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History UsefulNotes / AtomicBombingsOfHiroshimaAndNagasaki

14th Apr '16 9:27:47 PM SparksOfTheTempest
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* The song ''Black Rain'' by Astral Doors, featuring some pretty nightmarish lyrics about the effects of the bombing.
13th Apr '16 10:14:28 PM RevolutionStone
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* The song ''Enola Gay'' by Music/{{Sugizo}} is a lament of nuclear war.
13th Mar '16 9:03:09 AM MAI742
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The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guangdong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in some truly horrifying live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

to:

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing crimes[[note]] such as the actions of the Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guangdong Army, which went Kwantung/Guandong Army. The unit ran through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in some truly horrifying live various human experiments experiments, including surgical measures with no use of anaesthetic and numerous vivisections, to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].war]] [[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.
13th Mar '16 5:11:00 AM TheWildWestPyro
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The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

to:

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Kwantung/Guangdong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in some truly horrifying live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.
18th Jan '16 7:23:45 AM trumpetmarietta
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Despite their best efforts to conscript the civilian population to build fortifications, the conscript workforce's efficiency had been severely reduced by starvation, low morale resulting from starving military personnel stealing food from and brutalizing civilians, and deaths from air-raids. There also wasn't enough concrete mix, let alone enough iron or steel, to construct the fortifications properly—even once the use of such materials in any other capacity (including bomb-shelters) had been forbidden. This was a major contributing factor to the lethality of the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign on Japanese urban centres, which killed between 250 and 900k civilians[[note]]The Great Firebombing of Tokyo, which killed 80k and wounded another 40k, would not have been anywhere near as lethal had there been a single adequate bomb-shelter in the city outside the grounds of the Imperial Palace.[[/note]] The food situation was also slightly desperate, as the average citizen was living on some 1200 of the 2000 calories-a-day they needed to survive—the country had had to import food for decades by that point, and domestic agriculture had been devastated by the disappearance of the fertilizer and agricultural machinery industries[[note]]Both had been sacrificed upon the altars of the gods of explosives and war machines, respectively[[/note]] and the wartime labor shortage. Unsurprisingly, morale [[ScrewThisImOuttaHere hung by a thread]] as every sane man, woman, and child in the Empire realized that its strategic position could very easily be summed up [[http://youtu.be/pje5ROe5Y_w?t=1m38s in a single, rude word]].

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Despite their best efforts to conscript the civilian population to build fortifications, the conscript workforce's efficiency had been severely reduced by starvation, low morale resulting from starving military personnel stealing food from and brutalizing civilians, and deaths from air-raids. There also wasn't enough concrete mix, let alone enough iron or steel, to construct the fortifications properly—even once the use of such materials in any other capacity (including bomb-shelters) had been forbidden. This was a major contributing factor to the lethality of the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign on Japanese urban centres, which killed between 250 and 900k civilians[[note]]The Great Firebombing of Tokyo, which killed 80k and wounded another 40k, would not have been anywhere near as lethal had there been a single adequate bomb-shelter bomb shelter in the city outside the grounds of the Imperial Palace.[[/note]] The food situation was also slightly desperate, as the average citizen was living on some 1200 of the 2000 calories-a-day calories per day they needed to survive—the country had had to import food for decades by that point, and domestic agriculture had been devastated by the disappearance of the fertilizer and agricultural machinery industries[[note]]Both had been sacrificed upon the altars of the gods of explosives and war machines, respectively[[/note]] and the wartime labor shortage. Unsurprisingly, morale [[ScrewThisImOuttaHere hung by a thread]] as every sane man, woman, and child in the Empire realized that its strategic position could very easily be summed up [[http://youtu.be/pje5ROe5Y_w?t=1m38s in a single, rude word]].



The Japanese answer to ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' was ''Operation [[AC:Ketsugō]].'' It wasn't hard to guess where the invasion would take place, and Japan began moving more and more troops to southern Kyushu. While the Japanese knew they had no hope of winning the war, they hoped that they could make invasion of the Home Islands too costly for the Allies to attempt. Even at this late stage, Japan retained around 10,000 aircraft of all types and in all conditions (of which a third might be in working order). Given the lack of fuel and munitions, most would have to be used in Special Attacks if they were to be of any use. During the Battle of Okinawa, the Japanese Navy had launched 1500 Special Attacks, achieving a hit-rate of around 11% and wounding or killing more than 10,000 U.S. Navy personnel. While this may not sound like a lot, it should be remembered that the USA had suffered very few deaths throughout the war (less than half a million) so this seemed like a very large number to them at the time. At Kyushu, due to more favorable terrain, the Japanese hoped for a hit-rate of 17%. Furthermore, they would target troop carriers as they ferried men to the beaches, rather than the heavy navy ships, increasing casualties even further. With this, the Japanese hoped that the Special Attack forces alone could destroy 1/3 or more of the invasion force ''en route'' to the beaches.

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The Japanese answer to ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' [[AC:Downfall]] was ''Operation [[AC:Ketsugō]].Operation ''[[AC:Ketsugō]].'' It wasn't hard to guess where the invasion would take place, and Japan began moving more and more troops to southern Kyushu. While the Japanese knew they had no hope of winning the war, they hoped that they could make invasion of the Home Islands too costly for the Allies to attempt. Even at this late stage, Japan retained around 10,000 aircraft of all types and in all conditions (of which a third might be in working order). Given the lack of fuel and munitions, most would have to be used in Special Attacks if they were to be of any use. During the Battle of Okinawa, the Japanese Navy had launched 1500 Special Attacks, achieving a hit-rate of around 11% and wounding or killing more than 10,000 U.S. Navy personnel. While this may not sound like a lot, it should be remembered that the USA had suffered very few deaths throughout the war (less than half a million) so this seemed like a very large number to them at the time. At Kyushu, due to more favorable terrain, the Japanese hoped for a hit-rate hit rate of 17%. Furthermore, they would target troop carriers as they ferried men to the beaches, rather than the heavy navy ships, increasing casualties even further. With this, the Japanese hoped that the Special Attack forces alone could destroy 1/3 or more of the invasion force ''en route'' to the beaches.



The prospects for Operation [[AC:Downfall]] were absolutely bone-chilling for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset by balls-to-the-wall desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straightup collapses and mass surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.

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The prospects for Operation [[AC:Downfall]] were absolutely bone-chilling for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset by balls-to-the-wall desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straightup straight-up collapses and mass surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.



The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been raided, yes, but various reasons (''e.g.'', importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions—lots of rain all the time = bad—and the strength of air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of the other cities in Japan. The ''Enola Gay'' dropped the first nuclear device, [[AC:Little Boy]], on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had ironically just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after ''Necessary Evil'' (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).

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The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been raided, yes, but various reasons (''e.g.'', importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions—lots of rain all the time = bad—and the strength of air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of the other cities in Japan. The ''Enola Gay'' dropped the first nuclear device, [[AC:Little Boy]], "Little Boy", on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had ironically had, ironically, just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after ''Necessary Evil'' (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).



After a highly suspicious number of reconnaissance flights and some reconnaissance-in-force, in the early hours of the 9th of August the Red Army launched its Far Eastern Strategic Offensive Operation. Later that day, to hurry up the Japanese decision-making process and keep Soviet barganing power to a minimum, another atomic bomb (Fat Man) was detonated over Nagasaki at 11:01 AM. Nagasaki was a rather hilly city and most of the city was merely demolished rather than vaporized, which meant there was plenty of stuff left over for the firestorms which did most of the actual work in destroying the city and killing its people. An estimated 35k-40k people were killed including 150 Japanese military personnel, 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, and 2k Korean slaves. Total death toll was ca.105k-120k—not bad, considering, and as little as an eighth of the total USAAF strategic bombing campaign. The Soviet Union, having lost some ca.27 million military and civilian dead, was totally unimpressed and the Chinese (having lost ca.15 million military and civilian dead) seem to have been a tad gleeful that their foes were finally getting some of their own medicine in a big way.

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After a highly suspicious number of reconnaissance flights and some reconnaissance-in-force, in the early hours of the 9th of August the Red Army launched its Far Eastern Strategic Offensive Operation. Later that day, to hurry up the Japanese decision-making process and keep Soviet barganing power to a minimum, another atomic bomb (Fat Man) ("Fat Man") was detonated over Nagasaki at 11:01 AM.a.m. Nagasaki was a rather hilly city and most of the city was merely demolished rather than vaporized, which meant there was plenty of stuff left over for the firestorms which did most of the actual work in destroying the city and killing its people. An estimated 35k-40k people were killed including 150 Japanese military personnel, 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, and 2k Korean slaves. Total death toll was ca. 105k-120k—not bad, considering, and as little as an eighth of the total USAAF strategic bombing campaign. The Soviet Union, having lost some ca. 27 million military and civilian dead, was totally unimpressed and the Chinese (having lost ca.ca. 15 million military and civilian dead) seem to have been a tad gleeful that their foes were finally getting some of their own medicine in a big way.



The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centres and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

to:

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) "logs" in live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centres centers and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.



The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve… sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now—they had a decent-sized 'buffer zone' in central-eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca.500 000 (inc. ca.100k deaths) almost-entirely-American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full-strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit-structure, and tactical-strategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies…]]

It is interesting to note that the use of nuclear weapons were a part of some variants of ''[[AC:Downfall]]''. However, they would have been used to bomb the beaches to eliminate Japanese fortifications before an invasion. One plan involved using twenty nuclear weapons, nine of which were decoys to fool the Japanese troops to amass at the bombing site and not at the real landing beach, which would also have conveniently irradiated the Japanese army. Except, read that again. The United States intended to use atomic bombs to ''establish a beachhead'' -- meaning they planned on dropping nukes and then marching their own troops through the impact zone while it was still glowing. While obviously nobody at the time knew the long-term dangers of fallout and radiation poisoning, hindsight lets us look back in horror at just how close the atomic bombs came to killing everyone in ''both'' armies. [[note]]This viewpoint is a bit less absurd when you realize that the people planning these operations were military officers and not, for the most part, physicists. When told, for instance, that the Little Boy-type bomb was estimated to detonate with the power of some 10,000 tons of TNT, most military men operating in the Pacific Theater simply shrugged and said something like "Well, we drop some 10,000 tons of TNT in our usual heavy air raid, now we can do the same thing with a single plane. Nifty!" They didn't understand that explosions do not scale linearly (i.e. setting off a 2000-pound bomb produces a bigger boom than setting off four 500-pound bombs) and nobody really understood just how fallout would work.[[/note]]

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The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve… sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now—they had a decent-sized 'buffer zone' "buffer zone" in central-eastern Central/Eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca.500 000 500,000 (inc. ca. 100k deaths) almost-entirely-American[[note]]Just almost entirely American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full-strength, full strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit-structure, unit structure, and tactical-strategic tactical-/trategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' [[AC:Downfall]] were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies…]]

It is interesting to note that the use of nuclear weapons were a part of some variants of ''[[AC:Downfall]]''.[[AC:Downfall]]. However, they would have been used to bomb the beaches to eliminate Japanese fortifications before an invasion. One plan involved using twenty nuclear weapons, nine of which were decoys to fool the Japanese troops to amass at the bombing site and not at the real landing beach, which would also have conveniently irradiated the Japanese army. Except, read that again. The United States intended to use atomic bombs to ''establish a beachhead'' -- meaning beachhead''—meaning they planned on dropping nukes and then marching their own troops through the impact zone while it was still glowing. While obviously nobody at the time knew the long-term dangers of fallout and radiation poisoning, hindsight lets us look back in horror at just how close the atomic bombs came to killing everyone in ''both'' armies. [[note]]This viewpoint is a bit less absurd when you realize that the people planning these operations were military officers and not, for the most part, physicists. When told, for instance, that the Little Boy-type "Little Boy"-type bomb was estimated to detonate with the power of some 10,000 tons of TNT, most military men operating in the Pacific Theater simply shrugged and said something like "Well, we drop some 10,000 tons of TNT in our usual heavy air raid, now we can do the same thing with a single plane. Nifty!" They didn't understand that explosions do not scale linearly (i.(''i.e. '', setting off a 2000-pound bomb produces a bigger boom than setting off four 500-pound bombs) and nobody really understood just how fallout would work.[[/note]]
18th Jan '16 7:16:29 AM trumpetmarietta
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The icing on the cake, though, was [[MeaningfulName Operation]] [[AC:[[AC:Downfall]]]]. For while Hokkaido was of no strategic value, and the Soviets would not be able to amass land forces large and well-supplied enough to take Tokyo because of their supply constraints[[note]] The Soviets had nowhere near the Western Allies' capacity to supply places by ship, as their merchant navy was tiny by comparison—especially when you consider that the UK and the U.S. have always primarily been sea powers, and you compare the Soviet merchant navy to the British Merchant Navy (the old kings of the shipping lanes, massively disproportionately sized and the most venerable of the lot) and the American Merchant Marine (the new kings of the shipping lanes, and simply ''massive'', especially back then). Moreover, the Soviets would've had trouble using Japanese railway lines to supply their forces as they would've had a hard time finding trains for them (Japan runs on narrow gauge, which more or less doesn't exist in the broad-gauge USSR; the Americans and British at least have some narrow-gauge stock) or even fuel for said trains. Honshu's mountainous and hilly terrain is also bad news for tank and mechanized units, whose vehicles also require a lot of supplies to run. Thus, the Soviets probably would've forgone their massive advantage in mobile warfare in favor of using their elite mountain infantry troops. That said, said mountain troops had extensive experience fighting through the Caucasus, Carpathian, and Khingan mountain ranges, so there's no reason to think they should have found Honshu particularly difficult.[[/note]], Operation [[AC:Downfall]] promised to bring the fight directly to the capital. For the Kantō Plains, the closest thing to tank country in all the Japanese Isles, had—you guessed it—Tokyo smack-bang right in the middle of them. Worse still, the whole thing was girded by miles and miles of ''excellent'' beaches for landing an invasion force of over half a million men and (tens of) thousands of armoured vehicles on. Keeping said force supplied was not going to be a problem either, given the number of good ports in the area—and places to ''make'' good ports from scratch—and just how many transport ships the Allies had. Preventing the landings outright would be impossible, as the largest and most powerful battle-fleet ever assembled (with over ten thousand carrier-based aircraft) would help the invading troops annihilate any force within twenty kilometers of the coast, whether they used fortifications or not.

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The icing on the cake, though, was [[MeaningfulName Operation]] [[AC:[[AC:Downfall]]]].[[AC:Downfall]]. For while Hokkaido was of no strategic value, and the Soviets would not be able to amass land forces large and well-supplied enough to take Tokyo because of their supply constraints[[note]] The Soviets had nowhere near the Western Allies' capacity to supply places by ship, as their merchant navy was tiny by comparison—especially when you consider that the UK and the U.S. have always primarily been sea powers, and you compare the Soviet merchant navy to the British Merchant Navy (the old kings of the shipping lanes, massively disproportionately sized and the most venerable of the lot) and the American Merchant Marine (the new kings of the shipping lanes, and simply ''massive'', especially back then). Moreover, the Soviets would've had trouble using Japanese railway lines to supply their forces as they would've had a hard time finding trains for them (Japan runs on narrow gauge, which more or less doesn't exist in the broad-gauge USSR; the Americans and British at least have some narrow-gauge stock) or even fuel for said trains. Honshu's mountainous and hilly terrain is also bad news for tank and mechanized units, whose vehicles also require a lot of supplies to run. Thus, the Soviets probably would've forgone their massive advantage in mobile warfare in favor of using their elite mountain infantry troops. That said, said mountain troops had extensive experience fighting through the Caucasus, Carpathian, and Khingan mountain ranges, so there's no reason to think they should have found Honshu particularly difficult.[[/note]], Operation [[AC:Downfall]] promised to bring the fight directly to the capital. For the Kantō Plains, the closest thing to tank country in all the Japanese Isles, had—you guessed it—Tokyo smack-bang right in the middle of them. Worse still, the whole thing was girded by miles and miles of ''excellent'' beaches for landing an invasion force of over half a million men and (tens of) thousands of armoured vehicles on. Keeping said force supplied was not going to be a problem either, given the number of good ports in the area—and places to ''make'' good ports from scratch—and just how many transport ships the Allies had. Preventing the landings outright would be impossible, as the largest and most powerful battle-fleet ever assembled (with over ten thousand carrier-based aircraft) would help the invading troops annihilate any force within twenty kilometers of the coast, whether they used fortifications or not.
18th Jan '16 7:16:05 AM trumpetmarietta
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Given the Allies' total air-supremacy, this left them in a position to make a supported landing on the northernmost 'Home Island' of Ezo/Hokkaido from the tiny and isolated IJA forces that had been assigned to defend it, and use this as a springboard to take Honshu.

The icing on the cake, though, was ''[[MeaningfulName Operation Downfall]]''. For while Hokkaido was of no strategic value, and the Soviets would not be able to amass land forces large- and well-supplied enough to take Tokyo because of their supply constraints[[note]] The Soviets had nowhere near the Western Allies' capacity to supply places by ship, as their merchant navy was tiny by comparison--especially when you consider that the UK and the US have always primarily been sea powers, and you compare the Soviet merchant navy to the British Merchant Navy (the old kings of the shipping lanes, massively disproportionately sized and the most venerable of the lot) and the American Merchant Marine (the new kings of the shipping lanes, and simply ''massive'', especially back then). Moreover, the Soviets would've had trouble using Japanese railway lines to supply their forces as they would've had a hard time finding trains for them (Japan runs on narrow gauge, which more or less doesn't exist in the broad-gauge USSR; the Americans and Brits at least have some narrow-gauge stock) or even fuel for said trains. Honshu's mountainous and hilly terrain is also bad news for tank and mechanized units, whose vehicles also require a lot of supplies to run. Thus, the Soviets probably would've forgone their massive advantage in mobile warfare in favour of using their elite mountain infantry troops. That said, said mountain troops had extensive experience fighting through the Caucasus, Carpathian, and Khingan mountain ranges, so there's no reason to think they should have found Honshu particularly difficult.[[/note]], ''Operation Downfall'' promised to bring the fight directly to the capital. For the Tokyo Plains, the closest thing to 'tank country' in all the Japanese Isles, had - you guessed it - Tokyo smack-bang right in the middle of them. Worse still, the whole thing was girded by miles and miles of ''excellent'' beaches for landing an invasion force of over half a million men and (tens of) thousands of armoured vehicles on. Keeping said force supplied was not going to be a problem either, given the number of good ports in the area - and places to ''make'' good ports from scratch - and just how many transport ships the Allies had. Preventing the landings outright would be impossible, as the largest and most powerful battle-fleet ever assembled (with over ten thousand carrier-based aircraft) would help the invading troops annihilate any force within twenty kilometers of the coast, whether they used fortifications or not.

to:

Given the Allies' total air-supremacy, air supremacy, this left them in a position to make a supported landing on the northernmost 'Home Island' Home Island of Ezo/Hokkaido from the tiny and isolated IJA forces that had been assigned to defend it, and use this as a springboard to take Honshu.

The icing on the cake, though, was ''[[MeaningfulName Operation Downfall]]''. [[MeaningfulName Operation]] [[AC:[[AC:Downfall]]]]. For while Hokkaido was of no strategic value, and the Soviets would not be able to amass land forces large- large and well-supplied enough to take Tokyo because of their supply constraints[[note]] The Soviets had nowhere near the Western Allies' capacity to supply places by ship, as their merchant navy was tiny by comparison--especially comparison—especially when you consider that the UK and the US U.S. have always primarily been sea powers, and you compare the Soviet merchant navy to the British Merchant Navy (the old kings of the shipping lanes, massively disproportionately sized and the most venerable of the lot) and the American Merchant Marine (the new kings of the shipping lanes, and simply ''massive'', especially back then). Moreover, the Soviets would've had trouble using Japanese railway lines to supply their forces as they would've had a hard time finding trains for them (Japan runs on narrow gauge, which more or less doesn't exist in the broad-gauge USSR; the Americans and Brits British at least have some narrow-gauge stock) or even fuel for said trains. Honshu's mountainous and hilly terrain is also bad news for tank and mechanized units, whose vehicles also require a lot of supplies to run. Thus, the Soviets probably would've forgone their massive advantage in mobile warfare in favour favor of using their elite mountain infantry troops. That said, said mountain troops had extensive experience fighting through the Caucasus, Carpathian, and Khingan mountain ranges, so there's no reason to think they should have found Honshu particularly difficult.[[/note]], ''Operation Downfall'' Operation [[AC:Downfall]] promised to bring the fight directly to the capital. For the Tokyo Kantō Plains, the closest thing to 'tank country' tank country in all the Japanese Isles, had - you had—you guessed it - Tokyo it—Tokyo smack-bang right in the middle of them. Worse still, the whole thing was girded by miles and miles of ''excellent'' beaches for landing an invasion force of over half a million men and (tens of) thousands of armoured vehicles on. Keeping said force supplied was not going to be a problem either, given the number of good ports in the area - and area—and places to ''make'' good ports from scratch - and scratch—and just how many transport ships the Allies had. Preventing the landings outright would be impossible, as the largest and most powerful battle-fleet ever assembled (with over ten thousand carrier-based aircraft) would help the invading troops annihilate any force within twenty kilometers of the coast, whether they used fortifications or not.



[[folder: ''Operation Downfall'']]

The prospects were ''not'' good, even accounting for just how transparent and easily-anticipated the Allies' overall plan for ''Operation Downfall'' was [[note]] i.e. using fighter-aircaft operating from airbases on Okinawa to land on southern Kyushu, the southernmost major island, to establish further fighter-airbases that could cover the main landings on the southern and eastern coasts of the Tokyo Plain. The Tokyo Plain was beyond the range of land-based fighter aircraft based on Okinawa and strong fighter-cover would be necessary to prevent unacceptable losses among the troopships (and landing force thereon) from the ''Tokubetsu Kogeki'' aircraft and both sides knew it [[/note]]. Although some two thousand aircraft and several thousand speedboats had been made available or constructed for ''Tokubetsu Kogeki'' duty, only a handful of regular submarines and mini-submarines were left, and though the Home Islands Defence Corps had enough regular soldiers to match the invaders' million men man-for-man, they didn't have enough weapons for a fifth of them and the [[HomeGuard 'Volunteer Defence Corps']] which took over most of the support roles was largely composed of unarmed women, kids, and the elderly; 'unarmed', because there weren't enough weapons (or even food) for them. Ammunition production was hovering a touch above zero, despite the attempt at using hundreds of thousands of Korean slave-labourers to improve productivity, since the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign had caused such extensive damage to the country's infrastructure - i.e. the railway and telegraph lines were cut more often than not, more and more roads were out, the power was out 24/7, and water supplies were iffy. The fact that they were willing to work their workers to death (on threat of torture and death) didn't help increase productivity, since they physically weren't able to do the work without power or raw materials.

Despite their best efforts to conscript the civilian population to build fortifications, the conscript-workforce's efficiency had been severely reduced by starvation, low morale resulting from starving military personnel stealing food from and brutalizing civilians, and deaths from air-raids. There also wasn't enough concrete-mix, let alone enough iron or steel, to construct the fortifications properly - even once the use of such materials in any other capacity (including bomb-shelters) had been forbidden. This was a major contributing factor to the lethality of the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign on Japanese urban centres, which killed between 250 and 900k civilians[[note]]The Great Firebombing of Tokyo, which killed 80k and wounded another 40k, would not have been anywhere near as lethal had there been a single adequate bomb-shelter in the city outside the grounds of the Imperial Palace.[[/note]] The food situation was also slightly desperate, as the average citizen was living on some 1200 of the 2000 calories-a-day they needed to survive - the country had had to import food for decades by that point, and domestic agriculture had been devastated by the disappearance of the fertilizer and agricultural-machinery industries[[note]]Both had been sacrificed upon the altars of the gods of explosives and war-machines, respectively[[/note]] and the wartime labor shortage. Unsurprisingly, morale [[ScrewThisImOuttaHere hung by a thread]] as every sane man, woman, and child in the Empire realized that its strategic position could very easily be summed up [[http://youtu.be/pje5ROe5Y_w?t=1m38s in a single, rude word]].

to:

[[folder: ''Operation Downfall'']]

Operation DOWNFALL]]

The prospects were ''not'' good, even accounting for just how transparent and easily-anticipated the Allies' overall plan for ''Operation Downfall'' Operation [[AC:Downfall]] was [[note]] i.''i.e. '', using fighter-aircaft fighter aircaft operating from airbases on Okinawa to land on southern Kyushu, the southernmost major island, to establish further fighter-airbases that could cover the main landings on the southern and eastern coasts of the Tokyo Kantō Plain. The Tokyo Kantō Plain was beyond the range of land-based fighter aircraft based on Okinawa and strong fighter-cover fighter cover would be necessary to prevent unacceptable losses among the troopships (and landing force thereon) from the ''Tokubetsu Kogeki'' aircraft and both sides knew it [[/note]]. Although some two thousand aircraft and several thousand speedboats had been made available or constructed for ''Tokubetsu Kogeki'' duty, only a handful of regular submarines and mini-submarines were left, and though the Home Islands Defence Defense Corps had enough regular soldiers to match the invaders' million men man-for-man, they didn't have enough weapons for a fifth of them and the [[HomeGuard 'Volunteer Defence Corps']] Volunteer Defense Corps]] which took over most of the support roles was largely composed of unarmed women, kids, and the elderly; 'unarmed', "unarmed", because there weren't enough weapons (or even food) for them. Ammunition production was hovering a touch above zero, despite the attempt at using hundreds of thousands of Korean slave-labourers slave laborers to improve productivity, since the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign had caused such extensive damage to the country's infrastructure - i.infrastructure—''i.e. '', the railway and telegraph lines were cut more often than not, more and more roads were out, the power was out 24/7, and water supplies were iffy. The fact that they were willing to work their workers to death (on threat of torture and death) didn't help increase productivity, since they physically weren't able to do the work without power or raw materials.

Despite their best efforts to conscript the civilian population to build fortifications, the conscript-workforce's conscript workforce's efficiency had been severely reduced by starvation, low morale resulting from starving military personnel stealing food from and brutalizing civilians, and deaths from air-raids. There also wasn't enough concrete-mix, concrete mix, let alone enough iron or steel, to construct the fortifications properly - even properly—even once the use of such materials in any other capacity (including bomb-shelters) had been forbidden. This was a major contributing factor to the lethality of the USAAF's strategic bombing campaign on Japanese urban centres, which killed between 250 and 900k civilians[[note]]The Great Firebombing of Tokyo, which killed 80k and wounded another 40k, would not have been anywhere near as lethal had there been a single adequate bomb-shelter in the city outside the grounds of the Imperial Palace.[[/note]] The food situation was also slightly desperate, as the average citizen was living on some 1200 of the 2000 calories-a-day they needed to survive - the survive—the country had had to import food for decades by that point, and domestic agriculture had been devastated by the disappearance of the fertilizer and agricultural-machinery agricultural machinery industries[[note]]Both had been sacrificed upon the altars of the gods of explosives and war-machines, war machines, respectively[[/note]] and the wartime labor shortage. Unsurprisingly, morale [[ScrewThisImOuttaHere hung by a thread]] as every sane man, woman, and child in the Empire realized that its strategic position could very easily be summed up [[http://youtu.be/pje5ROe5Y_w?t=1m38s in a single, rude word]].



[[folder: ''Operation Ketsugo'']]

The Japanese answer to ''Downfall'' was ''Operation Ketsugo.'' It wasn't hard to guess where the invasion would take place, and Japan began moving more and more troops to southern Kyushu. While the Japanese knew they had no hope of winning the war, they hoped that they could make invasion of the Home Islands too costly for the Allies to attempt. Even at this late stage, Japan retained around 10,000 aircraft of all types and in all conditions (of which a third might be in working order). Given the lack of fuel and munitions, most would have to be used in Special Attacks if they were to be of any use. During the Battle of Okinawa the Japanese Navy had launched 1500 Special Attacks, achieving a hit-rate of around 11% and wounding or killing more than 10,000 US Navy personnel. While this may not sound like a lot, it should be remembered that the USA had suffered very few deaths throughout the war (less than half a million) so this seemed like a very large number to them at the time. At Kyushu, due to more favorable terrain, the Japanese hoped for a hit-rate of 17%. Furthermore, they would target troop carriers as they ferried men to the beaches, rather than the heavy navy ships, increasing casualties even further. With this, the Japanese hoped that the Special Attack forces alone could destroy 1/3 or more of the invasion force ''en route'' to the beaches.

In addition to this, the Japanese had built over 1000 suicide submarines of various types, and thousands of suicide boats (simply motorboats filled with explosives). As much as half of these might actually be in working order during the invasion, and the majority of these would of course be allocated to Kyushu. The Navy further hoped to employ thousands of "human mines" - men in diving gear who would swim out from shore and detonate bombs as the American transports passed over. On land, the Japanese had roughly a million soldiers with passable training and armament. Japanese civilians were also trained to fight to the death, using centuries-old muskets, longbows, bamboo spears - whatever they had. One Japanese schoolgirl related how she was handed a simple metal spike and told, "Even killing one American soldier will do. Aim for the abdomen." Another schoolboy related how he was trained to dive under an American tank with a satchel of explosives and set it off.

to:

[[folder: ''Operation Ketsugo'']]

Operation KETSUGŌ]]

The Japanese answer to ''Downfall'' ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' was ''Operation Ketsugo.[[AC:Ketsugō]].'' It wasn't hard to guess where the invasion would take place, and Japan began moving more and more troops to southern Kyushu. While the Japanese knew they had no hope of winning the war, they hoped that they could make invasion of the Home Islands too costly for the Allies to attempt. Even at this late stage, Japan retained around 10,000 aircraft of all types and in all conditions (of which a third might be in working order). Given the lack of fuel and munitions, most would have to be used in Special Attacks if they were to be of any use. During the Battle of Okinawa Okinawa, the Japanese Navy had launched 1500 Special Attacks, achieving a hit-rate of around 11% and wounding or killing more than 10,000 US U.S. Navy personnel. While this may not sound like a lot, it should be remembered that the USA had suffered very few deaths throughout the war (less than half a million) so this seemed like a very large number to them at the time. At Kyushu, due to more favorable terrain, the Japanese hoped for a hit-rate of 17%. Furthermore, they would target troop carriers as they ferried men to the beaches, rather than the heavy navy ships, increasing casualties even further. With this, the Japanese hoped that the Special Attack forces alone could destroy 1/3 or more of the invasion force ''en route'' to the beaches.

In addition to this, the Japanese had built over 1000 suicide submarines of various types, and thousands of suicide boats (simply motorboats filled with explosives). As much as half of these might actually be in working order during the invasion, and the majority of these would of course be allocated to Kyushu. The Navy further hoped to employ thousands of "human mines" - men mines"—men in diving gear who would swim out from shore and detonate bombs as the American transports passed over. On land, the Japanese had roughly a million soldiers with passable training and armament. Japanese civilians were also trained to fight to the death, using centuries-old muskets, longbows, bamboo spears - whatever spears—whatever they had. One Japanese schoolgirl related how she was handed a simple metal spike and told, "Even killing one American soldier will do. Aim for the abdomen." Another schoolboy related how he was trained to dive under an American tank with a satchel of explosives and set it off.



[[folder: The Junta Decides]]

Knowing very well how close they were to total defeat, the Cabinet was split on those who wanted to surrender now, please, before they kill us all, and those who wanted to fight to the death. The latter were a smaller group, but the former faction was evenly split on those who wanted to "surrender now, please," and those who wanted to [[InsistentTerminology "negotiate an end to the war."]] In any case, peace-negotiations were ongoing throughout 1945, but the Cabinet was ''loath'' to admit that they basically had zero bargaining power. They insisted upon the retention of the Emperor as Supreme Head of State (with full powers), that there would be no occupation, that Japanese disarmament would not be controlled by the Allies, and that it would try its own war-criminals. This was, of course, ridiculous - especially considering that Germany had already surrendered unconditionally.

to:

[[folder: The Junta ''Junta'' Decides]]

Knowing very well how close they were to total defeat, the Cabinet was split on those who wanted to surrender now, please, before they kill us all, and those who wanted to fight to the death. The latter were a smaller group, but the former faction was evenly split on those who wanted to "surrender now, please," and those who wanted to [[InsistentTerminology "negotiate an end to the war."]] In any case, peace-negotiations peace negotiations were ongoing throughout 1945, but the Cabinet was ''loath'' to admit that they basically had zero bargaining power. They insisted upon the retention of the Emperor as Supreme Head of State (with full powers), that there would be no occupation, that Japanese disarmament would not be controlled by the Allies, and that it would try its own war-criminals. war criminals. This was, of course, ridiculous - especially ridiculous—especially considering that Germany had already surrendered unconditionally.



Just as important, if not more, was the balance of power; by this point in time the Red Army was a massive, sophisticated juggernaut. Leaving aside the fact that she had the world's most experienced and able commanders and its best General Staff, the raw numbers were very impressive - three times as many combat troops as the rest of the Western Allies put together, twice as many [=AFV=]s, an only slight inferiority in fighter-aircraft, and though the Soviets lacked bombers the Allies' bombers didn't have the range to damage any Soviet urban or industrial centres (the latter having been moved to the Urals and Siberia during the first months of Germany's ''Operation Barbarossa''). [[ThoseWackyNazis The Nazis]] had thought right up 'til the end that the mutual threat posed by the Soviet Union was sufficiently great that The Allies would happily sign a truce with them in exchange for Germany's support against the Soviets. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Unthinkable The prognosis of a war with the USSR]] was the loss of Western Europe and China... [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar and strategic stalemate, with the USA unable to contest the USSR's power in Eurasia and the USSR unable to invade North America]].

Ultimately though, it boiled down to the fact that everyone - leaders and populations both - were tired of war, and didn't want another one that would take a decade and (tens of) millions of lives to win. Neither the Allies nor the Soviets wanted World War Three, as they had both spent years telling their troops and populations that their Allies were good and trustworthy people - reports from NKVD officers and surveys of Allied troops indicated that it would have been difficult if not impossible for either side to get their troops to fight their former allies (even in a defensive war). Indeed the need of British troops in post-war Yugoslavia to beat ethnic Russians[[note]] some of whom had, or were descended from people who had, [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober fled from Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1917-21]][[/note]] (and their families) unconscious so they could be deported to the USSR[[note]] Where those who had fought against The Red Army during the Civil War or World War Two were sentenced to hard labour (for life) or shot out of hand, the others largely being deported to Siberia so they wouldn't be a bad (capitalist-ic) influence on the general population.[[/note]] was apparently a rather traumatic experience, and the troops involved very nearly mutinied despite the increased alcohol rations.

In light of that, the Soviets and Chinese could get the best deal by continuing to advance, while the Americans would get the best deal by forcing a Japanese surrender in the Home Islands and forcing terms that would allow them to march in and disarm the remaining Japanese where they could (the British, for instance, dispatching a task-force from Sydney at full speed to accept the surrender of Hong Kong before Guomindang troops could get there).

So it became beneficial for the USA to force an unconditional Japanese surrender, and do it *quickly.*

to:

Just as important, if not more, was the balance of power; by this point in time the Red Army was a massive, sophisticated juggernaut. Leaving aside the fact that she had the world's most experienced and able commanders and its best General Staff, the raw numbers were very impressive - three impressive—three times as many combat troops as the rest of the Western Allies put together, twice as many [=AFV=]s, an only slight inferiority in fighter-aircraft, and though the Soviets lacked bombers the Allies' bombers didn't have the range to damage any Soviet urban or industrial centres (the latter having been moved to the Urals and Siberia during the first months of Germany's ''Operation Barbarossa'').''Unternehmen [[AC:Barbarossa]]''). [[ThoseWackyNazis The Nazis]] had thought right up 'til the end that the mutual threat posed by the Soviet Union was sufficiently great that The Allies would happily sign a truce with them in exchange for Germany's support against the Soviets. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Unthinkable The prognosis of a war with the USSR]] was the loss of Western Europe and China... China… [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar and strategic stalemate, with the USA unable to contest the USSR's power in Eurasia and the USSR unable to invade North America]].

Ultimately though, it boiled down to the fact that everyone - leaders everyone—leaders and populations both - were both—were tired of war, and didn't want another one that would take a decade and (tens of) millions of lives to win. Neither the Allies nor the Soviets wanted World War Three, WorldWarIII, as they had both spent years telling their troops and populations that their Allies were good and trustworthy people - reports people—reports from NKVD officers and surveys of Allied troops indicated that it would have been difficult if not impossible for either side to get their troops to fight their former allies (even in a defensive war). Indeed the need of British troops in post-war Yugoslavia to beat ethnic Russians[[note]] some of whom had, or were descended from people who had, [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober fled from Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1917-21]][[/note]] (and their families) unconscious so they could be deported to the USSR[[note]] Where those who had fought against The the Red Army during the Civil War or World War Two II were sentenced to hard labour (for life) or shot out of hand, the others largely being deported to Siberia so they wouldn't be a bad (capitalist-ic) influence on the general population.[[/note]] was apparently a rather traumatic experience, and the troops involved very nearly mutinied despite the increased alcohol rations.

In light of that, the Soviets and Chinese could get the best deal by continuing to advance, while the Americans would get the best deal by forcing a Japanese surrender in the Home Islands and forcing terms that would allow them to march in and disarm the remaining Japanese where they could (the British, for instance, dispatching a task-force task force from Sydney at full speed to accept the surrender of Hong Kong before Guomindang troops could get there).

So it became beneficial for the USA to force an unconditional Japanese surrender, and do it *quickly.*
'''quickly'''.



The prospects for Operation Downfall were absolutely bone-chilling for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset 'by balls to the wall' desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straightup collapses and mass-surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.

However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operations would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought - Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan - the US ''still'' has about 100,000 of the Downfall-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It was thought that Japanese dead would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates of the time reckoning that several million would be killed on the field and die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.

Everyone wanted the war over and nobody wanted there to be any more Allied military dead - they were already facing domestic turmoil just from the war's ongoing monetary costs, which were just a fraction of Downfall's price tag (which also had a blood-price). It would have been inconceivable at the time, when tens of millions of Europeans and Asians had died as well as hundreds of thousands of Americans, to refuse to use a bomb that could end the war for fear of "killing too many people." So they decided to use the bombs against the cities that they had trouble fire-bombing and were still largely intact. This was done to prove the bombs' killing-power and would be part of a huge bluff - the USA would pretend that it had lots of these bombs. The Junta wanted to resist because it thought that the USA were so afraid of its people dying trying to take the Home islands (and thus being voted out of power) that they would make peace with The Junta to avoid that. But if the USA had a lot of atomic bombs, then it could defeat the Junta with a minimum of US losses... and The Junta would have no bargaining power because the USA could just as easily defeat them as negotiate with them.

to:

The prospects for Operation Downfall [[AC:Downfall]] were absolutely bone-chilling for anyone sane, especially for the Japanese (who faced the non-trivial chance of being wiped off the face of the planet) and Western nations like the USA (which had escaped the worst fighting and horrors of the war). There was no doubt about the poor shape of the Japanese military by this point or the regime's inefficiency, but the fanaticism in the Japanese military and even civilian population had been carved deep into the psyche of just about anyone who had dealt with them in their heyday. By any conventional standard, the Japanese were suffering from poor morale, but that could be offset 'by balls to the wall' by balls-to-the-wall desperation that might cause those of them who weren't fainting from hunger to fight just as hard as they were when they had been on their winning streaks. On the other hand, it could also lead to straightup collapses and mass-surrenders mass surrenders like what had taken place with the Kwantang Army or the sizable (by their standards) surrenders in Burma and Okinawa, but the dominant experience of most that had been fighting the Japanese for years was of utter, fanatical refusal to surrender for even the most minor and barren of objectives. So nobody could imagine what confronting them for the Home Islands themselves would bring.

However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operations would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought - Korea, fought—Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan - the US Afghanistan—the U.S. ''still'' has about 100,000 of the Downfall-era [[AC:Downfall]]-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It was thought that Japanese dead would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates of the time reckoning that several million would be killed on the field and die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.

Everyone wanted the war over and nobody wanted there to be any more Allied military dead - they dead—they were already facing domestic turmoil just from the war's ongoing monetary costs, which were just a fraction of Downfall's [[AC:Downfall]]'s price tag (which also had a blood-price).blood price). It would have been inconceivable at the time, when tens of millions of Europeans and Asians had died as well as hundreds of thousands of Americans, to refuse to use a bomb that could end the war for fear of "killing too many people." So they decided to use the bombs against the cities that they had trouble fire-bombing and were still largely intact. This was done to prove the bombs' killing-power killing power and would be part of a huge bluff - the bluff—the USA would pretend that it had lots of these bombs. The Junta ''Junta'' wanted to resist because it thought that the USA were so afraid of its people dying trying to take the Home islands (and thus being voted out of power) that they would make peace with The Junta ''Junta'' to avoid that. But if the USA had a lot of atomic bombs, then it could defeat the Junta ''Junta'' with a minimum of US losses... U.S. losses… and The Junta the ''Junta'' would have no bargaining power because the USA could just as easily defeat them as negotiate with them.



The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been 'raided', yes, but various reasons (i.e. importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions -lots of rain all the time = bad-, and the strength of anti-air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of the other cities in Japan. The Enola Gay dropped the first nuclear device, Little Boy, at Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had ironically just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after Necessary Evil (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).

Japan's main broadcasting corporation's radio control operator soon noticed the signal to the Hiroshima station was as dead [[ShapedLikeItself as something an atomic bomb had been dropped on]]. At military headquarters, many thought it the result of some technical error or meteorological phenomenon or other, despite the total loss of contact with all stations in and around Hiroshima. It wasn't until August the 8th that Radio Tokyo reported that "Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death" and people realized it was neither an error, a natural phenomenon, nor just another run-of-the-mill strategic-bombing.

After a highly suspicious number of reconnaissance flights and some reconnaissance-in-force, in the early hours of the 9th of August the Red Army launched its Far Eastern Strategic Offensive Operation. Later that day, to hurry up the Japanese decision-making process and keep Soviet barganing power to a minimum, another atomic bomb (Fat Man) was detonated over Nagasaki at 11:01 AM. Nagasaki was a rather hilly city and most of the city was merely demolished rather than vaporized, which meant there was plenty of stuff left over for the firestorms which did most of the actual work in destroying the city and killing its people. An estimated 35k-40k people were killed including 150 Japanese military personnel, 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, and 2k Korean slaves. Total death toll was ca.105k-120k - not bad, considering, and as little as an eighth of the total USAAF strategic bombing campaign. The Soviet Union, having lost some ca.27 million military and civilian dead, was totally unimpressed and the Chinese (having lost ca.15 million military and civilian dead) seem to have been a tad gleeful that their foes were finally 'getting some of their own medicine' in a big way.

The American public, on the other hand, was a little shocked. Though they weren't told of the figure until long-afterwards (the USA only lost 420,000 military dead throughout the war and 12,000 civilian dead, making the death toll seem very large by comparison), the tales some heard of the destruction made it all seem a bit unnecessarily brutal. At the time the reaction to the bombings was rather varied, with a VocalMinority advocating the dropping of more atomic bombs and the genocide of the Japanese nation. Although the bombings killed, crippled, and wounded many, genocide or simply killing Japanese people for the sake of it was never on the cards. British and American leaders had only ever cared about trying to destroy the enemy's war industry, something which was only really possible by burning down the cities in which said industries were based (given near-total inaccuracy of 'precision bombing' with the available bombs and bomb sights). Government censorship of the effects of the bomb, and especially of photographs, meant that very few people understood that most of the bombs' deaths were not instantaneous but rather from blood loss, infection, and radiation-poisoning. That said, ''nobody'' had much of an idea of the lasting effects of fallout at the time.

The very next day, the 10th of August, the Japanese Empire announced that her forces would stop fighting wherever United Nations forces did the same (a 'cease-fire' declaration) and that she would seek to sign a formal peace treaty (an unconditional one in which she would do everything asked of her) ending the war with them as soon as possible. However, this did not apply to the defensive operation against the Red Army in Manchuria and northern China.

to:

The choosing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the targets was almost a chance event, as there were four target cities which still hadn't been totally destroyed. In particular, Kokura was the intended target for the second bomb (and had been the backup target for the first), but Nagasaki was attacked instead because of poor visibility over Kokura. All had been 'raided', raided, yes, but various reasons (i.e. (''e.g.'', importance of the military industries therein, layout of the city, weather/climate conditions -lots conditions—lots of rain all the time = bad-, and bad—and the strength of anti-air air defenses) meant that none of them had been razed to the ground like most of the other cities in Japan. The Enola Gay ''Enola Gay'' dropped the first nuclear device, Little Boy, at [[AC:Little Boy]], on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on the 6th of August, on a hot summer day. People had ironically just gotten out of the air raid shelters when the bomb went off after Necessary Evil ''Necessary Evil'' (perhaps a fitting name?), a scout plane, passed by. Wind caused it to miss the point it was aimed for, the Aioi Bridge, and detonate over Shima Surgical Clinic instead. It killed 70,000-80,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese military personnel and 20,000 Koreans, and destroyed nearly 48,000 buildings (including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division).

Japan's main broadcasting corporation's radio control operator soon noticed the signal to the Hiroshima station was as dead [[ShapedLikeItself as something an atomic bomb had been dropped on]]. At military headquarters, many thought it the result of some technical error or meteorological phenomenon or other, despite the total loss of contact with all stations in and around Hiroshima. It wasn't until August the 8th that Radio Tokyo reported that "Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death" and people realized it was neither an error, a natural phenomenon, nor just another run-of-the-mill strategic-bombing.strategic bombing.

After a highly suspicious number of reconnaissance flights and some reconnaissance-in-force, in the early hours of the 9th of August the Red Army launched its Far Eastern Strategic Offensive Operation. Later that day, to hurry up the Japanese decision-making process and keep Soviet barganing power to a minimum, another atomic bomb (Fat Man) was detonated over Nagasaki at 11:01 AM. Nagasaki was a rather hilly city and most of the city was merely demolished rather than vaporized, which meant there was plenty of stuff left over for the firestorms which did most of the actual work in destroying the city and killing its people. An estimated 35k-40k people were killed including 150 Japanese military personnel, 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, and 2k Korean slaves. Total death toll was ca.105k-120k - not 105k-120k—not bad, considering, and as little as an eighth of the total USAAF strategic bombing campaign. The Soviet Union, having lost some ca.27 million military and civilian dead, was totally unimpressed and the Chinese (having lost ca.15 million military and civilian dead) seem to have been a tad gleeful that their foes were finally 'getting getting some of their own medicine' medicine in a big way.

The American public, on the other hand, was a little shocked. Though they weren't told of the figure until long-afterwards long afterwards (the USA only lost 420,000 military dead throughout the war and 12,000 civilian dead, making the death toll seem very large by comparison), the tales some heard of the destruction made it all seem a bit unnecessarily brutal. At the time the reaction to the bombings was rather varied, with a VocalMinority advocating the dropping of more atomic bombs and the genocide of the Japanese nation. Although the bombings killed, crippled, and wounded many, genocide or simply killing Japanese people for the sake of it was never on the cards. British and American leaders had only ever cared about trying to destroy the enemy's war industry, something which was only really possible by burning down the cities in which said industries were based (given near-total inaccuracy of 'precision bombing' "precision bombing" with the available bombs and bomb sights). bombsights). Government censorship of the effects of the bomb, and especially of photographs, meant that very few people understood that most of the bombs' deaths were not instantaneous but rather from blood loss, infection, and radiation-poisoning.radiation poisoning. That said, ''nobody'' had much of an idea of the lasting effects of fallout at the time.

The very next day, the 10th of August, the Japanese Empire announced that her forces would stop fighting wherever United Nations forces did the same (a 'cease-fire' cease-fire declaration) and that she would seek to sign a formal peace treaty (an unconditional one in which she would do everything asked of her) ending the war with them as soon as possible. However, this did not apply to the defensive operation against the Red Army in Manchuria and northern China.



The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really - it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) 'logs' in live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centres and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

In contrast, the aforementioned VocalMinority of hardliners who would have nothing but victory or extinction decreased further in number as even some of their ranks defected, but those who remained stayed just as stalwart. Ultimately, the united front the Doves made in the aftermath and the personal declaration of the Emperor were needed to force the issue and convince most of the remaining Hawks to accept defeat. [[RunningGag And even then, some were still defiant]] to the point where they told junior and non-commissioned officers what was happening and encouraged them to save Japan's honor by [[InsaneTrollLogic launching a coup against the Emperor and his government]] to kidnap him, kill several of his senior staff, and destroy all records of the Japanese surrender in order to try and rally the rest of the country to one final glorious stand. The young patriots were soon put down by security forces, despite a final attempt by them to hijack the truck carrying the recording of the Emperor's 'Jewel Voice' speech, and the Emperor's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast soon after.

to:

The Imperial Cabinet first ignored the bombing of Hiroshima, but when Nagasaki was hit, the pre-existing rifts came to the surface and promptly caused it to fall apart. The "Doves" in the Cabinet viewed the bombings as an unrequited- if macabre- blessing. The bombings provided a ''perfect'' excuse for just getting the whole 'giving up' thing over with because, hey, surrendering to the enemy who has 'the power of a thousand suns, in a bomb' doesn't sound so bad really - it really—it would totally overshadow the fact that it was less your collective fault for getting the entire country [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar into a massive regular-and-guerilla war]] [[ForeverWar it couldn't possibly win]], and then ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII getting involved in another]]'' just to avoid stopping the first one [[GeneralFailure because really, guys, come on, we're gonna win this one any year and loss of a hundred thousand men now, be good sports why don't you.]] So it was that they reduced their conditions to just retaining the Emperor, who was not to be tried for war crimes[[note]]Like establishing Research Unit 731 of the Kwantung/Guandong Army, which went through several (tens of) thousand(s of) 'logs' "logs" in live human experiments to develop chemical and biological weapons which were used on Chinese urban centres and agricultural areas during [[UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar the war]].[[/note]] This was promptly rejected by the Allies again, and so the decision to surrender unconditionally was soon decided.

In contrast, the aforementioned VocalMinority of hardliners who would have nothing but victory or extinction decreased further in number as even some of their ranks defected, but those who remained stayed just as stalwart. Ultimately, the united front the Doves made in the aftermath and the personal declaration of the Emperor were needed to force the issue and convince most of the remaining Hawks to accept defeat. [[RunningGag And even then, some were still defiant]] to the point where they told junior and non-commissioned officers what was happening and encouraged them to save Japan's honor by [[InsaneTrollLogic launching a coup against the Emperor and his government]] to kidnap him, kill several of his senior staff, and destroy all records of the Japanese surrender in order to try and rally the rest of the country to one final glorious stand. The young patriots were soon put down by security forces, despite a final attempt by them to hijack the truck carrying the recording of the Emperor's 'Jewel Voice' "Jewel Voice" speech, and the Emperor's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast soon after.



[[folder: The Soviets 'Overawed', the Japanese vanquished, and lives saved]]

The Allies accepted, and so a truce was concluded on the 15th of August until the representatives of both countries' governments could meet (on September the 2nd) to sign the peace treaty. In the meantime, The Cabinet set about destroying all the records they could of everything even remotely related to War Crimes before the Americans' troop-ships landed to occupy the place some two weeks later. This would leave the post-war Tokyo (war crime) Trials a teensy bit short of critical evidence... which meant a lot of pretty-obviously-guilty individuals got off scot-free[[note]]Such as, at one point, ''The Prime Minister''. Kishi Nobusuke, Prime Minister from 1957-60, provided Chinese slaves for Japanese state-run corporations in Manchuria. None of the documentation survived, however, so there was nothing to prosecute him with.[[/note]]

The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve... sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now - they had a decent-sized 'buffer zone' in central-eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca.500 000 (inc. ca.100k deaths) almost-entirely-American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full-strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit-structure, and tactical-strategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from ''Downfall'' were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies...]]

It is interesting to note that the use of nuclear weapons were a part of some variants of ''Downfall''. However, they would have been used to bomb the beaches to eliminate Japanese fortifications before an invasion. One plan involved using twenty nuclear weapons, nine of which were decoys to fool the Japanese troops to amass at the bombing site and not at the real landing beach, which would also have conveniently irradiated the Japanese army. Except, read that again. The United States intended to use atomic bombs to ''establish a beachhead'' -- meaning they planned on dropping nukes and then marching their own troops through the impact zone while it was still glowing. While obviously nobody at the time knew the long-term dangers of fallout and radiation poisoning, hindsight lets us look back in horror at just how close the atomic bombs came to killing everyone in ''both'' armies. [[note]]This viewpoint is a bit less absurd when you realize that the people planning these operations were military officers and not, for the most part, physicists. When told, for instance, that the Little Boy-type bomb was estimated to detonate with the power of some 10,000 tons of TNT, most military men operating in the Pacific Theater simply shrugged and said something like "Well, we drop some 10,000 tons of TNT in our usual heavy air raid, now we can do the same thing with a single plane. Nifty!" They didn't understand that explosions do not scale linearly (i.e. setting off a 2000-pound bomb produces a bigger boom than setting off four 500-pound bombs) and nobody really understood just how fallout would work.[[/note]]

to:

[[folder: The Soviets 'Overawed', "overawed", the Japanese vanquished, and lives saved]]

The Allies accepted, and so a truce was concluded on the 15th of August until the representatives of both countries' governments could meet (on September the 2nd) to sign the peace treaty. In the meantime, The Cabinet set about destroying all the records they could of everything even remotely related to War Crimes before the Americans' troop-ships landed to occupy the place some two weeks later. This would leave the post-war Tokyo (war crime) Trials a teensy bit short of critical evidence... evidence… which meant a lot of pretty-obviously-guilty individuals got off scot-free[[note]]Such as, at one point, ''The Prime Minister''. Kishi Nobusuke, Prime Minister from 1957-60, provided Chinese slaves for Japanese state-run corporations in Manchuria. None of the documentation survived, however, so there was nothing to prosecute him with.[[/note]]

The decision to approve the bombing accomplished everything it was meant to achieve... achieve… sorta. The Soviets appeared to respect the USA's ruthlessness and power enough not to [[WorldWarThree start anything]] or drive too hard a bargain over the future of East Asia[[note]]In reality, they were just too tired and could not be bothered. The war had totally exhausted them, the last thing they wanted was another right now - they now—they had a decent-sized 'buffer zone' in central-eastern Europe against an Allied invasion, and that was all they wanted. Interestingly, the Soviet intelligence services knew pretty much everything about the bombs except how exactly they worked, and even that didn't stay hidden from them for more than a few years[[/note]], the premature defeat of Japan allowed the Guomindang to reclaim most of China for themselves (the USAAF used its transport planes and bombers to ferry them over to accept the surrender of most garrisons) and it would remain that way until 1949-50 and the latter stages of [[NoMoreEmperors the Chinese Civil War]]. All of Japan was secured for the USA, the ca.500 000 (inc. ca.100k deaths) almost-entirely-American[[note]]Just three divisions (a Commonwealth division had 14k men and unlike Soviet and German divisions was usually at or near full-strength, so they'd have numbered a touch under 40k altogether) of British, Canadian, and Australian troops were included in the force. Their weaponry and ammunition, equipment, unit-structure, and tactical-strategic doctrine was just too different for them to be included in greater numbers. Most of the Royal Navy was slated to show up, however[[/note]] and ca.1-10 million Japanese civilian casualties[[note]]The estimate at the time was a bit lower, but we now know that the cessation of hostilities and the massive quantities of food-aid from the Allies prevented an absolutely massive famine from occurring from the autumn of 1945 onwards[[/note]]expected to result from ''Downfall'' ''[[AC:Downfall]]'' were averted, and [[UsefulNotes/TheKoreanWar even a bit of Korea was given over to The Allies...]]

Allies…]]

It is interesting to note that the use of nuclear weapons were a part of some variants of ''Downfall''.''[[AC:Downfall]]''. However, they would have been used to bomb the beaches to eliminate Japanese fortifications before an invasion. One plan involved using twenty nuclear weapons, nine of which were decoys to fool the Japanese troops to amass at the bombing site and not at the real landing beach, which would also have conveniently irradiated the Japanese army. Except, read that again. The United States intended to use atomic bombs to ''establish a beachhead'' -- meaning they planned on dropping nukes and then marching their own troops through the impact zone while it was still glowing. While obviously nobody at the time knew the long-term dangers of fallout and radiation poisoning, hindsight lets us look back in horror at just how close the atomic bombs came to killing everyone in ''both'' armies. [[note]]This viewpoint is a bit less absurd when you realize that the people planning these operations were military officers and not, for the most part, physicists. When told, for instance, that the Little Boy-type bomb was estimated to detonate with the power of some 10,000 tons of TNT, most military men operating in the Pacific Theater simply shrugged and said something like "Well, we drop some 10,000 tons of TNT in our usual heavy air raid, now we can do the same thing with a single plane. Nifty!" They didn't understand that explosions do not scale linearly (i.e. setting off a 2000-pound bomb produces a bigger boom than setting off four 500-pound bombs) and nobody really understood just how fallout would work.[[/note]]



* On ''Film/MissionImpossibleGhostProtocol'', a recorded speech from a nuclear warfare game theory symposium (and the closest the audience gets to a MotiveRant from the BigBad) mentions him having gone to the cities and him noticing that they have become major monuments against nuclear warfare after their reconstruction, incredibly peaceful and pretty... [[WellIntentionedExtremist and then mentions that if everything was destroyed by nuclear warfare, the survivors would build similar monuments everywhere else, to showcase their desire for lasting peace]].

to:

* On ''Film/MissionImpossibleGhostProtocol'', a recorded speech from a nuclear warfare game theory symposium (and the closest the audience gets to a MotiveRant from the BigBad) mentions him having gone to the cities and him noticing that they have become major monuments against nuclear warfare after their reconstruction, incredibly peaceful and pretty... pretty… [[WellIntentionedExtremist and then mentions that if everything was destroyed by nuclear warfare, the survivors would build similar monuments everywhere else, to showcase their desire for lasting peace]].
1st Jan '16 1:15:07 PM binaroid
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Added DiffLines:

* The 1986 Creator/{{Infocom}} InteractiveFiction game ''Trinity'' was a MagicalRealism exploration of the history of nuclear weapons; the player character is sent to Nagasaki at one point shortly before the Fat Man exploded, [[spoiler:to complete a StableTimeLoop by giving a little girl an umbrella.]]
7th Dec '15 6:30:54 PM blerg223
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Given the Soviets' total air-supremacy, this left them in a position to make a supported landing on the northernmost 'Home Island' of Ezo/Hokkaido from the tiny and isolated IJA forces that had been assigned to defend it, and use this as a springboard to take Honshu.

to:

Given the Soviets' Allies' total air-supremacy, this left them in a position to make a supported landing on the northernmost 'Home Island' of Ezo/Hokkaido from the tiny and isolated IJA forces that had been assigned to defend it, and use this as a springboard to take Honshu.
18th Nov '15 7:23:50 AM MAI742
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However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operation would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought - Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan - the US ''still'' has about 100,000 of the Downfall-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It was thought that Japanese dead would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates of the time reckoning that several million would be killed on the field and die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.

to:

However, all estimates agreed it would be ugly. Death estimates for the Western Allies' troops ranged from the tens to the hundreds of thousands, and it was possible that these two operation operations would add half again to the Western Allies' military dead (and increase the Allied military total, including the Soviets, by as much as five percent!). [[note]]To this day, after all the wars the US has fought - Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan - the US ''still'' has about 100,000 of the Downfall-era Purple Heart medals made in expectation of the invasion.[[/note]] It was thought that Japanese dead would reach German, Soviet or Chinese levels, estimates of the time reckoning that several million would be killed on the field and die from related reasons (the bombings, blockade, starvation, obliteration of what little infrastructure still remained, etc). We think now that a decent ten-plus million would be plausible given the lack of food and fuel in the country, which could see the islands suffer conditions (and death-rates) like those of the Siege of Leningrad.
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