally named "The Australian Party", it was forced to change its name on the grounds of it being too generic. They currently hold Katter's own seat in the federal House of Representatives, plus two seats in the Queensland Parliament (one of which is held by Katter's son). Made their strongest showing to date in the 2012 Queensland state election, where they first won those two seats and got 11.5% of the primary vote. However, while their sitting [=MPs=] have all since been re-elected, their primary vote has share plummeted in subsequent elections as their thunder has been stolen by voters turned to other minor parties (first parties: first Palmer United, then One Nation) while Katter is reliably re-elected in the federal House and the two state [=MPs=] Nation. They have also been re-elected, they have consistently failed to win a senate seat Senate seat, and they also haven't caught on at all outside Queensland.



Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]; additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In the Senate, there are currently no independents, but there are two effectively-independent senators who have [[{{Egopolis}} formed microparties named after themselves]]: ex-Palmer United member Jacqui Lambie, of the "Jacqui Lambie Network"; and broadcaster Derryn Hinch, of Derryn Hinch's Justice Party. [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]] of the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]) is also a former independent.

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Of course, not all politicians belong to political parties. '''Independents''' are also influential as singular freelance politicians with no ties to any particular party, and historically are far more successful than minor-party candidates. The larger parties may bend over backwards to get independents to vote in their favour whenever they hold the balance of power in a house of Parliament, as seen most recently in the 2010-13 hung parliament. There are currently two independent [=MP=]s in the House of Representatives (Andrew Wilkie and Cathy [=McGowan=]; [=McGowan=]); additionally, the House's sole KAP member Bob Katter was formerly an independent. In the Senate, there are currently no independents, but there are two effectively-independent senators who have [[{{Egopolis}} formed microparties named after themselves]]: ex-Palmer United member Jacqui Lambie, of the "Jacqui Lambie Network"; and broadcaster Derryn Hinch, of Derryn Hinch's Justice Party. [[AwesomeMcCoolname Nick Xenophon]] of the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT ([[Wrestling/{{WWENXT}} no, not that NXT]]) is also a former independent.
3rd Aug '16 3:19:27 AM Laevatein
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By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin majority in the House of Representatives (literally only 76 seats, the bare minimum to acquire a majority, and that's presuming that one of those 76 is ''also'' the Speaker of the House as nobody outside the government wants the position, meaning the actual number would be 75, which is ''technically'' a minority government) and, despite previously changing the senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]], complete with ''two'' power blocs in the form of the Nick Xenophon Team and Pauline Hanson's One Nation, both of whom hate each other and are likely much less inclined to capitulate to the government than Clive Palmer ever was, ''[[FromBadToWorse and the government needs both their support to pass anything not supported by Labor and the Greens.]]'' It's been barely a month since the election and Turnbull has already had to deal with plenty of party infighting and an emboldened right-wing who are still very bitter over the Abbot coup ([[http://blogs.news.com.au/heraldsun/andrewbolt/index.php/heraldsun/comments/malcolm_turnbull_you_are_finished/ hell, the election result hadn't even been called before right-wing figures started calling for Turnbull's head]], forgetting that had Abbot taken his government to an election it would have been a ''bloodbath''). Turnbull has a monumental challenge before him, ''if'' he isn't the victim of a leadership coup during his term, [[HereWeGoAgain and people are already predicting he'll be out by the end of 2017...]]

to:

By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin majority in the House of Representatives (literally only 76 seats, the bare minimum to acquire a majority, and that's presuming that one of those 76 is ''also'' the Speaker of the House as nobody outside the government wants the position, meaning the actual number would be 75, which is ''technically'' a minority government) and, despite previously changing the senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]], complete with ''two'' power blocs in the form of the Nick Xenophon Team and Pauline Hanson's One Nation, both of whom hate each other and are likely much less inclined to capitulate to the government than Clive Palmer ever was, ''[[FromBadToWorse and the government needs both their support to pass anything not supported by Labor and or the Greens.]]'' It's been barely a month since the election and Turnbull has already had to deal with plenty of party infighting and an emboldened right-wing who are still very bitter over the Abbot coup ([[http://blogs.news.com.au/heraldsun/andrewbolt/index.php/heraldsun/comments/malcolm_turnbull_you_are_finished/ hell, the election result hadn't even been called before right-wing figures started calling for Turnbull's head]], forgetting that had Abbot taken his government to an election it would have been a ''bloodbath''). Turnbull has a monumental challenge before him, ''if'' he isn't the victim of a leadership coup during his term, [[HereWeGoAgain and people are already predicting he'll be out by the end of 2017...]]
3rd Aug '16 2:22:55 AM Cronosonic
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By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin majority in the House of Representatives and, despite previously changing the senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]].

to:

By the time Turnbull called the 2016 election, his honeymoon was over and he and the Coalition were facing a knife-edged battle to stay in power. They ultimately won, but with a wafer-thin majority in the House of Representatives (literally only 76 seats, the bare minimum to acquire a majority, and that's presuming that one of those 76 is ''also'' the Speaker of the House as nobody outside the government wants the position, meaning the actual number would be 75, which is ''technically'' a minority government) and, despite previously changing the senate rules to avoid "preference gaming" which resulted a rather hostile Senate in 2013, [[PyrrhicVictory the government will likely be still facing an equally hostile Senate with an even larger cross-bench than before]].
before]], complete with ''two'' power blocs in the form of the Nick Xenophon Team and Pauline Hanson's One Nation, both of whom hate each other and are likely much less inclined to capitulate to the government than Clive Palmer ever was, ''[[FromBadToWorse and the government needs both their support to pass anything not supported by Labor and the Greens.]]'' It's been barely a month since the election and Turnbull has already had to deal with plenty of party infighting and an emboldened right-wing who are still very bitter over the Abbot coup ([[http://blogs.news.com.au/heraldsun/andrewbolt/index.php/heraldsun/comments/malcolm_turnbull_you_are_finished/ hell, the election result hadn't even been called before right-wing figures started calling for Turnbull's head]], forgetting that had Abbot taken his government to an election it would have been a ''bloodbath''). Turnbull has a monumental challenge before him, ''if'' he isn't the victim of a leadership coup during his term, [[HereWeGoAgain and people are already predicting he'll be out by the end of 2017...]]
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