History UsefulNotes / AmericanLawEnforcement

14th Jul '16 6:54:08 PM DocWildNole
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** More or less concurrently with the "War on Drugs," departments across the country began switching to semi-automatic handguns with 10, 12 or even 16 round magazines, chambered in 9mm or .40 caliber; Glock, Beretta, Sig Sauer seem to be the most popular brands. Almost all jurisdictions also require [[ShotgunsAreJustBetter 12 gauge shotguns]] as standard equipment in patrol cars. SWAT teams use even more lethal weaponry, including {{SniperRifle}}s, so-called "assault rifles, and even [[MoreDakka submachine guns]]. And undercover officers may use almost anything that's easily concealable.

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** More or less concurrently with the "War on Drugs," departments across the country began switching to semi-automatic handguns with 10, 12 or even 16 round magazines, chambered in 9mm or .40 caliber; Glock, Beretta, Sig Sauer seem to be the most popular brands. Almost all jurisdictions also require [[ShotgunsAreJustBetter 12 gauge shotguns]] as standard equipment in patrol cars. SWAT teams use even more lethal weaponry, including {{SniperRifle}}s, so-called "assault weapons" (semi-automatic rifles, usually based on the Armalite AR-15 design), and even [[MoreDakka submachine guns]]. And undercover officers may use almost anything that's easily concealable.



For National laws, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both the principal federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. Note that although they are the "investigative arm" of the DOJ, they don't answer to them. The Director of the FBI reports directly to the U.S. Attorney General (who is the head of the DOJ) and normally through him to the President of the United States. The reason it's part of DOJ is that the DOJ is the agency responsible for all litigation to which the federal government is a party,[[note]]Litigation=the kind of legal practice that means there's a dispute and a court is going to/has authority to settle it. "The federal government is a party"=the federal government is on one end of the dispute.[[/note]] prosecuting people who violate federal criminal law falls under the "litigation" description, and in the modern world they need people to go out and find the information needed to prosecute those violators. Or to be short: The original reason for the FBI is that DOJ's lawyers needed people to find information for them to actually convict people who were accused of breaking the law, and things kind of snowballed from there.

to:

For National laws, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both the principal federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. Note that although they are the "investigative arm" of the DOJ, they don't answer to them. The Director of the FBI reports directly to the U.S. Attorney General (who is the head of the DOJ) and normally through him or her to the President of the United States. The reason it's part of DOJ is that the DOJ is the agency responsible for all litigation to which the federal government is a party,[[note]]Litigation=the kind of legal practice that means there's a dispute and a court is going to/has authority to settle it. "The federal government is a party"=the federal government is on one end of the dispute.[[/note]] prosecuting people who violate federal criminal law falls under the "litigation" description, and in the modern world they need people to go out and find the information needed to prosecute those violators. Or to be short: The original reason for the FBI is that DOJ's lawyers needed people to find information for them to actually convict people who were accused of breaking the law, and things kind of snowballed from there.



** Although they do investigate ''serial''l mailbox destruction as it is a sign of tampering with the mail and, also, crimes like identity theft and [[DestroyTheEvidence destruction of evidence]].

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** Although they do investigate ''serial''l ''serial'' mailbox destruction as it is a sign of tampering with the mail and, also, crimes like identity theft and [[DestroyTheEvidence destruction of evidence]].



The Air Force has the Office of Special Investigations (OSI), the Army has the Criminal Investigation Command (CID), and the DOD Inspector General has the Defense Criminal investigative service (DCIS), all of which serve similar but not identical roles. Neither one of the others has their own television shows on {{CBS}}, however.

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The Air Force has the Office of Special Investigations (OSI), the Army has the Criminal Investigation Command (CID), and the DOD Inspector General has the Defense Criminal investigative service (DCIS), all of which serve similar but not identical roles. Neither one None of the others has their own television shows on {{CBS}}, however.



Many government agencies (federal and state) have their own police forces patrolling their own property or dealing with criminal activities involving their own activities. ''How'' many is yet another source of controversy; one source ''estimates'' that at least 70 agencies with sworn police powers operate out of the various Federal departments alone. The Inspector General Act of 1978 created Inspector General offices in departments and agencies across the federal government—73 of them as of 2015—each of which is empowered to investigate criminal activity, waste, fraud or malfeasance within their departments, and all of which employ criminal investigators with badges and guns. One large yet relatively unknown example is the United States Postal Inspection Service, which investigates mail fraud, protects postal facilities in high crime areas, and protects sensitive mail deliveries. The IRS, which collects federal taxes, has its own Criminal Investigation Division (IRS-CI) which has exclusive authority over criminal enforcement of the Internal Revenue Code, which makes it also a very active agency. The overabundance of police agencies, as you might expect, leads to some jurisdictional absurdity; the corner of First Street and East Capitol in DC sits between three government buildings (the Capitol, the Supreme Court, and the Library of Congress), each of which has its own police force separate from the DC Metropolitan Police, who patrol the intersection itself. It also leads to other interesting questions; the 2010 purchase of short-barreled shotguns by the ''Department of Education'' (for their fraud investigators) has sparked reactions ranging from humorous to [[ConspiracyTheorist paranoid]].

Some non-governmental entities, like universities and railroads, have also been given authority to establish forces on their properties with full police power -- including, of course, the legal right to carry and use firearms. The decline of importance in the public eye of the railroads in America is probably why no major works of fiction deal with railroad police, but they are trained and sworn law enforcement officers with both state and (limited) federal authority. Campus cops also never really appear in fiction unless it's as the butt of a joke, but you have to learn the trade '''some'''where. Still, in some cases campus police are a force to be reckoned with. For example, the University of California system's force covers all 11 UC campuses, and the California State University system's officers are responsible for all 24 schools. In addition, due to the fact that most public universities in the US are technically State land, campus police forces are drawn from the State Highway Patrol and have the training that one would expect for State police. [[note]]For example, the University of Oklahoma.[[/note]] The Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, where President Barack Obama maintains a home, is widely regarded as one of the safest neighborhoods on the traditionally crime-ridden South Side of Chicago, due in part to the fact that the University of Chicago located there has its own police department which patrols the neighborhood along with the Chicago Police Department. The distinction between "campus security" and "campus ''police''" is sometimes lost on new students...until they drunkenly assume they don't have to listen to a "rent-a-cop." HilarityEnsues.

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Many government agencies (federal and state) have their own police forces patrolling their own property or dealing with criminal activities involving their own activities. ''How'' many is yet another source of controversy; one source ''estimates'' that at least 70 agencies with sworn police powers operate out of the various Federal departments alone. The Inspector General Act of 1978 created Inspector General offices in departments and agencies across the federal government—73 of them as of 2015—each of which is empowered to investigate criminal activity, waste, fraud or malfeasance within their departments, and all of which employ criminal investigators with badges and guns.

One large yet relatively unknown example is the United States Postal Inspection Service, which investigates mail fraud, protects postal facilities in high crime areas, and protects sensitive mail deliveries. The IRS, which is the branch of the Treasury Department that collects federal taxes, has its own Criminal Investigation Division (IRS-CI) which has exclusive authority over criminal enforcement of the Internal Revenue Code, which makes it also a very active agency. agency.

The overabundance of police agencies, as you might expect, leads to some jurisdictional absurdity; the corner of First Street and East Capitol in DC sits between three government buildings (the Capitol, the Supreme Court, and the Library of Congress), each of which has its own police force separate from the DC Metropolitan Police, who patrol the intersection itself. It also leads to other interesting questions; the 2010 purchase of short-barreled shotguns by the ''Department of Education'' (for their fraud investigators) has sparked reactions ranging from humorous to [[ConspiracyTheorist paranoid]].

Some non-governmental entities, like universities and railroads, have also been given authority to establish forces on their properties with full police power -- including, of course, the legal right to carry and use firearms. The decline of importance in the public eye of the railroads in America is probably why no major works of fiction deal with railroad police, but they are trained and sworn law enforcement officers with both state and (limited) federal authority. Campus cops also never really rarely appear in fiction unless it's as the butt of a joke, but you have to learn the trade '''some'''where. Still, in some cases campus police are a force to be reckoned with. For example, the University of California system's force covers all 11 UC campuses, and the California State University system's officers are responsible for all 24 schools. In addition, due to the fact that most public universities in the US are technically State land, campus police forces are drawn from the State Highway Patrol and have the training that one would expect for State police. [[note]]For example, the University of Oklahoma.[[/note]] The Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, where President Barack Obama maintains a home, is widely regarded as one of the safest neighborhoods on the traditionally crime-ridden South Side of Chicago, due in part to the fact that the University of Chicago located there has its own police department which patrols the neighborhood along with the Chicago Police Department. The distinction between "campus security" and "campus ''police''" is sometimes lost on new students...until they drunkenly assume they don't have to listen to a "rent-a-cop." HilarityEnsues.
11th Jul '16 5:15:03 PM DoctorCooper
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** Ford itself clams that its Taurus police model and its "Interceptor" brand of the Ford Explorer together sold almost 25,000 units in 2014. Other manufacturers angle for their share of the police market in different ways. The Dodge Charger was already a real competitor to the Crown Vic, due to it being more powerful, maneuverable, comfortable, and notably, not a 30-year-old design. Also, in many northern states, the Chevy Impala had become a common sight, due to the fact that it has front-wheel drive - not as BadAss as rear-wheel drive, but much more useful for driving in six inches or more of snow. Oh, and it's also more fuel efficient than the heavy Crown Vic and the big-engined Charger.

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** Ford itself clams that its Taurus police model and its "Interceptor" brand of the Ford Explorer together sold almost 25,000 units in 2014. Other manufacturers angle for their share of the police market in different ways. The Dodge Charger was already a real competitor to the Crown Vic, due to it being more powerful, maneuverable, comfortable, and notably, not a 30-year-old design. Also, in many northern states, the Chevy Impala had become a common sight, due to the fact that it has front-wheel drive - not as BadAss badass as rear-wheel drive, but much more useful for driving in six inches or more of snow. Oh, and it's also more fuel efficient than the heavy Crown Vic and the big-engined Charger.
5th Jul '16 8:05:14 AM dmcreif
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Of course, this doesn't apply everywhere. In some places the police have completely supplanted the Sheriff as the primary law enforcement officer, in which case the Sheriff may shift into a role similar to the U.S. Marshals (see below) as an enforcement arm of the courts...or they may have had those duties assigned to the Staties or another agency, in which case they don't really serve much of a purpose but continue to stick around anyway. (9 out of 10 New Yorkers won't know that the [[http://www1.nyc.gov/site/finance/sheriff-courts/sheriff.page New York City Sheriff's Office]] still exists, let alone what they do.) County sheriffs are traditionally elected officials in many states, usually as provided by state constitutions and county charters, so maintaining an elected county sheriff may be legally required even if their remaining duties are minimal or mostly ceremonial. Naturally, this varies depending on where you are, because if there is one thing Americans love, it is for every little town to have their own way of doing things and their own set of laws. Sheriff's departments are also often given jobs city police forces find too difficult or that don't fall clearly into any one agency's jurisdiction; e.g. the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department polices Southern California's passenger railways, including the LA subway.

Alternately, in many rural counties, especially in the south, the Sheriff's Department may be the most powerful local agency. This may be the case because the county has numerous towns too small for police departments, or one town that does support a police department but also a large county with a significant but widely dispersed population. In such counties, deputies may fulfill most or all of the roles local police are typically responsible for.

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Of course, this doesn't apply everywhere. In some places the police have completely supplanted the Sheriff as the primary law enforcement officer, in which case the Sheriff may shift into a role similar to the U.S. Marshals (see below) as an enforcement arm of the courts...or they may have had those duties assigned to the Staties or another agency, in which case they don't really serve much of a purpose but continue to stick around anyway. (9 (Everyone in New York City knows about the NYPD, but 9 out of 10 New Yorkers won't probably don't know that the [[http://www1.nyc.gov/site/finance/sheriff-courts/sheriff.page New York City Sheriff's Office]] still exists, let alone what they do.do[[note]]They're the enforcement arm of the New York City Department of Finance[[/note]].) County sheriffs are traditionally elected officials in many states, usually as provided by state constitutions and county charters, so maintaining an elected county sheriff may be legally required even if their remaining duties are minimal or mostly ceremonial. Naturally, this varies depending on where you are, because if there is one thing Americans love, it is for every little town to have their own way of doing things and their own set of laws. Sheriff's departments are also often given jobs city police forces find too difficult or that don't fall clearly into any one agency's jurisdiction; e.g. the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department polices Southern California's passenger railways, including the LA subway.

subway. Likewise, the UsefulNotes/SanFrancisco Sheriff's Department handles law enforcement and security for the civil and criminal courts, City Hall, the Emergency Communications & Dispatch center, San Francisco General Hospital, Laguna Honda Hospital, and several public health clinics, supplementing the San Francisco Police Department.


Alternately, in many rural counties, especially in the south, the Sheriff's Department may be the most powerful local agency. This may be the case because the county has numerous towns too small for to justify having their own police departments, department, or one town that does support a police department but also a large county with a significant but widely dispersed population. In such counties, deputies may fulfill most or all of the roles local police are typically responsible for.



Not simple enough? Put it this way: If you mess up in Beverly Hills and flee in any direction more than four miles, there will be up to six agencies trying to get an arrest statistic with you as the number.

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Not simple enough? Put it this way: If To put that in LaymansTerms, if you mess up in Beverly Hills and flee in any direction more than four miles, there will be up to six agencies trying to get an arrest statistic with you as the number.



For National laws, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both the principal federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. Note that although they are the "investigative arm" of the DOJ, they don't answer to them. The Director of the FBI reports directly to the U.S. Attorney General (who is the head of the DOJ) and normally through him to the President of the United States. The reason it's part of DOJ is that DOJ is the agency responsible for all litigation to which the federal government is a party,[[note]]Litigation=the kind of legal practice that means there's a dispute and a court is going to/has authority to settle it. "The federal government is a party"=the federal government is on one end of the dispute.[[/note]] prosecuting people who violate federal criminal law falls under the "litigation" description, and in the modern world they need people to go out and find the information needed to prosecute those violators. Or to be short: The original reason for the FBI is that DOJ's lawyers needed people to find information for them to actually convict people who were accused of breaking the law, and things kind of snowballed from there.

to:

For National laws, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both the principal federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. Note that although they are the "investigative arm" of the DOJ, they don't answer to them. The Director of the FBI reports directly to the U.S. Attorney General (who is the head of the DOJ) and normally through him to the President of the United States. The reason it's part of DOJ is that the DOJ is the agency responsible for all litigation to which the federal government is a party,[[note]]Litigation=the kind of legal practice that means there's a dispute and a court is going to/has authority to settle it. "The federal government is a party"=the federal government is on one end of the dispute.[[/note]] prosecuting people who violate federal criminal law falls under the "litigation" description, and in the modern world they need people to go out and find the information needed to prosecute those violators. Or to be short: The original reason for the FBI is that DOJ's lawyers needed people to find information for them to actually convict people who were accused of breaking the law, and things kind of snowballed from there.



The latter fact tends to be overlooked in modern discussions of that Director. For nearly 50 years the FBI was headed by J. Edgar Hoover, who blurred the line between brilliant law-enforcement administrator and paranoid tyrant. When he joined the Bureau of Investigation, predecessor to the FBI, it was a practically powerless nonentity; from 1935 through the 1970s, he made it synonymous (to the vast majority of Americans) with effective, efficient and incorruptible law enforcement. He also made himself synonymous with the agency. After his death, some of the luster was peeled away; it was revealed that, without particular regard for Constitutional niceties, he tapped phones and assembled files on...well, we can't really be sure about how many people he was spying on, since the files were all destroyed after his death. No Director since has achieved his level of fame, though the Bureau has slowly reclaimed much of its previous good reputation.

to:

The latter fact tends to be overlooked in modern discussions of that Director. For nearly 50 years the FBI was headed by J. Edgar Hoover, who blurred the line between brilliant law-enforcement administrator and paranoid tyrant. When he joined the Bureau of Investigation, predecessor to the FBI, it was a practically powerless nonentity; nonentity rife with corruption; from 1935 through the 1970s, he made it synonymous (to the vast majority of Americans) with effective, efficient and incorruptible law enforcement. He also made himself synonymous with the agency. After his death, some of the luster was peeled away; it was revealed that, without particular regard for Constitutional niceties, he tapped phones and assembled files on...well, we can't really be sure about how many people he was spying on, since the files were all destroyed after his death. No Director since has achieved his level of fame, though the Bureau has slowly reclaimed much of its previous good reputation.



* Since copyright falls under federal law, the FBI puts warnings that they will raid copyright infringers and slap them with heavy fines and prison sentences on every videotape and DVD sold in America. How much they actually do this depends upon the film industry's generous [[strike:bribes]] ''campaign contributions'' to members of Congress this term, and, also, the scale of the violation-- basically, if you make a business out of counterfeiting Blu-Rays, sooner or later the G-Men will show up.

* noted above, the FBI made its rep battling bank robbers and kidnappers. The quantum leap forward in automotive technology in the late 20s and early 30s allowed criminals to rob or kidnap in one state and avoid prosecution by simply hotfooting it across a state line. To combat this, Congress passed the Federal Kidnapping Act of 1932 (in response to the infamous Lindbergh kidnapping), and the first of several laws against bank robbery in 1934 (most U.S. banks are federally-insured). Now the FBI is automatically called in in such cases.

* In general the FBI's jurisdiction often has it going after the "big fish" - [[TheMafia Mafia]] families and the like. They usually don't bother with the small fry, leaving the local police to handle them, which is just as well, since they don't have jurisdiction anyway. The FBI is however heavily reliant on local police departments for knowledge of their own jurisdictions and often manpower. The Bureau typically has more money and resources than it has people in a particular city or town, which means that, usually, both the FBI and local police have an incentive to work together where they can. [[RealityIsUnrealistic Unlike in fiction]] the FBI (and other federal law enforcement agencies) normally cannot unilaterally [[JurisdictionFriction "take over"]] a case from state or local law enforcement and prevent them from investigating. State and local agencies are created and operate under the law of the states they're located in, which means they're not subordinate to the FBI or the federal government.

to:

* Since copyright falls under federal law, the FBI puts warnings that they will raid copyright infringers and slap them with heavy fines and prison sentences on every videotape and DVD sold in America. How much they actually do this depends upon the film industry's generous [[strike:bribes]] bribes, er, ''campaign contributions'' to members of Congress this term, and, also, the scale of the violation-- basically, if you make a business out of counterfeiting Blu-Rays, sooner or later the G-Men will show up.

* noted above, the *The FBI made its rep battling bank robbers and kidnappers.kidnappers like John Dillinger and Baby Face Nelson. The quantum leap forward in automotive technology in the late 20s and early 30s allowed criminals to rob or kidnap in one state and avoid prosecution by simply hotfooting it across a state line. To combat this, Congress passed the Federal Kidnapping Act of 1932 (in response to the infamous Lindbergh kidnapping), and the first of several laws against bank robbery in 1934 (most U.S. banks are federally-insured). Now the FBI is automatically called in in such cases.

* In general the FBI's jurisdiction often has it going after the "big fish" - [[TheMafia Mafia]] families and the like. They usually don't bother with the small fry, leaving the local police to handle them, which is just as well, since they don't have jurisdiction anyway. The FBI is however heavily reliant on local police departments for knowledge of their own jurisdictions and often manpower. The Bureau typically has more money and resources than it has people in a particular city or town, town[[note]]The FBI has about 35,104 personnel nationwide, which makes it only slightly larger than the NYPD[[/note]], which means that, usually, both the FBI and local police have an incentive to work together where they can. [[RealityIsUnrealistic Unlike in fiction]] the FBI (and other federal law enforcement agencies) normally cannot unilaterally [[JurisdictionFriction "take over"]] a case from state or local law enforcement and prevent them from investigating.investigating unless there are extremely unusual circumstances. State and local agencies are created and operate under the law of the states they're located in, which means they're not subordinate to the FBI or the federal government.



The guys in who guard the President, Vice President, their immediate families, the Secretary of Homeland Security and other officials, wearing SinisterShades doing it. The United States Secret Service (USSS) also investigates financial crimes such as counterfeiting, credit card fraud, computer crimes, etc., but aren't terribly well known for that, although that was their original role when they were created in 1865. They didn't get their protection role until 1901, after the assassination of President William [=McKinley=][[note]]In 1901 they were the only federal agency with armed agents.[[/note]]. Formerly under the Treasury Department, they were moved to Homeland Security post-9/11. Since then, the Secret Service is also tasked with handling security for particular "National Special Security Events," like political conventions, State of the Union speeches, even the Olympics, that might be a target for terrorists.

Who gets Secret Service protection is controlled by Congress. In addition to the US officials named above, the Service also guards heads of state from other countries when they visit the United States. Former Presidents and their spouses receive protection for the remainder of their lives [[note]]A 1994 law limited this to 10 years. However, because Bill Clinton was exempted, George Bush left office in 2008, and Barack Obama signed a law restoring the lifetime protection in 2013, it never applied to any former President.[[/note]] --although they can voluntarily surrender such; RichardNixon was the first to do so -- and children of former Presidents receive it until they are 16 years old. Major Presidential candidates can get it fairly early on in the US primary process. There are no hard rules for when candidates are given protection; the metric is a very fuzzy "how good are their chances of winning the election and how many cranks have started threatening them". Barack Obama held the record for being granted Secret Service protection the earliest of any Democrat candidate for President [[note]]Hilary Clinton, as former First Lady, has been receiving Secret Service protection since 1992[[/note]], while Ben Carson and Donald Trump currently co-hold the record for Republicans.

to:

The guys in suits who guard the President, Vice President, their immediate families, the Secretary of Homeland Security and other officials, wearing SinisterShades doing it. The United States Secret Service (USSS) also investigates financial crimes such as counterfeiting, credit card fraud, computer crimes, etc., but aren't terribly well known for that, although that was their original role when they were created in 1865. They didn't get their protection role until 1901, after the assassination of President William [=McKinley=][[note]]In 1901 they were the only federal agency with armed agents.[[/note]]. Formerly under the Treasury Department, they were moved to Homeland Security post-9/11. Since then, the Secret Service is also tasked with handling security for particular "National Special Security Events," like political conventions, State of the Union speeches, even the Olympics, that might be a target for terrorists.

Who gets Secret Service protection is controlled by Congress. In addition to the US officials named above, the Service also guards heads of state from other countries when they visit the United States. Former Presidents and their spouses receive protection for the remainder of their lives [[note]]A 1994 law limited this to 10 years. However, because Bill Clinton was exempted, George W. Bush left office in 2008, and Barack Obama signed a law restoring the lifetime protection in 2013, it never applied to any former President.[[/note]] --although they can voluntarily surrender such; RichardNixon was the first to do so -- and children of former Presidents receive it until they are 16 years old. Major Presidential candidates can get it fairly early on in the US primary process. There are no hard rules for when candidates are given protection; the metric is a very fuzzy "how good are their chances of winning the election and how many cranks have started threatening them". Barack Obama held the record for being granted Secret Service protection the earliest of any Democrat candidate for President [[note]]Hilary Clinton, as former First Lady, has been receiving Secret Service protection since 1992[[/note]], while Ben Carson and Donald Trump currently co-hold the record for Republicans.
19th May '16 4:58:31 PM nombretomado
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A common situation in some smaller states is to give the state police agency primary responsibility for most homicide investigations. For example, the Massachusetts State Police handles all homicides occurring outside of Boston, Springfield, and Worcester (sorry, ''Literature/JesseStone''). In Maine, the Staties investigate homicides occurring outside of Bangor, Portland, and [[MurderSheWrote Cabot Cove]].

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A common situation in some smaller states is to give the state police agency primary responsibility for most homicide investigations. For example, the Massachusetts State Police handles all homicides occurring outside of Boston, Springfield, and Worcester (sorry, ''Literature/JesseStone''). In Maine, the Staties investigate homicides occurring outside of Bangor, Portland, and [[MurderSheWrote [[Series/MurderSheWrote Cabot Cove]].
15th May '16 1:35:33 AM KYCubbie
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US law states that anything between the coast and 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) out is state territory, while beyond that out to international waters is federal territory.

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US law states that anything between the coast and 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) out[[note]](except in Florida and Texas, where the limit is 9 nautical miles (16.7 km) out for historic reasons beyond the scope of this page)[[/note]] is state territory, while beyond that out to international waters is federal territory.
10th May '16 3:20:02 PM nightkiller
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The National Guard is run by state and is under the authority of the Governor of that state. The President can, however, "federalize" a state National Guard, placing them under his or her control. The most notable case was in 1957, where Arkansas National Guard troopers were taken into federal command to enforce racial desegregation in Little Rock schools.

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The National Guard is run by state and is under the authority of the Governor of that state. The President can, however, "federalize" a state National Guard, placing them under his or her control. The most notable case (other than wartime mobilizations) was in 1957, where Arkansas National Guard troopers were taken into federal command to enforce racial desegregation in Little Rock schools.
10th May '16 3:16:50 PM nightkiller
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Added DiffLines:


Remember--it's the Drug Enforcement ADMINISTRATION,not the Drug Enforcement Agency. Even journalists get that one wrong.
10th May '16 3:12:21 PM nightkiller
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* noted above, the FBI made its rep battling bank robbers and kidnappers. The quantum leap forward in automotive technology in the late 20s and early 30s allowed criminals to rob or kidnap in one state and avoid prosecution by simply hotfooting it across a state line. To combat this, Congress passed the Federal Kidnapping Act of 1932 (in response to the infamous Lindbergh kidnapping), and the first of several laws against bank robbery in 1934. Now the FBI is automatically called in in such cases.

to:

* noted above, the FBI made its rep battling bank robbers and kidnappers. The quantum leap forward in automotive technology in the late 20s and early 30s allowed criminals to rob or kidnap in one state and avoid prosecution by simply hotfooting it across a state line. To combat this, Congress passed the Federal Kidnapping Act of 1932 (in response to the infamous Lindbergh kidnapping), and the first of several laws against bank robbery in 1934.1934 (most U.S. banks are federally-insured). Now the FBI is automatically called in in such cases.
18th Apr '16 7:00:35 PM karstovich2
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In fiction, the DEA has never achieved the fame of the FBI although it has fared somewhat better than the ATF. Its most notable appearance is probably in ''Series/BreakingBad'', which featured a DEA agent, Walter White's brother-in-law Hank Schraeder, as something of a HeroAntagonist as Walt built up his meth empire.

to:

In fiction, the DEA has never achieved the fame of the FBI although it has fared somewhat better than the ATF. Its most notable appearance is probably in ''Series/BreakingBad'', which featured a DEA agent, Walter White's brother-in-law Hank Schraeder, Schrader, as something of a HeroAntagonist as Walt built up his meth empire.
18th Apr '16 6:58:08 PM karstovich2
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In fiction, the DEA has never achieved the fame of the FBI although it has fared somewhat better than the ATF.

to:

In fiction, the DEA has never achieved the fame of the FBI although it has fared somewhat better than the ATF. Its most notable appearance is probably in ''Series/BreakingBad'', which featured a DEA agent, Walter White's brother-in-law Hank Schraeder, as something of a HeroAntagonist as Walt built up his meth empire.
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