History UsefulNotes / ArabIsraeliConflict

13th Feb '17 4:25:19 PM Jhonny
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Another wildcard is the disconnect between Arab populations and their leaders. For decades, demonstrations against Israel were pretty much the only tolerated expressions of political opinion in many Arab countries and leaders who were otherwise unpopular could always get their people riled up against supposed or real evils of Israel. However, both Fatah and Hamas seem to have used up their credit. There have been no elections in the West Bank or Gaza Strip since 2005 so support is hard to gauge, but given that Hamas' rise to power was mostly precipitated by the unpopularity of Fatah, there might be trouble on the horizon for the latter, no matter when elections are called again. Hamas on the other hand has not found many friends in Gaza with their hard handed rule and in early 2017 there protests in Gaza against the current Hamas government. If and when either of those two players is removed from their current powerbase, the situation might totally change and anything from negotiations to a renewed round of violence might immediately follow with even less predictable consequences in the long run.
12th Feb '17 8:48:09 PM Fireblood
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* ''Jerusalem'' by Guy Delisle is based on his trip to the divided city, and serves as a microcosm of the conflict. He comments on this at length, and the book has a {{downer ending}} regarding it-a Jewish settler taking the house of a Palestinian.

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* ''Jerusalem'' by Guy Delisle is based on his trip to the divided city, and serves as a microcosm of the conflict. He comments on this at length, and the book has a {{downer ending}} regarding it-a Jewish settler taking the house of a Palestinian.Palestinian in Hebron.



* The Creator/AdamSandler comedy ''Film/YouDontMessWithTheZohan'' was based around this and had plenty of political points made about besides [[PlayedForLaughs playing it for laughs.]]

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* The Creator/AdamSandler comedy ''Film/YouDontMessWithTheZohan'' was based around this and had plenty of political points made about besides [[PlayedForLaughs playing it for laughs.]]



* Three films and several novels based around the Entebbe Incident (known to Israelis and the IDF as "Operation Thunderbolt" or occasionally as "Operation Yonatan" after its commander, Col. Yonatan Netanyahu[[note]]Yes ''that'' Netanyahu; they were brothers[[/note]], KIA), the Israeli commando rescue of over 100 hostages held by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP--the Palestinian [[DirtyCommies communists]]) and the Revolutionary Cells (of Germany, also communists) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.

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* Three films and several novels are based around the Entebbe Incident (known to Israelis and the IDF as "Operation Thunderbolt" or occasionally as "Operation Yonatan" after its commander, Col. Yonatan Netanyahu[[note]]Yes ''that'' Netanyahu; they were brothers[[/note]], KIA), the Israeli commando rescue of over 100 hostages held by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP--the Palestinian [[DirtyCommies communists]]) and the Revolutionary Cells (of Germany, also communists) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.



* The JohnLeCarre novel ''The Little Drummer Girl''
* ''Literature/TheChosen'' aludes to the 1948 war as seen by Jews in New York. One of Reuven Malter's schoolmates dies there.

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* The JohnLeCarre novel ''The Little Drummer Girl''
Girl''.
* ''Literature/TheChosen'' aludes alludes to the 1948 war as seen by Jews in New York. One of Reuven Malter's schoolmates dies there.



* The novel and film of the novel ''Exodus'', by Leon Uris, deals with the events surrounding the 1948 creation of the state of Israel and the invasion by Arab states that immediately followed.

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* The novel and (and film of the novel based on it) ''Exodus'', by Leon Uris, deals with the events surrounding the 1948 creation of the state of Israel and the invasion by Arab states that immediately followed.



* The Israeli drama series ''Series/PrisonersOfWar'' depicts two IDF soldiers' attempts to readjust to their old lives after spending 17 years in captivity. Served (loosely) as the inspiration for HBO's ''Series/{{Homeland}}''.
* The controversial 2008 Creator/Channel4 mini-series ''The Promise'', directed by the equally controversial British director Peter Kosminsky (who himself is of Polish Jewish descent). It focuses on British paratroopers fighting the Irgun (real-life Zionist [[YourTerroristsAreOurFreedomFighters freedom fighters/terrorists]]) post-1945, as well as contemporary Israel fighting off Palestinian extremism in Gaza in very much the same way. Arguably has a pro-Palestinian slant [[note]]It delves a lot into the radical Jewish militants' atrocities, but ignores that of the Palestinians.[[/note]], but blames the British mandate more than anyone else.[[note]]The series ''does'' however take a lot of time to explore and explain the Jewish fighters' motivations[[/note]].

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* The Israeli drama series ''Series/PrisonersOfWar'' depicts two IDF soldiers' attempts to readjust to their old lives after spending 17 years in captivity. Served It served (loosely) as the inspiration for HBO's ''Series/{{Homeland}}''.
* The controversial 2008 Creator/Channel4 mini-series ''The Promise'', directed by the equally controversial British director Peter Kosminsky (who himself is of Polish Jewish descent). It focuses on British paratroopers fighting the Irgun (real-life Zionist [[YourTerroristsAreOurFreedomFighters freedom fighters/terrorists]]) post-1945, as well as contemporary Israel fighting off Palestinian extremism in Gaza in very much the same way. Arguably has a pro-Palestinian slant [[note]]It slant,[[note]]It delves a lot into the radical Jewish militants' atrocities, but ignores that of the Palestinians.[[/note]], [[/note]] but blames the British mandate more than anyone else.[[note]]The series ''does'' however take a lot of time to explore and explain the Jewish fighters' motivations[[/note]].motivations.[[/note]]



* ''VideoGame/ConflictMiddleEastPoliticalSimulator'' allows you to play as the Israelis, and you have the main goal of destroying Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt. The good news for doves, though, is that you can choose to please the Americans and the International Community by establishing a Palestinian homeland. Don't expect to win the Nobel Peace Prize, though.

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* ''VideoGame/ConflictMiddleEastPoliticalSimulator'' allows you to play as the Israelis, and you have the main goal of destroying Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt. The good news for doves, though, is that you can choose to please the Americans and the International Community community by establishing a Palestinian homeland. Don't expect to win the Nobel Peace Prize, though.



* In the ''WesternAnimation/CaptainPlanet'' episode "If Its Doomsday, This Must Be Belfast," Verminous Skumm plants a nuclear bomb in Jerusalem, than gives detonators to an Arab woman and a Jewish settler of the West Bank, in an attempt to show the human race will self-destruct.

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* In the ''WesternAnimation/CaptainPlanet'' episode "If Its Doomsday, This Must Be Belfast," Verminous Skumm plants a nuclear bomb in Jerusalem, than then gives detonators to an Arab woman and a Jewish settler of the West Bank, in an attempt to show the human race will self-destruct.
12th Feb '17 8:16:43 PM Fireblood
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* ''Jerusalem'' by Guy Delisle is based on his trip to the divided city, and serves as a microcosm of the conflict. He comments on this at length, and the book has a {{downer ending}} regarding it-a Jewish settler taking the house of a Palestinian.
12th Feb '17 7:56:58 PM Fireblood
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On the other hand, 2011 brought a development out of nowhere: the protest movement/revolutionary wave that swept across the Arab world. Though it didn't get that much press, the Palestinians did that as well, chiefly directed at Hamas and Fatah, asking them to give up their petty differences and ''get done with the independence thing already''. Under pressure, the parties have already signed a national unity pact, which sent the Israelis into hysterics, not the least of which because it involves the "legal" Palestinian Government making a major alliance with what most of the developed world brands a terrorist organization. This comes ahead of the culmination of Mahmoud Abbas' big Plan B, launched upon the failure of the most recent round of talks (on account of the aforementioned settlement thing): try to get the UsefulNotes/UnitedNations to admit Palestine as a member in its upcoming meeting in September 2011. While likely to fail, a large enough number of member states voting "yes" -- or a slightly smaller number, but including France and Britain (who have indicated that they might be persuaded to do it) -- would be a ''huge'' embarrassment to the Israelis, who are doing their best to stop it happening. As for the rest of the world, it appears that at least some countries would like Palestine to have a government at least theoretically capable of running its territory in one piece (rather than divided against itself) before considering voting in favor of the motion, which is where the unity pact comes in. Unfortunately, yet ''another'' complication arises...

to:

On the other hand, 2011 brought a development out of nowhere: the protest movement/revolutionary wave that swept across the Arab world. Though it didn't get that much press, the Palestinians did that as well, chiefly directed at Hamas and Fatah, asking them to give up their petty differences and ''get done with the independence thing already''. Under pressure, the parties have already signed a national unity pact, which sent the Israelis into hysterics, not the least of which because it involves the "legal" Palestinian Government making a major alliance with what most of the developed world brands a terrorist organization. This comes ahead of the culmination of Mahmoud Abbas' big Plan B, launched upon the failure of the most recent round of talks (on account of the aforementioned settlement thing): try to get the UsefulNotes/UnitedNations to admit Palestine as a member in its upcoming meeting in September 2011. While likely to fail, a large enough number of member states voting "yes" -- or a slightly smaller number, but including France and Britain (who have indicated that they might be persuaded to do it) -- would be a ''huge'' embarrassment to the Israelis, who are doing their best to stop it happening.2011, though this failed. As for the rest of the world, it appears that at least some countries would like Palestine to have a government at least theoretically capable of running its territory in one piece (rather than divided against itself) before considering voting in favor of the motion, which is where the unity pact comes in. Unfortunately, yet ''another'' complication arises...



There are two commonly spoken of solutions to the particular Palestinian/Israeli conflict, the so called "two-state" and "one-state/binational" solutions. The two-state solution, largely favored by the Israeli public, the United States, the European Union, and at least nominally the current governments of Israel and the Palestinian Authority, would end the Israeli presence in most of the West Bank (certain large settlement blocks close to the Green Line would probably be retained) and allow the PA to establish a capital in East Jerusalem and to rule over the Palestinians of the West Bank (and, assuming Hamas could be persuaded to join in, Gaza). Additionally, a certain amount of Palestinians who had been pushed out of their homes during the Nakba would be allowed to move back to Israel, and most of the settlers whose settlement blocks haven't been absorbed into Israel would be moved (forcefully if necessary) back into Israel proper (although there have been occasional proposals to allow those Jewish settlers who don't want to move-generally non-Zionist Ultra-Orthodox whose loyalty is more to the land of Israel than the State of Israel-to become Palestinian citizens). The one-state solution, favored by a significant portion of the Palestinians, some Palestinian Israelis, and various left-wing pro-Palestinian groups, would essentially integrate the West Bank (and, again assuming it could be persuaded to join in, Gaza) into Israel with equal rights for everybody, possibly with Jewish and Arabic areas given some measure of self-rule. The issues with the two-state solution are that Israel and Palestine are largely entwined in a way that makes it hard for them to be separated, that the Palestinian state may not be viable, and also that both sides have extremist factions whose "one state solution" is to push the other side out of the land entirely (who may not stop their efforts even if a peace deal is struck); the problems with the one-state solution is dependent upon two different groups who've been fighting off and on for 70 years, who both have very different ideas of nationhood, and who have significant members with a history of [[ILied going back on their agreements and otherwise tearing up treaties]] to come together and try to become one unified nation, and that any unified state would have a Palestinian majority with any and all the problems that might entail (something that supporters of Israel both in and outside it are concerned about). As noted before, largely the international community (and therefore reluctantly the governments of both Israel and the Palestinian Authority) supports the two-state solution and the history books are full of many more binational states that split up than ones who came together, but commentators on both sides will often postulate about whether or not the one state solution is inevitable.

to:

There are two commonly spoken of solutions to the particular Palestinian/Israeli conflict, the so called "two-state" and "one-state/binational" solutions. The two-state solution, largely favored by the Israeli public, the United States, the European Union, and at least nominally the current governments of Israel and the Palestinian Authority, would end the Israeli presence in most of the West Bank (certain large settlement blocks close to the Green Line would probably be retained) and allow the PA to establish a capital in East Jerusalem and to rule over the Palestinians of the West Bank (and, assuming Hamas could be persuaded to join in, Gaza). Additionally, a certain amount of Palestinians who had been pushed out of their homes during the Nakba would be allowed to move back to Israel, and most of the settlers whose settlement blocks haven't been absorbed into Israel would be moved (forcefully if necessary) back into Israel proper (although there have been occasional proposals to allow those Jewish settlers who don't want to move-generally non-Zionist Ultra-Orthodox whose loyalty is more to the land of Israel than the State of Israel-to become Palestinian citizens). The one-state solution, favored by a significant portion of the Palestinians, some Palestinian Israelis, and various left-wing pro-Palestinian groups, would essentially integrate the West Bank (and, again assuming it could be persuaded to join in, Gaza) into Israel with equal rights for everybody, possibly with Jewish and Arabic areas given some measure of self-rule. The issues with the two-state solution are that Israel and Palestine are largely entwined in a way that makes it hard for them to be separated, that the Palestinian state may not be viable, and also that both sides have extremist factions whose "one state solution" is to push the other side out of the land entirely (who may not stop their efforts even if a peace deal is struck); the struck). The problems with the one-state solution is dependent upon two different groups who've been fighting off and on for 70 years, who both have very different ideas of nationhood, and who have significant members with a history of [[ILied going back on their agreements and otherwise tearing up treaties]] to come together and try to become one unified nation, and that any unified state would have a Palestinian majority with any and all the problems that might entail (something that supporters of Israel both in and outside it are concerned about). As noted before, largely the international community (and therefore reluctantly the governments of both Israel and the Palestinian Authority) supports the two-state solution and the history books are full of many more binational states that split up than ones who came together, but commentators on both sides will often postulate about whether or not the one state solution is inevitable.



* While the Mandate years had already seen sizable expat populations of people who we would define as "Palestinians", the most important migration came in the aftermath of the defeat in 1948. Thousands upon thousands of Palestinians fled across the border into Lebanon- along with the other countries- seeking refuge and even asylum. However, in Lebanon in particular the "native" communities that held political power- especially the Christian-majority- made a conscious decision to not allow the Palestinians to integrate, forcing the creation of refugee camps. Having solved this and deciding they had bigger fish to fry due to threats from Syria to assimilate the entire country and the urgency of detente with Israel, they [[WhatAnIdiot decided to leave the problem to fester.]] This would prove to be a catastrophically bad idea, as it made the Palestinian refugee population into a long standing problem and led to the PLO's militarization of the Lebanese refugee camps in the decades to come.

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* While the Mandate years had already seen sizable expat populations of people who we would define as "Palestinians", the most important migration came in the aftermath of the defeat in 1948. Thousands upon thousands of Palestinians fled across the border into Lebanon- along with the other countries- seeking refuge and even asylum. However, in Lebanon in particular the "native" communities that held political power- especially power-especially the Christian-majority- made Christian majority-made a conscious decision to not allow the Palestinians to integrate, forcing the creation of refugee camps. Having solved this and deciding they had bigger fish to fry due to threats from Syria to assimilate the entire country and the urgency of detente with Israel, they [[WhatAnIdiot decided to leave the problem to fester.]] This would prove to be a catastrophically bad idea, as it made the Palestinian refugee population into a long standing long-standing problem and led to the PLO's militarization of the Lebanese refugee camps in the decades to come.



* In 1982 the PLO practically invades downtown Beirut in violation of the ceasefire they and the Israelis signed the July before, causing an acceleration in a messy ethnic and religious balkanization. In response Israel heavily bombs Beirut ''also'' in violation of said ceasefire; and unsurprisingly the ceasefire collapses and over 300 people are killed and a thousand wounded. A group known as the Abu Nidal Organization, headed by a man who had parted ways with the PLO a decade earlier and had since launched attacks on both Israeli and PLO officials, attempts to assassinate the Israeli ambassador to London; in response, Israel heavily bombs both the ANO and PLO in Lebanon. Rocket attacks are launched by the PLO as it steps up attempts to depose of the relatively Israeli-friendly Lebanese government and Israel invades Lebanon again, this time as part of a byzantine alliance with various Lebanese militias fighting against the PLO and other Lebanese militias aligned with it. Israeli troops and their allies besiege the PLO-held areas of Beirut for a month, inflicting heavy casualties on the PLO but leading to immense carnage among both both Palestinian refugees and Lebanese civilians caught in the crossfire. During the conflict, the Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia massacred up to three thousand Palestinian refugees in Sabra and Shatila. The independent Israeli Kahan Commission finds that the IDF was indirectly responsible for the business because of their failure to figure out what the Phalangists were about to do and to stop them, and that then-Defense Minister ArielSharon had "personal responsibility" for the events as he was the CO who was caught with his pants down; Sharon was forced to resign. In the end the Israelis withdraw and the PLO leadership in Lebanon is exiled for nearly 20 years, but is quickly replaced by various Lebanese Shi'a militias. Hezbollah makes a name for itself in this period with shockingly effective attacks on Israeli and southern Lebanese Army bases and effectively drives Israel out of Lebanon using the skills Iran taught it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBWEQpsFTFs A Multinational Coalition occupies downtown Beirut to help clean up in the aftermath of the Lebanese civil war by evacuating PLO and helping the Lebanese military maintain order in the city. The marine barracks is bombed in October by Hezbollah suicide bombers, killing 241 American servicemen and 58 French servicemen. This effectively caused the civil war to resume as the Multinational force began to strike Hezbollah and its allies, Syria and the Shiite militias, in the city. It looked like there might be a full military intervention by the United States, but President RonaldReagan was pressured by Congress to order the withdrawal of the marines in Beirut.
* The July War (2006): In the aftermath of the Lebanese Civil War, an organization known as Hezbollah, literally the "Party of God", rises to represent Shia interests. In 2006, Hezbollah successfully captures two Israeli soldiers, holding them up for ransom with a list of demands. Israel declares this to be an act of war and invades. The conflict is ultimately inconclusive; Israel was unable to dislodge Hezbollah from southern Lebanon and Hebollah's military remained intact to assist in Syria, and suffers an even exchange ratio of 250 Hezbollah members killed of whom only 80 were actually Hezbollah soldiers the rest were civilian employees, which is less than Israel's usually far more one-sided ratios in previous Arab wars--this is comparatively extraordinary for a militia force that Israel had previously underestimated and lost to in the Southern Lebanon War previously. Politically and militarily, it is a major victory for Hezbollah allowing it to dominate the political sphere of Lebanon and discredit its opponents, then gain the political capital to intervene in the Syrian Civil War and drag Lebanon with them politically. However, most of Beirut and several other Lebanese cities suffer extreme damage from both sides, more or less undoing most of the progress and economic development since the end of the civil war in 1990. The two kidnapped soldiers are returned to Israel in a prisoner deal which sparks massive controversy in Israel. Not only were both soldiers DeadAllAlong, the IDF's medical analysts examining the wreckage of the soldier's now ruined transport had known so and reported so from the very beginning, and it involved letting several convicted Hezbollah terrorists have a GetOutOfJailFreeCard; the politicians just didn't care.

One particular BigLippedAlligatorMoment that probably doesn't classify as part of this (since it was Arab-Arab rather than Arab-Israeli) but which is worth mentioning anyway was the Black September War in Jordan. It was a result of the aforementioned hostility between the established Arab governments and the PLO-ruled expat populations, made worse because the Kingdom of Jordan has a largely (possibly majorly) Palestinian population ''and'' was part of the old British Mandate, meaning that technically the PLO might lay claim to it. Eventually, the PLO's policy of autonomous rule over the refugee camps and their use to influence and dominate the surrounding area ran headfirst into the Hashemite monarchy's policy of centralizing power on them. In the years after the Six Day War, both sides started headbutting each other in a game of a little give, a little take until eventually the situation boiled over. The result was an unholy, nearly-year-long borderline civil war (with Syrian invasion to mix it up) with no quarter given or taken. By the time the dust cleared and the PLO, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria hashed out a deal ''thousands'' had been killed, including at least 3,000+ Palestinians (and most likely far more). For the scale of this war and it's traditional lethality, this is shocking, and it led to the PLO to more or less make an exodus out of Jordan for years to come.

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* In 1982 the PLO practically invades downtown Beirut in violation of the ceasefire they and the Israelis signed the July before, causing an acceleration in a messy ethnic and religious balkanization. In response Israel heavily bombs Beirut ''also'' in violation of said ceasefire; and unsurprisingly the ceasefire collapses and over 300 people are killed and a thousand wounded. A group known as the Abu Nidal Organization, headed by a man who had parted ways with the PLO a decade earlier and had since launched attacks on both Israeli and PLO officials, attempts to assassinate the Israeli ambassador to London; in response, Israel heavily bombs both the ANO and PLO in Lebanon. Rocket attacks are launched by the PLO as it steps up attempts to depose of the relatively Israeli-friendly Lebanese government and Israel invades Lebanon again, this time as part of a byzantine alliance with various Lebanese militias fighting against the PLO and other Lebanese militias aligned with it. Israeli troops and their allies besiege the PLO-held areas of Beirut for a month, inflicting heavy casualties on the PLO but leading to immense carnage among both both Palestinian refugees and Lebanese civilians caught in the crossfire. During the conflict, the Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia massacred up to three thousand Palestinian refugees in Sabra and Shatila. The independent Israeli Kahan Commission finds that the IDF was indirectly responsible for the business because of their failure to figure out what the Phalangists were about to do and to stop them, and that then-Defense Minister ArielSharon had "personal responsibility" for the events as he was the CO who was caught with his pants down; Sharon was forced to resign. In the end the Israelis withdraw and the PLO leadership in Lebanon is exiled for nearly 20 years, but is quickly replaced by various Lebanese Shi'a militias. Hezbollah makes Hezbollah, a Shia organization whose name for itself means "Party of God" comes to prominence in this period with shockingly effective attacks on Israeli and southern Lebanese Army bases bases, and effectively drives Israel out of Lebanon using the skills Iran taught it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBWEQpsFTFs A Multinational Coalition occupies downtown Beirut to help clean up in the aftermath of the Lebanese civil war by evacuating PLO and helping the Lebanese military maintain order in the city. The marine Marine barracks is bombed in October by Hezbollah suicide bombers, killing 241 American servicemen and 58 French servicemen. This effectively caused the civil war to resume as the Multinational force began to strike Hezbollah and its allies, Syria and the Shiite militias, in the city. It looked like there might be a full military intervention by the United States, but President RonaldReagan was pressured by Congress to order the withdrawal of the marines Marines in Beirut.
* The July War (2006): In the aftermath of the Lebanese Civil War, an organization known as Hezbollah, literally the "Party of God", Hezbollah rises to represent Shia interests. In 2006, Hezbollah successfully captures two Israeli soldiers, holding them up for ransom with a list of demands. Israel declares this to be an act of war and invades. The conflict is ultimately inconclusive; Israel was unable to dislodge Hezbollah from southern Lebanon and Hebollah's military remained intact to assist in Syria, and suffers an even exchange ratio of 250 Hezbollah members killed of (of whom only 80 were actually Hezbollah soldiers soldiers, the rest were civilian employees, employees), which is less than Israel's usually far more one-sided ratios in previous Arab wars--this is comparatively extraordinary for a militia force that Israel had previously underestimated and lost to in the Southern Lebanon War previously. Politically and militarily, it is a major victory for Hezbollah Hezbollah, allowing it to dominate the political sphere of Lebanon and discredit its opponents, then gain the political capital to intervene in the Syrian Civil War and drag Lebanon with them politically. However, most of Beirut and several other Lebanese cities suffer extreme damage from both sides, more or less undoing most of the progress and economic development since the end of the civil war in 1990. The two kidnapped soldiers are returned to Israel in a prisoner deal which sparks massive controversy in Israel. Not only were both soldiers DeadAllAlong, the IDF's medical analysts examining the wreckage of the soldier's now ruined transport had known so and reported so from the very beginning, and it involved letting several convicted Hezbollah terrorists have a GetOutOfJailFreeCard; the politicians just didn't care.

One particular BigLippedAlligatorMoment that probably doesn't classify as part of this (since it was Arab-Arab rather than Arab-Israeli) but which is worth mentioning anyway was the Black September War in Jordan. It was a result of the aforementioned hostility between the established Arab governments and the PLO-ruled expat populations, made worse because the Kingdom of Jordan has a largely (possibly majorly) majority) Palestinian population ''and'' was part of the old British Mandate, meaning that technically the PLO might lay claim to it. Eventually, the PLO's policy of autonomous rule over the refugee camps and their use to influence and dominate the surrounding area ran headfirst into the Hashemite monarchy's policy of centralizing power on them. In the years after the Six Day War, both sides started headbutting each other in a game of a little give, a little take until eventually the situation boiled over. The result was an unholy, nearly-year-long borderline civil war (with Syrian invasion to mix it up) with no quarter given or taken. By the time the dust cleared and the PLO, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria hashed out a deal ''thousands'' had been killed, including at least 3,000+ Palestinians (and most likely far more). For the scale of this war and it's traditional lethality, this is shocking, and it led to the PLO to more or less make an exodus out of Jordan for years to come.
12th Feb '17 7:27:59 PM Fireblood
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After 1979, the character of the conflict changed, shifting emphasis from Israel's Arab neighbors to the Arabs living in the territories taken over Israel in 1967. With Egypt out of the picture, the Arabs in the "Occupied Territories" realized that no great Arab army would come to rescue them, and they took it upon themselves to get statehood. Which in practice meant getting out the firebrands and hooking up the posters, protests, bombs, and guns. Hence comes:

* The First Intifada, 1987-1991: Intifadah meaning "shaking-off" or "uprising" in Arabic. Sparked by an unusually violent Israeli security action at a funeral at a West Bank refugee camp, Palestinians conduct organized resistance against the Israeli forces and authorities; while much if not most of the resistance is nonviolent (protests and strikes -- Israeli industries had grown dependent on Palestinian labor since 1967 -- proved particularly effective), there was also a great deal of guerrilla warfare, primarily with rocks, which the Israeli responded with full gunfire. The sad tactic of [[SuicideAttack suicide bombing]] is perfected[[note]] - it was pioneered by the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka -[[/note]] during this period, but it doesn't see quite as much use as in other conflicts or later on. The harsh Israeli response garnered the attention of the global press, and got the Palestinians the kind of attention and recognition that they had never had before. Several important Palestinian organizations were formed during this period. Most importantly, Hamas came into existence in 1987, forming from an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood. Ironically, the Israelis had previously funded because the Brothers had historically focused on peacefully preaching to Palestinians, encouraging them to become better Muslims. Oops.
** Hamas came into prominence in Palestinian politics during the First Intifada because the PLO (led by Yasser Arafat) had been exiled to Tunisia by the Israelis in 1982, and thus really only had nominal control over Palestinian territories: a political, economic, and social hole very quickly filled by Hamas, which, as mentioned before, started out as more of a religious social welfare organization. Ordinary Palestinians began referring to Arafat and the PLO as "The Tunisians" and were less than thrilled when the PLO tried to assert its authority from Tunisia by acting as the face of the Intifada.

to:

After 1979, the character of the conflict changed, shifting emphasis from Israel's Arab neighbors to the Arabs living in the territories taken over Israel in 1967. With Egypt out of the picture, the Arabs in the "Occupied Territories" Occupied Territories (as they would come to be known) realized that no great Arab army would come to rescue them, and they took it upon themselves to get statehood. Which in practice meant getting out the firebrands and hooking up the posters, protests, bombs, and guns. Hence comes:

* The First Intifada, 1987-1991: Intifadah meaning "shaking-off" or "uprising" in Arabic. Sparked by an unusually violent Israeli security action at a funeral at a West Bank refugee camp, Palestinians conduct organized resistance against the Israeli forces and authorities; while much if not most of the resistance is nonviolent (protests and strikes -- Israeli industries had grown dependent on Palestinian labor since 1967 -- proved particularly effective), there was also a great deal of guerrilla warfare, primarily with rocks, which the Israeli responded with full gunfire. The sad tactic of [[SuicideAttack suicide bombing]] is perfected[[note]] - it It was pioneered by the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka -[[/note]] Lanka.[[/note]] during this period, but it doesn't see quite as much use as in other conflicts or later on. The harsh Israeli response garnered the attention of the global press, and got the Palestinians the kind of attention and recognition that they had never had before. Several important Palestinian organizations were formed during this period. Most importantly, Hamas came into existence in 1987, forming from an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood. Ironically, the Israelis had previously funded them because the Brothers had historically focused on peacefully preaching to Palestinians, encouraging them to become better Muslims. Oops.
** Hamas came into prominence in Palestinian politics during the First Intifada because the PLO (led by Yasser Arafat) had been exiled to Tunisia by the Israelis in 1982, and thus really only had nominal control over the Palestinian territories: a political, economic, and social hole very quickly filled by Hamas, which, as mentioned before, started out as more of a religious social welfare organization. Ordinary Palestinians began referring to Arafat and the PLO as "The Tunisians" and were less than thrilled when the PLO tried to assert its authority from Tunisia by acting as the face of the Intifada.
12th Feb '17 7:18:51 PM Fireblood
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* The Arab Uprising of 1947-1948: again led by Haj Amin al-Husseini in opposition of the partition. Since the British were leaving, it was mostly directed at the Jews (with the Jews fighting back with the paramilitary [[BadassArmy Palmach]], regular Haganah, irregular Irgun, and the [[WesternTerrorists terroristic]]-and occasionally quasi-[[{{Irony}} fascist]]-Lehi), but once again, level-headed Arabs got caught in the crossfire. However, it was unsuccessful in preventing the founding of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948.
* The Israeli War of Independence, 1948-1949: Egypt, Transjordan (with the British-commanded Arab Legion), Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon invaded Israel on 15 May 1948 with the stated goal of destroying the new Israeli state and restoring Palestine as an Arab state. After some initial gains, the Arabs were defeated for a variety of reasons, but not as badly as they would be in later wars: Egypt managed to get the Gaza Strip out of it, and Jordan got the West Bank and part of Jerusalem, including the Old City. The only people who can be said to have truly lost the war were the native Palestinians, as they lost half of the territory allotted to them by the UN partition plan to Israel. As many as 800,000 Palestinians fled and were mostly not allowed to return, many left before the fighting began at the behest of the Arab League itself promising [[HomeByChristmas it would allow the armies to have a freer hand in winning the inevitable victory]], many others were forced out at gunpoint by Israeli military forces or militias, and far too many fell victim to one atrocity or another by the warring sides. These refugees and their descendants are still stuck in a stateless limbo even to this day. The event is generally known as ''Al-Nakba'' (the Disaster) by Arabs. Meanwhile, whipped up by government rhetoric (and the odd [[FormerRegimePersonnel Nazi]] who ended up stranded in the Middle East after WWII) against the Jews, many of the dumber or more bloodthirsty segments of Arab society began to conduct pogroms against the local Jewish populations, leading to an almost complete exodus of the (formerly substantial) Jewish communities of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq to Israel (in a moment of irony, the influx of nearly a million Middle Eastern Jews would create exactly the sort of large, disenfranchised, and bitter power base needed for the Israeli Right to eventually take power in the 1970s).\\

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* The Arab Uprising of 1947-1948: again Again led by Haj Amin al-Husseini in opposition of the partition. Since the British were leaving, it was mostly directed at the Jews (with the Jews fighting back with the paramilitary [[BadassArmy Palmach]], regular Haganah, irregular Irgun, and the [[WesternTerrorists terroristic]]-and occasionally quasi-[[{{Irony}} fascist]]-Lehi), but once again, level-headed Arabs got caught in the crossfire. However, it was unsuccessful in preventing the founding of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948.
* The Israeli War of Independence, 1948-1949: Egypt, Transjordan (with the British-commanded Arab Legion), Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon invaded Israel on 15 May 1948 with the stated goal of destroying the new Israeli state and restoring Palestine as an Arab state. After some initial gains, the Arabs were defeated for a variety of reasons, but not as badly as they would be in later wars: Egypt managed to get the Gaza Strip out of it, and Jordan got the West Bank and part of Jerusalem, including the Old City. The only people who can be said to have truly lost the war were the native Palestinians, as they lost half of the territory allotted to them by the UN partition plan to Israel. As many as 800,000 Palestinians fled and were mostly not allowed to return, many return. Many left before the fighting began at the behest of the Arab League itself promising [[HomeByChristmas it would allow the armies to have a freer hand in winning the inevitable victory]], many others were forced out at gunpoint by Israeli military forces or militias, and far too many fell victim to one atrocity or another by the warring sides. These refugees and their descendants are still stuck in a stateless limbo even to this day. The event is generally known as ''Al-Nakba'' (the Disaster) by Arabs. Meanwhile, whipped up by government rhetoric (and the odd [[FormerRegimePersonnel Nazi]] who ended up stranded in the Middle East after WWII) against the Jews, many of the dumber or more bloodthirsty segments of Arab society began to conduct pogroms against the local Jewish populations, leading to an almost complete exodus of the (formerly substantial) Jewish communities of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq to Israel (in a moment of irony, the influx of nearly a million Middle Eastern Jews would create exactly the sort of large, disenfranchised, and bitter power base needed for the Israeli Right to eventually take power in the 1970s).\\
12th Feb '17 7:14:35 PM Fireblood
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* The WWI Aftermath and the 1920's: What is now the British Mandate of Palestine receives two hordes of very different immigrants and sees the fault lines for what comes later. Jews and Zionists come in to create the dream project they've envisioned for so long and often to escape a war-torn Europe and Middle East while Arabs -- most of whom were poor tenant farmers from the North who were arguably worse than Serfs under Ottoman law -- take their chance to ditch their [[FeudalOverlord feudal overlords]] and the war ravaged homelands to try and run to what they hope will be greener pastures in Israel/Palestine. Both succeed rather well, and within a matter of months huge and relatively thriving immigrant communities have latched on to the pre-existing Israeli and Arab communities [[FromBadToWorse just in time to take sides in the tussle between the Western Empires and the Hashemites over who gets the Middle East]][[note]]The Hashemite kingdom is roughly the same as Jordan(the country, not the river or basketball player).[[/note]]. This eventually culminates in a French war to toss a Hashemite monarchy out of Syria that has some splash over into the Palestinian Mandate. This doesn't seem like much, but it does trigger ideological awakenings of Arab nationalism among the Palestinian Arabs and Zionism among the settler Jews. Quickly takes militant turns, and soon the decade is wracked by increasing tension and infighting. See the Battle of Tel-Hai and the pogroms of 1920, 1921, and 1929. In the midst of all this, the British decide to appoint a new Mufti of Jerusalem to legitimize their rule and decide on [[TheFundamentalist Amin al-Husseini]], a distinguished cleric and Haj. [[EveryoneHasStandards In spite of warnings from just about everybody else-including the Arab community]] they eventually do so. This proves to be a big mistake.

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* The WWI Aftermath and the 1920's: What is now the British Mandate of Palestine receives two hordes of very different immigrants and sees the fault lines for what comes later. Jews and Zionists come in to create the dream project they've envisioned for so long and often to escape a war-torn Europe and Middle East while Arabs -- most of whom were poor tenant farmers from the North who were arguably worse than Serfs under Ottoman law -- take their chance to ditch their [[FeudalOverlord feudal overlords]] and the war ravaged war-ravaged homelands to try and run to what they hope will be greener pastures in Israel/Palestine. Both succeed rather well, and within a matter of months huge and relatively thriving immigrant communities have latched on to the pre-existing Israeli preexisting Jewish and Arab communities [[FromBadToWorse just in time to take sides in the tussle between the Western Empires and the Hashemites over who gets the Middle East]][[note]]The East]].[[note]]The Hashemite kingdom is roughly the same as Jordan(the Jordan (the country, not the river or basketball player).[[/note]]. [[/note]] This eventually culminates in a French war to toss a Hashemite monarchy out of Syria that has some splash over into the Palestinian Mandate. This doesn't seem like much, but it does trigger ideological awakenings of Arab nationalism among the Palestinian Arabs and Zionism among the settler Jews. Quickly It quickly takes militant turns, and soon the decade is wracked by increasing tension and infighting. See the Battle of Tel-Hai and the pogroms of 1920, 1921, and 1929. In the midst of all this, the British decide to appoint a new Mufti of Jerusalem to legitimize their rule and decide on [[TheFundamentalist Amin al-Husseini]], a distinguished cleric and Haj. [[EveryoneHasStandards In spite of warnings from just about everybody else-including the Arab community]] they eventually do so. This proves to be a big mistake.
12th Feb '17 6:46:04 PM Fireblood
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The conflict can fall into the lines in the WithUsOrAgainstUs category as well. Countries and groups taking sides of this conflict will often find themselves with ''really'' negative attitudes and diplomatic relations with the other party. This is one of the main reasons why the United States's support of Israel makes it extremely difficult to maintain good diplomatic relations with many Arab majority countries. At the same time, Russia's military and economic support with many Arab regimes like Syria's Assad's regime [[note]]along with Russia's bad history of anti-Semitism[[/note]] made it difficult [[note]]but improving when compared to the Soviet Union times[[/note]] to maintain good relations with Israel. On the other hand, many countries managed to TakeAThirdOption and decided ''not'' to take sides in the conflict; many of said countries have managed to maintain stable and reasonable relations with both parties. [[note]]China fits into this group; see TheOtherWiki's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Arab_relations articles]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China-Israel_relations on this]].[[/note]] However, taking a netural stance in the conflict can actually lead to a NeutralityBacklash, especially from the most extreme fringe groups such as the Palestinian Hamas and many far-right Zionist political parties.

to:

The conflict can fall into the lines in the WithUsOrAgainstUs category as well. Countries and groups taking sides of this conflict will often find themselves with ''really'' negative attitudes and diplomatic relations with the other party. This is one of the main reasons why the United States's support of Israel makes it extremely difficult to maintain good diplomatic relations with many Arab majority countries. At the same time, Russia's military and economic support with many Arab regimes like Syria's Assad's regime [[note]]along regime[[note]]Along with Russia's bad history of anti-Semitism[[/note]] antisemitism.[[/note]] made it difficult [[note]]but [[note]]But improving when compared to the Soviet Union times[[/note]] times.[[/note]] to maintain good relations with Israel. On the other hand, many countries managed to TakeAThirdOption and decided ''not'' to take sides in the conflict; many of said countries have managed to maintain stable and reasonable relations with both parties. [[note]]China fits into this group; see TheOtherWiki's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Arab_relations articles]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China-Israel_relations on this]].[[/note]] However, taking a netural neutral stance in the conflict can actually lead to a NeutralityBacklash, especially from the most extreme fringe groups such as the Palestinian Hamas and many far-right Zionist political parties.



On top of everything else, for a patch of land the size of New Jersey and without a single drop of oil or gas ([[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15037533 until 2011]], and not much even then), the conflict has become a massive fodder for [[GambitPileUp international diplomatic machinations and shady dealings]]. For whatever else it was, Israel was a secure democratic foothold into the rest of the Middle East at a time when the closest other thing to it was [[CivilWarcraft Lebanon]] and the rest was divided between pro-Soviet revolutionary dictatorships and dubiously reliable (from a Western POV) reactionary autocratic dictatorships, and that made it valuable for Washington. Thanks to the GambitPileup involving both regional and international politics, this meant it was yet another battleground at the height of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar. In that time, Israel served as a NATO surrogate against Soviet-backed allies in UsefulNotes/{{Egypt}} under [[UsefulNotes/GamalAbdelNasser Nasser]] or Sadat and UsefulNotes/{{Syria}} under Assad. Nowadays, Israel currently works as an enemy of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}}, a business partner of both UsefulNotes/{{China}} and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, an ally of America, and a grudging one of UsefulNotes/SaudiArabia.

to:

On top of everything else, for a patch of land the size of New Jersey and without a single drop of oil or gas ([[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15037533 until 2011]], and not much even then), the conflict has become a massive fodder for [[GambitPileUp international diplomatic machinations and shady dealings]]. For whatever else it was, Israel was a secure democratic foothold into the rest of the Middle East at a time when the closest other thing to it was [[CivilWarcraft Lebanon]] Lebanon]], and the rest was divided between pro-Soviet revolutionary dictatorships and dubiously reliable (from a Western POV) reactionary autocratic dictatorships, and that made it valuable for Washington. Thanks to the GambitPileup involving both regional and international politics, this meant it was yet another battleground at the height of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar. In that time, Israel served as a NATO surrogate against Soviet-backed allies in UsefulNotes/{{Egypt}} under [[UsefulNotes/GamalAbdelNasser Nasser]] or Sadat and UsefulNotes/{{Syria}} under Assad. Nowadays, Israel currently works as an enemy of UsefulNotes/{{Iran}}, a business partner of both UsefulNotes/{{China}} and UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, an ally of America, and a grudging one of UsefulNotes/SaudiArabia.
20th Jan '17 7:48:19 PM DarkPaladinX
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The conflict can fall into the lines in the WithUsOrAgainstUs category as well. Countries and groups taking sides of this conflict will often find themselves with ''really'' negative attitudes and diplomatic relations with the other party. This is one of the main reasons why the United States's support of Israel makes it extremely difficult to maintain good diplomatic relations with many Arab majority countries. At the same time, Russia's military and economic support with many Arab regimes like Syria's Assad's regime [[note]]along with Russia's bad history of anti-Semitism[[/note]] made it difficult [[note]]but improving when compared to the Soviet Union times[[/note]] to maintain good relations with Israel. On the other hand, many countries managed to TakeAThirdOption and decided ''not'' to take sides in the conflict; many of said countries have managed to maintain stable and reasonable relations with both parties. [[note]]China fits into this group; see TheOtherWiki's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Arab_relations articles]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China-Israel_relations on this]].[[/note]] On the hand, taking a netural stance in the conflict can actually lead to a NeutralityBacklash, especially from the most extreme fringe groups such as the Palestinian Hamas and many far-right Zionist political parties.

to:

The conflict can fall into the lines in the WithUsOrAgainstUs category as well. Countries and groups taking sides of this conflict will often find themselves with ''really'' negative attitudes and diplomatic relations with the other party. This is one of the main reasons why the United States's support of Israel makes it extremely difficult to maintain good diplomatic relations with many Arab majority countries. At the same time, Russia's military and economic support with many Arab regimes like Syria's Assad's regime [[note]]along with Russia's bad history of anti-Semitism[[/note]] made it difficult [[note]]but improving when compared to the Soviet Union times[[/note]] to maintain good relations with Israel. On the other hand, many countries managed to TakeAThirdOption and decided ''not'' to take sides in the conflict; many of said countries have managed to maintain stable and reasonable relations with both parties. [[note]]China fits into this group; see TheOtherWiki's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Arab_relations articles]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China-Israel_relations on this]].[[/note]] On the hand, However, taking a netural stance in the conflict can actually lead to a NeutralityBacklash, especially from the most extreme fringe groups such as the Palestinian Hamas and many far-right Zionist political parties.
4th Jan '17 11:23:39 AM justanotherecho
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* The Yom Kippur War, 1973: A joint surprise attack by a coalition of the Arabic states led by Syria and Egypt. Waged during Yom Kippur, a date of great religious significance to the Jewish people; by sheer coincidence, it also happened on the Holy Month of Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting. So it kinda balances out. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights respectively, which had been captured and occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War. The conflict led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, both of whom initiated massive resupply efforts to their allies during the war. The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal during the first three days,[[note]]Fun fact: The Israeli fortifications on the east bank of the Canal, the Bar-Lev line, were giant, low-sloping, and made of sand--basically man-made dunes. Dunes are really, really, ''really'' hard to destroy with artillery, and alternate methods--like excavators--wouldn't work in battlefield conditions. What do the Egyptians do? ''[[KillItWithWater Water cannons]]''.[[/note]] after which they dug in, settling into a stalemate. The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains against the greatly outnumbered Israeli forces. Within a week, Israel recovered and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deep into Syria. To relieve this pressure, the Egyptians went back on the offensive, but were decisively defeated; the Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and advanced southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting. An October 22 United Nations-brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By 24 October, the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army. This development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union (in the middle of detente at the time). As a result, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. Despite the fact that it was Israel and not the Arab states that achieved their initial war aims, the fact that the war really could have gone either way (if not for some rather foolish generalship on the Egyptian side and the failure of the promised Libyan and Algerian [[TheCavalry assistance]] to materialize) meant that Arabs finally felt that they could take pride in their military prowess (something shattered in the wake of '67) and thus gave the Arab peoples and governments confidence to deal with Israel on an equal footing; however, it also convinced the Arab leaders that Israel could not be gotten rid of by military might alone. The war had far-reaching effects outside of the Middle East as well; it moved the United States to new efforts of mediation and peace-keeping, but it also solidified the US relationship with Israel (until this point, the US had maintained a cool and suspicious alliance with the Jewish state). Within Israel, the war had a tremendous psychological impact, shattering the sense of invincibility the Israelis had enjoyed since 1967. So much so that anger began to rise up at the Israeli government by its own people, asking for an inquiry into the first events of the war. Arabs are likely to refer to this war as the "October War" or the "Ramadan War" (understandably, the former is most common for secular Arab Nationalists and the latter is more common among Islamists).

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* The Yom Kippur War, 1973: A joint surprise attack by a coalition of the Arabic states led by Syria and Egypt. Waged during Yom Kippur, a date of great religious significance to and a very strict, twenty-five hour fast for the Jewish people; by people. By sheer coincidence, it was also happened on the Holy Month of Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting. So it kinda balances out.during Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights respectively, which had been captured and occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War. The conflict led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, both of whom initiated massive resupply efforts to their allies during the war. The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal during the first three days,[[note]]Fun fact: The Israeli fortifications on the east bank of the Canal, the Bar-Lev line, were giant, low-sloping, and made of sand--basically man-made dunes. Dunes are really, really, ''really'' hard to destroy with artillery, and alternate methods--like excavators--wouldn't work in battlefield conditions. What do the Egyptians do? ''[[KillItWithWater Water cannons]]''.[[/note]] after which they dug in, settling into a stalemate. The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains against the greatly outnumbered Israeli forces. Within a week, Israel recovered and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deep into Syria. To relieve this pressure, the Egyptians went back on the offensive, but were decisively defeated; the Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and advanced southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting. An October 22 United Nations-brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By 24 October, the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army. This development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union (in the middle of detente at the time). As a result, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. Despite the fact that it was Israel and not the Arab states that achieved their initial war aims, the fact that the war really could have gone either way (if not for some rather foolish generalship on the Egyptian side and the failure of the promised Libyan and Algerian [[TheCavalry assistance]] to materialize) meant that Arabs finally felt that they could take pride in their military prowess (something shattered in the wake of '67) and thus gave the Arab peoples and governments confidence to deal with Israel on an equal footing; however, it also convinced the Arab leaders that Israel could not be gotten rid of by military might alone. The war had far-reaching effects outside of the Middle East as well; it moved the United States to new efforts of mediation and peace-keeping, but it also solidified the US relationship with Israel (until this point, the US had maintained a cool and suspicious alliance with the Jewish state). Within Israel, the war had a tremendous psychological impact, shattering the sense of invincibility the Israelis had enjoyed since 1967. So much so that anger began to rise up at the Israeli government by its own people, asking for an inquiry into the first events of the war. Arabs are likely to refer to this war as the "October War" or the "Ramadan War" (understandably, the former is most common for secular Arab Nationalists and the latter is more common among Islamists).
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