History UsefulNotes / AtomicBombingsOfHiroshimaAndNagasaki

16th Mar '17 4:54:02 PM DefianceFalcon
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In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan stooding essentially alone. The half-million men of [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.

to:

In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan stooding standing essentially alone. The half-million men of [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.
7th Mar '17 1:21:23 AM PaulA
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* The 1986 Creator/{{Infocom}} InteractiveFiction game ''Trinity'' was a MagicalRealism exploration of the history of nuclear weapons; the player character is sent to Nagasaki at one point shortly before the Fat Man exploded, [[spoiler:to complete a StableTimeLoop by giving a little girl an umbrella.]]

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* The 1986 Creator/{{Infocom}} InteractiveFiction game ''Trinity'' ''VideoGame/{{Trinity}}'' was a MagicalRealism exploration of the history of nuclear weapons; the player character is sent to Nagasaki at one point shortly before the Fat Man exploded, [[spoiler:to complete a StableTimeLoop by giving a little girl an umbrella.]]
30th Jan '17 1:14:06 PM MAI742
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The bombing of Hiroshima was met with a 'wait and see' approach by the Imperial Cabinet, which wanted to know whether or not the Allies had began mass-producing Atomic Bombs. If they had not, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would still be semi-tenable and they still had some bargaining power. If the Allies had, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would be completely invalidated and the ''Junta''' would have to make Japan surrender.

to:

The bombing of Hiroshima was met with a 'wait and see' approach by the Imperial Cabinet, which wanted to know whether or not the Allies had began begun mass-producing Atomic Bombs. If they had not, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would still be semi-tenable and they still had some bargaining power. If the Allies had, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would be completely invalidated and the ''Junta''' would have to make Japan surrender.
30th Jan '17 1:03:34 PM MAI742
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Though they never made the deliberate decision to stake everything on the outcome of the defense of Kyushu, their allocation of resources was such that there would be little in reserve for defending the rest of the Homes Islands if the defense of Kyushu failed. The Japanese Command hoped, however, that they wouldn't have to.

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Though they never made the deliberate decision to stake everything on the outcome of the defense of Kyushu, their allocation of resources was such that there would be little in reserve for defending the rest of the Homes Home Islands if the defense of Kyushu failed. The Japanese Command Army hoped, however, that they wouldn't have to.



The prospects for Operation [[AC:Downfall]] were absolutely bone-chilling for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset by balls-to-the-wall desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straight-up collapses and mass surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.

However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operations would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought—Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan—the U.S. ''still'' has about 100,000 of the [[AC:Downfall]]-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It was thought that Japanese dead would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates of the time reckoning that several million would be killed on the field and die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.

Everyone wanted the war over and nobody wanted there to be any more Allied military dead—they were already facing domestic turmoil just from the war's ongoing monetary costs, which were just a fraction of [[AC:Downfall]]'s price tag (which also had a blood price). It would have been inconceivable at the time, when tens of millions of Europeans and Asians had died as well as hundreds of thousands of Americans, to refuse to use a bomb that could end the war for fear of "killing too many people." So they decided to use the bombs against the cities that they had trouble fire-bombing and were still largely intact. This was done to prove the bombs' killing power and would be part of a huge bluff—the USA would pretend that it had lots of these bombs. The ''Junta'' wanted to resist because it thought that the USA were so afraid of its people dying trying to take the Home islands (and thus being voted out of power) that they would make peace with The ''Junta'' to avoid that. But if the USA had a lot of atomic bombs, then it could defeat the ''Junta'' with a minimum of U.S. losses… and the ''Junta'' would have no bargaining power because the USA could just as easily defeat them as negotiate with them.

to:

The prospects for Operation [[AC:Downfall]] were absolutely bone-chilling distinctly unpalatable for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset by balls-to-the-wall desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straight-up collapses and mass surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.

However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operations would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought—Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan—the U.S. ''still'' has about 100,000 of the [[AC:Downfall]]-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It The USA was thought that unconcerned with the number of Japanese dead dead, which were thought to would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates or Soviet levels. Estimates of the time reckoning that several million hundreds of thousands would be killed on in the field and that millions die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, (disease, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, bomings, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.

Everyone wanted the war over and nobody wanted there to be any more Allied military dead—they were already facing domestic turmoil just from the war's ongoing monetary costs, which were just a fraction of [[AC:Downfall]]'s price tag (which also had a (quite apart from the blood price). It would have been inconceivable at the time, when tens of millions of Europeans and Asians had died as well as hundreds of thousands of Americans, to refuse to use a bomb that could end the war for fear of "killing too many people." So they decided to use the bombs against the cities that they had trouble fire-bombing and were still largely intact. This was done to prove the bombs' killing power and would be part of a huge bluff—the USA would pretend that it had lots of these bombs. The ''Junta'' wanted to resist because it thought that the USA were so afraid of its people dying trying to take the Home islands (and thus being voted out of power) that they would make peace with The ''Junta'' to avoid that. But if the USA had a lot of atomic bombs, then it could defeat the ''Junta'' invade Japan with a minimum of U.S. losses… and the ''Junta'' would have no bargaining power because the USA could just as easily defeat them as negotiate with them.



The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been raided, yes, but various reasons (''e.g.'', importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions—lots of rain all the time = bad—and the strength of air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of the other cities in Japan. The ''Enola Gay'' dropped the first nuclear device, "Little Boy", on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had, ironically, just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after ''Necessary Evil'' (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).

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The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been raided, yes, but various reasons (''e.g.'', importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions—lots of rain all the time = bad—and the strength of air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of all the other cities and most of the larger towns in Japan. The ''Enola Gay'' dropped the first nuclear device, "Little Boy", on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had, ironically, just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after ''Necessary Evil'' (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).



[[folder: Defeat With Honor]]

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]] such as the actions of the Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army. The unit ran through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in various human experiments, including surgical measures with no use of anaesthetic and numerous vivisections, to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]] [[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

In contrast, the aforementioned VocalMinority of hardliners who would have nothing but victory or extinction decreased further in number as even some of their ranks defected, but those who remained stayed just as stalwart. Ultimately, the united front the Doves made in the aftermath and the personal declaration of the Emperor were needed to force the issue and convince most of the remaining Hawks to accept defeat. [[RunningGag And even then, some were still defiant]] to the point where they told junior and non-commissioned officers what was happening and encouraged them to save Japan's honor by [[InsaneTrollLogic launching a coup against the Emperor and his government]] to kidnap him, kill several of his senior staff, and destroy all records of the Japanese surrender in order to try and rally the rest of the country to one final glorious stand. The young patriots were soon put down by security forces, despite a final attempt by them to hijack the truck carrying the recording of the Emperor's "Jewel Voice" speech, and the Emperor's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast soon after.

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[[folder: Defeat With Honor]]

'With Honor']]

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Hiroshima was met with a 'wait and see' approach by the Imperial Cabinet, which wanted to know whether or not the Allies had began mass-producing Atomic Bombs. If they had not, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would still be semi-tenable and they still had some bargaining power. If the Allies had, then the Army's defense of the Home Islands would be completely invalidated and the ''Junta''' would have to make Japan surrender.

When
Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. became clear that Japan had no bargaining power. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- unrequited - if macabre- macabre - blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]] such as the actions of the Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army. The unit ran through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in various human experiments, including surgical measures with no use of anaesthetic and numerous vivisections, to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]] [[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

In contrast, the aforementioned VocalMinority of hardliners who would have nothing but victory or extinction decreased further in number as even some of their ranks defected, but those who remained stayed just as stalwart. Ultimately, the united front the Doves made in the aftermath and the personal declaration of the Emperor were needed to force the issue and convince most of the remaining Hawks to accept defeat. [[RunningGag And even then, some were still defiant]] to the point where they told junior and non-commissioned officers what was happening and encouraged them to save 'save Japan's honor honor' by [[InsaneTrollLogic launching a coup against the Emperor and his government]] to kidnap him, kill several of his senior staff, and destroy all records of the Japanese surrender in order to try and rally the rest of the country to one final glorious stand. The young patriots were soon put down by security forces, despite a final attempt by them to hijack the truck carrying the recording of the Emperor's "Jewel Voice" speech, and the Emperor's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast soon after.
thereafter.



The Allies accepted, and so a truce was concluded on the 15th of August until the representatives of both countries' governments could meet (on September the 2nd) to sign the peace treaty. In the meantime, The Cabinet set about destroying all the records they could of everything even remotely related to War Crimes before the Americans' troop-ships landed to occupy the place some two weeks later. This would leave the post-war Tokyo (war crime) Trials a teensy bit short of critical evidence… which meant a lot of pretty-obviously-guilty individuals got off scot-free[[note]]Such as, at one point, ''The Prime Minister''. Kishi Nobusuke, Prime Minister from 1957-60, provided Chinese slaves for Japanese state-run corporations in Manchuria. None of the documentation survived, however, so there was nothing to prosecute him with.[[/note]]

to:

The Allies accepted, and so a truce was concluded on the 15th of August until the representatives of both countries' governments could meet (on September the 2nd) to sign the peace treaty. In the meantime, The Cabinet set about destroying all the records they could of everything even remotely related to War Crimes before the Americans' troop-ships landed to occupy the place some two weeks later.later - such as rewriting the death certificates of the eight US POW killed during medical experiments at Kyushu University to say that they died during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. This would leave the post-war Tokyo (war crime) Trials a teensy bit short of critical evidence… which meant a lot of pretty-obviously-guilty individuals got off scot-free[[note]]Such as, at one point, ''The Prime Minister''. Kishi Nobusuke, Prime Minister from 1957-60, provided Chinese slaves for Japanese state-run corporations in Manchuria. None of the documentation survived, however, so there was nothing to prosecute him with.[[/note]]
16th Jan '17 12:09:10 PM Morgenthaler
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In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and ImperialJapan stooding essentially alone. The half-million men of [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.

to:

In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and ImperialJapan UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan stooding essentially alone. The half-million men of [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.
20th Oct '16 10:21:36 AM Morgenthaler
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The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve… sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now—they had a decent-sized "buffer zone" in Central/Eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca. 500,000 (inc. ca. 100k deaths) almost entirely American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit structure, and tactical-/trategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from [[AC:Downfall]] were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies…]]

to:

The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve… sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now—they had a decent-sized "buffer zone" in Central/Eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca. 500,000 (inc. ca. 100k deaths) almost entirely American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit structure, and tactical-/trategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from [[AC:Downfall]] were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies…]]
20th Oct '16 9:41:52 AM Morgenthaler
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In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and ImperialJapan stooding essentially alone. The half-million men of [[KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.

to:

In August 1945 UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was in its endgame with the European Axis headed by UsefulNotes/NaziGermany utterly defeated, and ImperialJapan stooding essentially alone. The half-million men of [[KatanasOfTheRisingSun [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the China Expeditionary Force]] had been largely cut off from supplies and its garrisons were left to rot on the vine, scouring the countryside for food and grain on an even greater scale than ever before even as [[UsefulNotes/ChiangKaiShek Generalissimo Chiang's]] [[NoMoreEmperors [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors Guomindang]] moved to crush them one by one.
30th Sep '16 8:01:25 PM MAI742
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* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an Allied land invasion in October 1946 (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and the number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.
** Note that this was particularly important given the reservations of President Truman and the US Navy regarding ''Downfall'', which the latter felt might be completely unnecessary given the internal threat that domestic rebellion or even revolution would pose when widespread famine began in earnest (sometime in autumn 1945).

to:

* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an a possible Allied land invasion in October 1946 (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and the number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.
** Note that this This point was particularly important given that the reservations of Japanese Army and Navy were aware that President Truman and the US Navy regarding ''Downfall'', which the latter felt might be completely unnecessary given the internal threat had reservations about American losses when executing ''Downfall''. All parties knew that this reservation was strengthened by the likelihood that a land invasion would be unnecessary, as domestic rebellion or even revolution would pose when might successfully topple the Japanese regime after widespread famine began in earnest (sometime in autumn 1945).
30th Sep '16 7:56:59 PM MAI742
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* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an Allied land invasion (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and the number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.
** Note that this was particularly important given that the Navy had serious reservations about ''Downfall'', which they felt to be unnecessary given the inevitability of domestic rebellion or even revolution when the food crisis became an outright famine out sometime in the second half of 1945.

to:

* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an Allied land invasion in October 1946 (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and the number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.
** Note that this was particularly important given that the Navy had serious reservations about of President Truman and the US Navy regarding ''Downfall'', which they the latter felt to might be completely unnecessary given the inevitability of internal threat that domestic rebellion or even revolution would pose when the food crisis became an outright widespread famine out sometime began in the second half of 1945.earnest (sometime in autumn 1945).
30th Sep '16 7:54:13 PM MAI742
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* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an Allied land invasion (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and...
* The number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.

to:

* Show that Japan's conventional defense of the Home Islands against an Allied land invasion (''Operation Downfall'') could now be easily brushed aside given the power and...
* The
and the number of the Western Allies' nuclear weapons. Two was considered an adequate proof that they had made concerted effort to mass-produce them, so all further weapons were going to be held in reserve for use against Japanese land forces during the Allied invasion.
** Note that this was particularly important given that the Navy had serious reservations about ''Downfall'', which they felt to be unnecessary given the inevitability of domestic rebellion or even revolution when the food crisis became an outright famine out sometime in the second half of 1945.
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