History UsefulNotes / AmericanFootball

30th Nov '16 6:27:43 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Film/TheReplacements'': a generally panned 2000 movie based on the 1987 NFL players' strike. Used a BrandX of the Washington Redskins, though it did use NFL insignia.

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* ''Film/TheReplacements'': ''Film/TheReplacements2000'': a generally panned 2000 movie based on the 1987 NFL players' strike. Used a BrandX of the Washington Redskins, though it did use NFL insignia.
28th Nov '16 6:11:54 AM MarcoPolo250
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* '''Legends Football League''' (2010-present): Formerly known as the '''Lingerie Football League''', it is, at this point, the only "major" [[DistaffCounterpart female football league]] with any media attention, though most of it is [[NoSuchThingAsBadPublicity negative attention]] because the players basically play in athletically-minded [[ChainmailBikini Chainmail Bikinis]] with padding and helmets, with games carried in edited form on {{MTV}}2. Some of the female players are just glad to play at all (using the example of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League seen in ''ALeagueOfTheirOwn'') and try to ignore that the league basically exists as fanservice for guys too cheap to even get Creator/{{Cinemax}}. Uses a 7-on-7 indoor format with no punts and field goals. Started to exploit the publicity that came with the Lingerie Bowl, a pay-per-view event that counterprograms the Super Bowl yearly. Between 2012 & 2013, the LFL made significant changes in hopes of legitimizing the league. The league expanded by adding new teams in Canada for 2012, and Australia for 2013, with the launch of a European league now delayed to 2015, with each country/region acting as its own separate league. The US teams shifted their schedule from a fall schedule to a spring-summer schedule similar to Arena Football and other indoor leagues. In 2013, the league rebranded itself by changing its name and announcing that it would downplay the "sexiness" factor of the league; depictions of sexualized women will be removed from team logos, and the "lingerie" aspect will be removed, although uniforms will still be revealing.

to:

* '''Legends Football League''' (2010-present): Formerly known as the '''Lingerie Football League''', it is, at this point, the only "major" [[DistaffCounterpart female football league]] with any media attention, though most of it is [[NoSuchThingAsBadPublicity negative attention]] because the players basically play in athletically-minded [[ChainmailBikini Chainmail Bikinis]] athletically-minded, two-piece sports-wear with padding and helmets, with games carried in edited form on {{MTV}}2. networks like {{MTV}}2, YouTube, and Fuse TV. Some of the female players are just glad to play at all (using the example of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League seen in ''ALeagueOfTheirOwn'') and try to ignore that the league basically exists as fanservice for guys too cheap to even get Creator/{{Cinemax}}.criticism. Uses a 7-on-7 indoor format with no punts and field goals. Started to exploit the publicity that came with the Lingerie Bowl, a pay-per-view event that counterprograms the Super Bowl yearly. Between 2012 & 2013, the LFL made significant changes in hopes of legitimizing the league. The league expanded by adding new teams in Canada for 2012, and Australia for 2013, with the launch of a European league now delayed to 2015, with each country/region acting as its own separate league. The US teams shifted their schedule from a fall schedule to a spring-summer schedule similar to Arena Football and other indoor leagues. In 2013, the league rebranded itself by changing its name and announcing that it would downplay the "sexiness" factor of the league; depictions of sexualized women will be removed from team logos, and the "lingerie" aspect will be removed, although uniforms will still be revealing.
removed.
16th Nov '16 8:59:52 PM KYCubbie
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* '''United States Football League''' (1982-1987): The first serious competition with the NFL since the AFL's halcyon days. The league ran in the spring and signed several star college players (the first being Herschel Walker) before the NFL could snatch them up. The league had problems with solvency early on, and the more cash-strapped teams moved frequently making it hard to cultivate fanbases or secure long-term TV deals.[[labelnote: ultimate irony]]They would have gotten a four year TV deal with pretty impressive money for the season they would ultimately never play; there was only one condition: Keep the Spring schedule. They [[WhatAnIdiot decided to go to a fall schedule]] and try their luck with an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL]] [[ForegoneConclusion it failed]][[/labelnote]] Stories abounded of teams playing in near-empty stadiums and players having their paychecks bounce. Even so, it was rather popular in some markets and looked to be on the way towards success until Creator/DonaldTrump (yeah, ''[[Series/TheApprentice that]]'' Donald Trump) bought a team and slowly started to take over the league. He had the league sue the NFL for an anti-trust violation and planned on moving the USFL to the fall (possibly because he may have planned to have the more successful USFL teams folded into the NFL and acquire his own NFL franchise). The USFL won its anti-trust violation and was awarded...[[UndesirablePrize $3]]. The league folded shortly after that. Four USFL players (Steve Young [[hottip:*: Steve Young, in fact, signed the single most lucrative contract in football for the next twenty years when he signed a 10-year, $40 million deal, which he accepted as a long term annuity beyond the contract length in order to help his new team's finances. The league went out of business, but Young had taken out an insurance policy on his contract, which will let him collect the contract's full value. By the terms of his settlement, he will collect $1 million per year until 2027.]] Jim Kelly, Reggie White and Gary Zimmerman) are in the Hall of Fame. All of them signed with NFL teams. The USFL was also where players like Doug Flutie and the aforementioned Herschel Walker played their first pro seasons.
** That $3 check [[http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/2006-08-07-usfl-retrospective_x.htm was never cashed (as of 2006)]], and is considered one of the biggest collectors' items out there. Incidentally, the original amount of the award in that case was only $1, but under anti-trust law at that time, any damages awarded by a civil jury were to be automatically tripled, hence the odd value. The reason for the itty bitty award is interesting in itself. The league sued the [=NFL=] for anti-trust violations, stating that the [=NFL=] used its dominant position to employ predatory tactics to take over the [=USFL=] or otherwise put it out of business, by outbidding them for top players, monopolizing the best venues, and the like. Which on the whole was true. However, the court also found that most of the [=USFL's=] problems were caused by mismanagement; specifically, their decision to move from a spring schedule to a fall schedule where they would compete directly with the [=NFL=]. This move alone caused four teams in top markets to shut their doors or relocate rather than be [[CurbStompBattle wiped off the map]] by [=NFL=] teams playing in the same cities. This in turn meant that there were too few teams to accept a leaguewide television contract that would have sustained the league for at least three or four more years had they stuck to a spring schedule, and there were almost no bidders among the major networks willing to pay the bills for a schedule with direct competition. Thus, the [=NFL=] did indeed have a monopoly, but the court found that the [=USFL=] died [[HoistByHisOwnPetard without help from anyone else]], leading to their PyrrhicVictory.
* '''Arena Football League''' (1987-2008, 2010-present): Just based on longevity and popularity, the Arena Football League is probably the best known alternative league since the 60's American Football League, even though the Arena League isn't technically a competitor to the NFL. The league plays "Arena football" which is different in several ways to regular football, stuff we'll let TheOtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arena_football explain better]]; the most obvious difference is that it's played on smaller fields in indoor arenas. Did decently in the ratings and in popularity until the league surprisingly crashed and burned in 2008. The [=AFL's=] second-tier league, being a subsidiary, was dissolved in the [=AFL's=] bankruptcy, but since they were at least reasonably profitable, they soon reformed into a new legal entity and bought the rights to the [=AFL=] name, effectively reinstating the league in 2010. Like the AFL, a list of notable NFL players who also played/currently play in the Arena league would be way too long for this page. There are other, smaller (low-paying) indoor football leagues in America's small to mid-sized cities which don't use AFL rules (since they were patented at the league's launch) and are generally unstable, with teams folding or changing leagues seemingly every year.
* '''[[LetXBeTheUnknown X]]FL''' (2000-2001): Founded by Wrestling/VinceMcMahon, it represented the first new nationwide pro football league in nearly twenty years. Strong promotion by [=UPN=] and [=NBC=] gave it incredibly high ratings for the first two weeks of games (in most cases, with over triple the viewership of the most optimistic projections), but those ratings quickly spiralled downward as the curiosity crowd and [[Wrestling/{{WWE}} WWF]] audience went away and the remaining football fans realized that the game quality just wasn't very good. By the end of the season, games airing on Creator/{{NBC}} were drawing record low ratings for prime time programming. Was the home for a handful of very good players - mostly NFL second-stringers who were never really given a chance, like QB Tommy Maddox, the league's lone MVP. Probably best known at the time for Rod Smart, a RB for the Las Vegas Outlaws whose jersey read "HE HATE ME" on the back instead of his own name. Most of the XFL's {{Hatedom}} was a result of [=McMahon=]'s attempt to promote certain players as "characters" with a focus on interpersonal storylines rather than interteam stories, which, while interesting, was a very LoveItOrHateIt move that did little to encourage the watching of the game. Also criticized was the [=XFL=] ruleset's focus on smashmouth football, encouraging hard hits with a lesser emphasis on penalties. Which served as a reminder of ''why'' the rules evolved the way they did. Aside from the gameplay itself, several factors worked against it, including the fact that it was owned and operated in partnership with [=NBC=] to field their own "in-house" football league. [[note]] In the abstract, this seemed like a risk worth taking. Whatever else his faults, Vince [=McMahon=] is a hell of a businessman. The teams were not independently owned; [=McMahon=] owned the league and all the teams and instituted a leaguewide salary structure that helped limit costs, with [=NBC=] helping foot the bill in exchange for broadcasting rights. If the league were a success, or at least broke even, then [=NBC=] would be on the ground floor to a viable alternative to the [=NFL=] and could garner the high ratings of airing football at a fraction of the cost of constantly negotiating for [=NFL=] programming. The high ratings for the first few weeks were encouraging, but when they began to tank, [=NBC=] didn't have the patience to let the league evolve and recover. There was talk of going forward with a second season, but the price would have been shutting down [=McMahon's=] "[=SmackDown!=]" wrestling show. He wasn't willing to do so, and that was that.[[/note]] That, combined with Vince [=McMahon's=] tendency to cross-promote with the WWF, eventually led to a perfect storm of casual fans not taking it seriously as a legit football alternative (most saw it as the same kind of "sports entertainment" as pro wrestling, with some even convinced that the game results were scripted) and professional sportscasters having no incentive to show results of a league owned by a rival network. This meant no game recaps on ''Series/SportsCenter'' or [=FOX=] Sports, no scores recorded in newspaper sports pages, and almost no coverage in Sports Illustrated.
* '''United Football League''' (2007-2013): The most recent entry into the NFL competitor sweepstakes, it remained largely low key and at the time of its demise featured only four teams in small markets. During the 2011 NFL lockout, it gained media attention for extending invitation to NFL players to play for them if the regular season had been delayed. This didn't happen. The final teams were in Virginia Beach, Virginia; Omaha, Nebraska; Las Vegas, Nevada and Sacramento, California. Not exactly football hotbeds[[note]]Nebraska is, though its Mecca is Lincoln, not Omaha, and they worship at the altar of Big Red (the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers)[[/note]], but each team had a small yet devoted fanbase. After the 2012 season was cut short, there were hopes that a 2013 season would take place, but the scheduled dates [[ScheduleSlip came and went]]. No official statement was ever made about the league's future, and the [=UFL=] is technically still in existence, but as the business licenses for all its teams expired and said teams and the league itself have almost no staff on the payroll, the league moved on not with a bang, but with a whimper.

to:

* '''United States Football League''' (1982-1987): The first serious competition with the NFL since the AFL's halcyon days. The league ran in the spring and signed several star college players (the first being Herschel Walker) before the NFL could snatch them up. The league had problems with solvency early on, and the more cash-strapped teams moved frequently making it hard to cultivate fanbases or secure long-term TV deals.[[labelnote: ultimate irony]]They would have gotten a four year TV deal with pretty impressive money for the season they would ultimately never play; there was only one condition: Keep the Spring schedule. They [[WhatAnIdiot decided to go to a fall schedule]] and try their luck with an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL]] NFL. [[ForegoneConclusion it failed]][[/labelnote]] It failed.]][[/labelnote]] Stories abounded of teams playing in near-empty stadiums and players having their paychecks bounce. Even so, it was rather popular in some markets and looked to be on the way towards success until Creator/DonaldTrump (yeah, ''[[Series/TheApprentice that]]'' Donald Trump) bought a team and slowly started to take over the league. He had the league sue the NFL for an anti-trust violation and planned on moving the USFL to the fall (possibly because he may have planned to have the more successful USFL teams folded into the NFL and acquire his own NFL franchise). The USFL won its anti-trust violation and was awarded...[[UndesirablePrize $3]]. The league folded shortly after that. Four USFL players (Steve Young [[hottip:*: Steve Young, in fact, signed the single most lucrative contract in football for the next twenty years when he signed a 10-year, $40 million deal, which he accepted as a long term annuity beyond the contract length in order to help his new team's finances. The league went out of business, but Young had taken out an insurance policy on his contract, which will let him collect the contract's full value. By the terms of his settlement, he will collect $1 million per year until 2027.]] ]], Jim Kelly, Reggie White and Gary Zimmerman) are in the Hall of Fame. All of them signed with NFL teams. The USFL was also where players like Doug Flutie and the aforementioned Herschel Walker played their first pro seasons.
** That $3 check [[http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/2006-08-07-usfl-retrospective_x.htm was never cashed (as of 2006)]], and is considered one of the biggest collectors' items out there. Incidentally, the original amount of the award in that case was only $1, but under anti-trust law at that time, any damages awarded by a civil jury were to be automatically tripled, hence the odd value. The reason for the itty bitty award is interesting in itself. The league sued the [=NFL=] NFL for anti-trust violations, stating that the [=NFL=] used its dominant position to employ predatory tactics to take over the [=USFL=] USFL or otherwise put it out of business, by outbidding them for top players, monopolizing the best venues, and the like. Which on the whole was true. However, the court also found that most of the [=USFL's=] problems were caused by mismanagement; specifically, their decision to move from a spring schedule to a fall schedule where they would compete directly with the [=NFL=]. NFL. This move alone caused four teams in top markets to shut their doors or relocate rather than be [[CurbStompBattle wiped off the map]] by [=NFL=] NFL teams playing in the same cities. This in turn meant that there were too few teams to accept a leaguewide television contract that would have sustained the league for at least three or four more years had they stuck to a spring schedule, and there were almost no bidders among the major networks willing to pay the bills for a schedule with direct competition. Thus, the [=NFL=] NFL did indeed have a monopoly, but the court found that the [=USFL=] died [[HoistByHisOwnPetard without help from anyone else]], leading to their PyrrhicVictory.
* '''Arena Football League''' (1987-2008, 2010-present): Just based on longevity and popularity, the Arena Football League is probably the best known alternative league since the 60's American Football League, even though the Arena League isn't technically a competitor to the NFL. The league plays "Arena football" which is different in several ways to regular football, stuff we'll let TheOtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arena_football explain better]]; the most obvious difference is that it's played on smaller fields in indoor arenas. Did decently in the ratings and in popularity until the league surprisingly crashed and burned in 2008. The [=AFL's=] second-tier league, being a subsidiary, was dissolved in the [=AFL's=] bankruptcy, but since they were at least reasonably profitable, they soon reformed into a new legal entity and bought the rights to the [=AFL=] AFL name, effectively reinstating the league in 2010. Like the AFL, a list of notable NFL players who also played/currently play in the Arena league would be way too long for this page. There are other, smaller (low-paying) indoor football leagues in America's small to mid-sized cities which don't use AFL rules (since they were patented at the league's launch) and are generally unstable, with teams folding or changing leagues seemingly every year.
* '''[[LetXBeTheUnknown X]]FL''' (2000-2001): Founded by Wrestling/VinceMcMahon, it represented the first new nationwide pro football league in nearly twenty years. Strong promotion by [=UPN=] UPN and [=NBC=] NBC gave it incredibly high ratings for the first two weeks of games (in most cases, with over triple the viewership of the most optimistic projections), but those ratings quickly spiralled spiraled downward as the curiosity crowd and [[Wrestling/{{WWE}} WWF]] audience went away and the remaining football fans realized that the game quality just wasn't very good. By the end of the season, games airing on Creator/{{NBC}} were drawing record low ratings for prime time programming. Was the home for a handful of very good players - mostly NFL second-stringers who were never really given a chance, like QB Tommy Maddox, the league's lone MVP. Probably best known at the time for Rod Smart, a RB for the Las Vegas Outlaws whose jersey read "HE HATE ME" on the back instead of his own name. Most of the XFL's {{Hatedom}} was a result of [=McMahon=]'s attempt to promote certain players as "characters" with a focus on interpersonal storylines rather than interteam stories, which, while interesting, was a very LoveItOrHateIt move that did little to encourage the watching of the game. Also criticized was the [=XFL=] XFL ruleset's focus on smashmouth football, encouraging hard hits with a lesser emphasis on penalties. Which served as a reminder of ''why'' the rules evolved the way they did. Aside from the gameplay itself, several factors worked against it, including the fact that it was owned and operated in partnership with [=NBC=] NBC to field their own "in-house" football league. [[note]] In the abstract, this seemed like a risk worth taking. Whatever else his faults, Vince [=McMahon=] is a hell of a businessman. The teams were not independently owned; [=McMahon=] owned the league and all the teams and instituted a leaguewide salary structure that helped limit costs, with [=NBC=] NBC helping foot the bill in exchange for broadcasting rights. If the league were a success, or at least broke even, then [=NBC=] NBC would be on the ground floor to a viable alternative to the [=NFL=] NFL and could garner the high ratings of airing football at a fraction of the cost of constantly negotiating for [=NFL=] NFL programming. The high ratings for the first few weeks were encouraging, but when they began to tank, [=NBC=] NBC didn't have the patience to let the league evolve and recover. There was talk of going forward with a second season, but the price would have been shutting down [=McMahon's=] "[=SmackDown!=]" wrestling show. He wasn't willing to do so, and that was that.[[/note]] That, combined with Vince [=McMahon's=] tendency to cross-promote with the WWF, eventually led to a perfect storm of casual fans not taking it seriously as a legit football alternative (most saw it as the same kind of "sports entertainment" as pro wrestling, with some even convinced that the game results were scripted) and professional sportscasters having no incentive to show results of a league owned by a rival network. This meant no game recaps on ''Series/SportsCenter'' or [=FOX=] FOX Sports, no scores recorded in newspaper sports pages, and almost no coverage in Sports Illustrated.
''Sports Illustrated''.
* '''United Football League''' (2007-2013): The most recent entry into the NFL competitor sweepstakes, it remained largely low key and at the time of its demise featured only four teams in small markets. During the 2011 NFL lockout, it gained media attention for extending invitation to NFL players to play for them if the regular season had been delayed. This didn't happen. The final teams were in Virginia Beach, Virginia; Omaha, Nebraska; Las Vegas, Nevada and Sacramento, California. Not exactly football hotbeds[[note]]Nebraska is, though its Mecca is Lincoln, not Omaha, and they worship at the altar of Big Red (the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers)[[/note]], but each team had a small yet devoted fanbase. After the 2012 season was cut short, there were hopes that a 2013 season would take place, but the scheduled dates [[ScheduleSlip came and went]]. No official statement was ever made about the league's future, and the [=UFL=] UFL is technically still in existence, but as the business licenses for all its teams expired and said teams and the league itself have almost no staff on the payroll, the league moved on not with a bang, but with a whimper.



In Mexico, the ONEFA is a college league with 26 teams in 3 conferences. It is the most important championship in Latin America. Mexicans have been playing college American football since the 1920s. When broadcasts of American football started in 1960s, games featuring the Dallas Cowboys were shown. Its popularity grew during the 1970s with returning migrants who were American football fans popularizing the sport. While its popularity can't compare with Soccer, it's by far the most popular minor league sport there. It's also the most popular sport to bet on there, with the odds of winning at 50/50 as opposed to 1/3 of winning with soccer. The NFL has also expressed interest in playing at least one yearly game in Mexico City, like it does in London.

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In Mexico, the ONEFA is a college league with 26 teams in 3 conferences. It is was the most important championship in Latin America. America before the country established ''Liga Fútbol Americano'', a fully professional league (the first such gridiron football league outside the US and Canada) in 2016. The new league launched with four teams, with expansion to six announced for 2017. Mexicans have been playing college American football since the 1920s.1920s, and today's top Mexican college teams are seen as roughly equivalent to NCAA Division III (non-scholarship) teams, but steadily improving. In 2009, a Mexican college team beat Blinn College, a Texas junior college (two-year school), in an exhibition. Making that game more significant was that Blinn went on to win the US junior college national title, and the quarterback who lost the exhibition and won the national title was Cam Newton. Yes, ''that'' Cam Newton. When broadcasts of American football started in 1960s, games featuring the Dallas Cowboys were shown. Its popularity grew during the 1970s with returning migrants who were American football fans popularizing the sport. While its popularity can't compare with Soccer, soccer, it's by far the most popular minor league sport there. It's also the most popular sport to bet on there, with the odds of winning at 50/50 as opposed to 1/3 of winning with soccer. The NFL has also expressed interest in playing at least one yearly game in Mexico City, like it does in London.



In Germany the sport got a foothold because of the American troops stationed at bases there. The German Football League[[note]] Not a translation—that's the ''actual German name''.[[/note]] organizes roughly 200 teams, the elite division is called German Football League and comprises 16 (less in the event of bankruptcies) teams partitioned into north and south divisions. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. All but one of the NFL Europa teams[[note]]It was renamed NFL Europa starting after its penultimate season[[/note]] were based in Germany by the time it folded. Curiously, although American soldiers were stationed mostly in the southern parts, the north dominates strongly, having won all but two German Bowls since 1993 as of 2016. The Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns are the only exception to Northern dominance, having won the German Bowl[[note]] Again, this is the actual German name [[/note]] in 2011 and 2012 and often giving a fierce fight in the Playoffs. German teams (especially the Brunswick Lions and the Hamburg Blue Devils) dominated European football in the mid to late 90s but had an Austrian caused drought until a win in 2010. The most successful teams are Brunswick (New Yorker) Lions, Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns Kiel Baltic Hurricanes and Dresden Monarchs[[note]]They have not yet won a championship and have gotten quite a EveryYearTheyFizzleOut reputation[[/note]]. Historically teams like Berlin Adler or Hamburg Blue Devils were also quite good until budget woes kept them from signing good American talent and coaches and their German players left. As of 2016 the rules put a limit of two on the amount of "American" players (Mexicans, Canadians and Japanese also count as "Americans") that can be on the field at any given time. However, [[AintNoRule there is no such limit]] for European players from outside Germany, which means that the best teams are often an assortment of "European all stars" with the French national Quarterback playing in the second league in Germany for many years. When the European competitions were reorganized into the "Big6" and the "EFL Bowl", both competitions were dominated by German teams (three out of six [=big6=] teams have been German since its first season) and as of and including 2016 all winners of either competition have been German as well. The 2016 edition of the EFL Bowl was even won by a team that had just earned promotion to the first tier that season - Frankfurt Universe. On the spectator side, Football in Germany has had its ebbs and flows, being introduced thanks to American soldiers in the area (Ansbach and Frankfurt dominated the league in 1979 and the next couple of years largely on the strength of nearby US military bases) and steadily growing thanks to decent coverage by the main Pay TV provider[[note]] For the most part there is only one Pay TV provider of note at any given time in Germany. At the time it was called ''Premiere'' and - as is usual - carried live soccer as well as the NFL, so people who bought it for the former stuck around for the latter[[/note]], however the bankruptcy of the Hamburg Blue Devils, the shutdown of NFL Europe (which never made a cent in profits and had only one arguably financially sustainable franchise - Frankfurt) and a slump of the Braunschweig Lions dealt a serious blow to the sport and for some time even having the Super Bowl on German TV was hit and miss. However, quality of play stayed high and Germany won the European championship of 2010 with the league slowly but surely recovering on a broader base instead of the Hamburg-Braunschweig duopoly of the 1990s and early 2000s. By 2014 more NFL games could be found on TV and Germany defended its European title in Austria against Austria in front of 27 000 people. Someone at [=Sat1=] took note and the 2015 regular season was to be the first to be carried in free TV. Ratings exploded and the NFL has become a social phenomenon in Germany ever since, way past what even the best NFL Europe days could have hoped for.

to:

In Germany the sport got a foothold because of the American troops stationed at bases there. The German Football League[[note]] Not a translation—that's the ''actual German name''.[[/note]] organizes roughly 200 teams, the elite division is called German Football League and comprises 16 (less in the event of bankruptcies) teams partitioned into north and south divisions. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. All but one of the NFL Europa teams[[note]]It was renamed NFL Europa starting after its penultimate season[[/note]] were based in Germany by the time it folded. Curiously, although American soldiers were stationed mostly in the southern parts, the north dominates strongly, having won all but two German Bowls since 1993 as of 2016. The Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns are the only exception to Northern dominance, having won the German Bowl[[note]] Again, this is the actual German name [[/note]] in 2011 and 2012 and often giving a fierce fight in the Playoffs. German teams (especially the Brunswick Lions and the Hamburg Blue Devils) dominated European football in the mid to late 90s but had an Austrian caused drought until a win in 2010. The most successful teams are Brunswick (New Yorker) Lions, Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns Unicorns, Kiel Baltic Hurricanes and Dresden Monarchs[[note]]They have not yet won a championship and have gotten quite a EveryYearTheyFizzleOut reputation[[/note]]. Historically teams like Berlin Adler or Hamburg Blue Devils were also quite good until budget woes kept them from signing good American talent and coaches and their German players left. As of 2016 the rules put a limit of two on the amount of "American" players (Mexicans, Canadians and Japanese also count as "Americans") that can be on the field at any given time. However, [[AintNoRule there is no such limit]] for European players from outside Germany, which means that the best teams are often an assortment of "European all stars" with the French national Quarterback playing in the second league in Germany for many years. When the European competitions were reorganized into the "Big6" and the "EFL Bowl", both competitions were dominated by German teams (three out of six [=big6=] teams have been German since its first season) and as of and including 2016 all winners of either competition have been German as well. The 2016 edition of the EFL Bowl was even won by a team that had just earned promotion to the first tier that season - Frankfurt Universe. On the spectator side, Football in Germany has had its ebbs and flows, being introduced thanks to American soldiers in the area (Ansbach and Frankfurt dominated the league in 1979 and the next couple of years largely on the strength of nearby US military bases) and steadily growing thanks to decent coverage by the main Pay TV provider[[note]] For the most part there is only one Pay TV provider of note at any given time in Germany. At the time it was called ''Premiere'' and - as is usual - carried live soccer as well as the NFL, so people who bought it for the former stuck around for the latter[[/note]], however the bankruptcy of the Hamburg Blue Devils, the shutdown of NFL Europe (which never made a cent in profits and had only one arguably financially sustainable franchise - Frankfurt) and a slump of the Braunschweig Lions dealt a serious blow to the sport and for some time even having the Super Bowl on German TV was hit and miss. However, quality of play stayed high and Germany won the European championship of 2010 with the league slowly but surely recovering on a broader base instead of the Hamburg-Braunschweig duopoly of the 1990s and early 2000s. By 2014 more NFL games could be found on TV and Germany defended its European title in Austria against Austria in front of 27 000 27,000 people. Someone at [=Sat1=] took note and the 2015 regular season was to be the first to be carried in free TV. Ratings exploded and the NFL has become a social phenomenon in Germany ever since, way past what even the best NFL Europe days could have hoped for.
for. In 2016, Schwäbisch Hall wide receiver Moritz Böhringer became the first European ever drafted by an NFL team without having played American college ball, and is now on the Minnesota Vikings' practice squad.



* ''Rudy'': 1993 movie about a player who earns a place on the Notre Dame football team through hard work. A more-or-less true story, except that the real coach is such a nice guy that ''he gave the moviemakers permission to turn him into a Coach Nasty villain for the sake of drama.''

to:

* ''Rudy'': 1993 movie about a player who earns a place on the Notre Dame football team through hard work. A more-or-less true story, except that the real coach is such a nice guy that ''he gave the moviemakers permission to turn him into a Coach Nasty villain for the sake of drama.''drama''.
7th Nov '16 11:43:35 AM KYCubbie
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Major American leagues have also held some regular season games outside of the United States. On October 2, 2005, the Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers played the first regular season NFL game outside of the United States, in Mexico City's Estadio Azteca, From 2007, the NFL has played or has plans to play at least one regular season game outside of the United States, with London being the typical location. The NCAA will also play games outside of the U.S. In 2012, the United States Naval Academy played the University of Notre Dame in Dublin, Ireland. In 2014, Dublin again hosted the sport, though at a different stadium,[[note]]The 2012 game was held at Aviva Stadium, home to the Republic of Ireland [[UsefulNotes/AssociationFootball soccer]] team and the Ireland [[RugbyUnion rugby]] team. The 2014 game was at Croke Park, home to the Gaelic Athletic Association.[[/note]] when Penn State and UCF (Central Florida) played, and the Bahamas began hosting a postseason bowl game.

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Major American leagues have also held some regular season games outside of the United States. On October 2, 2005, the Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers played the first regular season NFL game outside of the United States, in Mexico City's Estadio Azteca, From 2007, the NFL has played or has plans to play at least one regular season game outside of the United States, with London being the typical location. The NCAA will also play games outside of the U.S. In 2012, the United States Naval Academy played the University of Notre Dame in Dublin, Ireland. In 2014, Dublin again hosted the sport, though at a different stadium,[[note]]The 2012 game was held at Aviva Stadium, home to the Republic of Ireland [[UsefulNotes/AssociationFootball soccer]] team and the Ireland [[RugbyUnion rugby]] team. The 2014 game was at Croke Park, home to the Gaelic Athletic Association.[[/note]] when Penn State and UCF (Central Florida) played, and the Bahamas began hosting a postseason bowl game.
game. The 2016 season saw two season openers outside the U.S., with California and Hawaii playing in Sydney and a return to Dublin, this time with Boston College and Georgia Tech.
27th Oct '16 3:19:13 PM Jhonny
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* The quarterback may kick the ball as far downfield as possible (called a "punt") so that the opposing team will have further to travel in order to score on their ensuing possession. (The players doing the actual punting, while technically the quarterback on the play, are often a specialist called the punter, especially at higher levels.)

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* The quarterback may kick the ball as far downfield as possible (called a "punt") so that the opposing team will have further to travel in order to score on their ensuing possession. (The players doing the actual punting, while technically the quarterback on the play, are often a specialist called the punter, especially at higher levels.) However, some players - including still active players in the NFL - do sometimes punt and sometimes throw passes,[[labelnote: example]]Ben Roethlisberger, starting Quarterback of the Pittsburgh Steelers since 2004 has kicked a couple of punts, mostly on third down to catch the defense off-guard. Most of the time on third down and too long to make a new first down a low risk run will be called to give the punter more room, sometimes high risk passes to achieve the first down will be attempted. So nobody is going to be prepared for a punt, so a halfway decent punter can pin the opposing side down deep in their own territory[[/labelnote]] mostly as a "trick play" that works mostly because it is so rare)
27th Oct '16 2:55:59 PM CapnAndy
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* the quarterback may kick the ball as far downfield as possible (called a "punt") so that the opposing team will have further to travel in order to score on their ensuing possession. (The players doing tha actual punting, while technically the quarterback on the play, are often a specialist called the punter, especially at higher levels.)

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* the The quarterback may kick the ball as far downfield as possible (called a "punt") so that the opposing team will have further to travel in order to score on their ensuing possession. (The players doing tha the actual punting, while technically the quarterback on the play, are often a specialist called the punter, especially at higher levels.)
26th Sep '16 11:36:06 AM Mdumas43073
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-->''{{Series/Farscape}}'', "Exodus from Genesis"

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-->''{{Series/Farscape}}'', -->-- ''{{Series/Farscape}}'', "Exodus from Genesis"
8th Sep '16 5:55:58 PM Jhonny
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For more information, watch ''Manga/{{Eyeshield 21}}'' or ''Series/FridayNightLights''. Or show up at a sports bar full of drunk Americans on an autumn weekend afternoon. Or any part of Texas, with anyone, at any time, especially if you like high school football. Or anywhere near a public television in an American college campus on game day.

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For more information, watch ''Manga/{{Eyeshield 21}}'' or ''Series/FridayNightLights''. Or show up at a sports bar full of drunk Americans on an autumn weekend afternoon. Or any part of Texas, with anyone, at any time, especially if you like high school football. Or anywhere near a public television in an American college campus on game day.
day. Or on [[UsefulNotes/SuperBowl Super Bowl Sunday]] pretty much all around the globe and ask the person wearing the most NFL gear.
8th Sep '16 4:58:09 PM Jhonny
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In Germany the sport got a foothold because of the American troops stationed at bases there. The German Football League[[note]] Not a translation—that's the ''actual German name''.[[/note]] organizes roughly 200 teams, the elite division is called German Football League and comprises 16 (less in the event of bankruptcies) teams partitioned into north and south divisions. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. All but one of the NFL Europa teams[[note]]It was renamed NFL Europa starting after its penultimate season[[/note]] were based in Germany by the time it folded. Curiously, although American soldiers were stationed mostly in the southern parts, the north dominates strongly, having won all but two German Bowls since 1993 as of 2016. The Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns are the only exception to Northern dominance, having won the German Bowl[[note]] Again, this is the actual German name [[/note]] in 2011 and 2012 and often giving a fierce fight in the Playoffs. German teams (especially the Brunswick Lions and the Hamburg Blue Devils) dominated European football in the mid to late 90s but had an Austrian caused drought until a win in 2010. The most successful teams are Brunswick (New Yorker) Lions, Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns Kiel Baltic Hurricanes and Dresden Monarchs[[note]]They have not yet won a championship and have gotten quite a EveryYearTheyFizzleOut reputation[[/note]]. Historically teams like Berlin Adler or Hamburg Blue Devils were also quite good until budget woes kept them from signing good American talent and coaches and their German players left. As of 2016 the rules put a limit of two on the amount of "American" players (Mexicans, Canadians and Japanese also count as "Americans") that can be on the field at any given time. However, [[AintNoRule there is no such limit]] for European players from outside Germany, which means that the best teams are often an assortment of "European all stars" with the French national Quarterback playing in the second league in Germany for many years. When the European competitions were reorganized into the "Big6" and the "EFL Bowl", both competitions were dominated by German teams (three out of six big6 teams have been German since its first season) and as of 2015 all winners of either competition have been German as well.

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In Germany the sport got a foothold because of the American troops stationed at bases there. The German Football League[[note]] Not a translation—that's the ''actual German name''.[[/note]] organizes roughly 200 teams, the elite division is called German Football League and comprises 16 (less in the event of bankruptcies) teams partitioned into north and south divisions. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. All but one of the NFL Europa teams[[note]]It was renamed NFL Europa starting after its penultimate season[[/note]] were based in Germany by the time it folded. Curiously, although American soldiers were stationed mostly in the southern parts, the north dominates strongly, having won all but two German Bowls since 1993 as of 2016. The Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns are the only exception to Northern dominance, having won the German Bowl[[note]] Again, this is the actual German name [[/note]] in 2011 and 2012 and often giving a fierce fight in the Playoffs. German teams (especially the Brunswick Lions and the Hamburg Blue Devils) dominated European football in the mid to late 90s but had an Austrian caused drought until a win in 2010. The most successful teams are Brunswick (New Yorker) Lions, Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns Kiel Baltic Hurricanes and Dresden Monarchs[[note]]They have not yet won a championship and have gotten quite a EveryYearTheyFizzleOut reputation[[/note]]. Historically teams like Berlin Adler or Hamburg Blue Devils were also quite good until budget woes kept them from signing good American talent and coaches and their German players left. As of 2016 the rules put a limit of two on the amount of "American" players (Mexicans, Canadians and Japanese also count as "Americans") that can be on the field at any given time. However, [[AintNoRule there is no such limit]] for European players from outside Germany, which means that the best teams are often an assortment of "European all stars" with the French national Quarterback playing in the second league in Germany for many years. When the European competitions were reorganized into the "Big6" and the "EFL Bowl", both competitions were dominated by German teams (three out of six big6 [=big6=] teams have been German since its first season) and as of 2015 of and including 2016 all winners of either competition have been German as well.
well. The 2016 edition of the EFL Bowl was even won by a team that had just earned promotion to the first tier that season - Frankfurt Universe. On the spectator side, Football in Germany has had its ebbs and flows, being introduced thanks to American soldiers in the area (Ansbach and Frankfurt dominated the league in 1979 and the next couple of years largely on the strength of nearby US military bases) and steadily growing thanks to decent coverage by the main Pay TV provider[[note]] For the most part there is only one Pay TV provider of note at any given time in Germany. At the time it was called ''Premiere'' and - as is usual - carried live soccer as well as the NFL, so people who bought it for the former stuck around for the latter[[/note]], however the bankruptcy of the Hamburg Blue Devils, the shutdown of NFL Europe (which never made a cent in profits and had only one arguably financially sustainable franchise - Frankfurt) and a slump of the Braunschweig Lions dealt a serious blow to the sport and for some time even having the Super Bowl on German TV was hit and miss. However, quality of play stayed high and Germany won the European championship of 2010 with the league slowly but surely recovering on a broader base instead of the Hamburg-Braunschweig duopoly of the 1990s and early 2000s. By 2014 more NFL games could be found on TV and Germany defended its European title in Austria against Austria in front of 27 000 people. Someone at [=Sat1=] took note and the 2015 regular season was to be the first to be carried in free TV. Ratings exploded and the NFL has become a social phenomenon in Germany ever since, way past what even the best NFL Europe days could have hoped for.



The European Federation of American Football is the governing body in Europe (for the most part, there have been squabbles between IFAF and EFAF in the past, mostly fueled by the egos of the respective leaders). It's main business is organizing pan-European competition like the Eurobowl (now renamed to {=Big6=}) or the European Championship. Judging from the media interest and spectator numbers of the 2014 European Championship (all games live in Austrian TV, 27 000 turned out for the final) they are doing a pretty decent job of it. However, the lack of competitive balance between Germany, Austria, France on one hand and pretty much the rest of Europe on the other as well as the lack of enthusiasm for the sport in many countries make their job rather difficult. The next European championship is to be held in Germany in 2018 who are also defending champions twice over (2010 & 2014).

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The European Federation of American Football is the governing body in Europe (for the most part, there have been squabbles between IFAF and EFAF in the past, mostly fueled by the egos of the respective leaders). It's main business is organizing pan-European competition like the Eurobowl (now renamed to {=Big6=}) [=Big6=]) or the European Championship. Judging from the media interest and spectator numbers of the 2014 European Championship (all games live in Austrian TV, 27 000 turned out for the final) they are doing a pretty decent job of it. However, the lack of competitive balance between Germany, Austria, France on one hand and pretty much the rest of Europe on the other as well as the lack of enthusiasm for the sport in many countries make their job rather difficult. The next European championship is to be held in Germany in 2018 who are also defending champions twice over (2010 & 2014).
8th Sep '16 4:40:23 PM Jhonny
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* '''United States Football League''' (1982-1987): The first serious competition with the NFL since the AFL's halcyon days. The league ran in the spring and signed several star college players (the first being Herschel Walker) before the NFL could snatch them up. The league had problems with solvency early on, and the more cash-strapped teams moved frequently making it hard to cultivate fanbases or secure long-term TV deals.[[labelnote: ultimate irony]]They would have gotten a four year TV deal with pretty impressive money for the season they would ultimately never play; there was only one condition: Keep the Spring schedule. They [[WhatAnIdiot decided to go to a fall schedule]] and try their luck with an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL]] [[ForegoneConclusion it failed]][[/labenote]] Stories abounded of teams playing in near-empty stadiums and players having their paychecks bounce. Even so, it was rather popular in some markets and looked to be on the way towards success until Creator/DonaldTrump (yeah, ''[[Series/TheApprentice that]]'' Donald Trump) bought a team and slowly started to take over the league. He had the league sue the NFL for an anti-trust violation and planned on moving the USFL to the fall (possibly because he may have planned to have the more successful USFL teams folded into the NFL and acquire his own NFL franchise). The USFL won its anti-trust violation and was awarded...[[UndesirablePrize $3]]. The league folded shortly after that. Four USFL players (Steve Young [[hottip:*: Steve Young, in fact, signed the single most lucrative contract in football for the next twenty years when he signed a 10-year, $40 million deal, which he accepted as a long term annuity beyond the contract length in order to help his new team's finances. The league went out of business, but Young had taken out an insurance policy on his contract, which will let him collect the contract's full value. By the terms of his settlement, he will collect $1 million per year until 2027.]] Jim Kelly, Reggie White and Gary Zimmerman) are in the Hall of Fame. All of them signed with NFL teams. The USFL was also where players like Doug Flutie and the aforementioned Herschel Walker played their first pro seasons.

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* '''United States Football League''' (1982-1987): The first serious competition with the NFL since the AFL's halcyon days. The league ran in the spring and signed several star college players (the first being Herschel Walker) before the NFL could snatch them up. The league had problems with solvency early on, and the more cash-strapped teams moved frequently making it hard to cultivate fanbases or secure long-term TV deals.[[labelnote: ultimate irony]]They would have gotten a four year TV deal with pretty impressive money for the season they would ultimately never play; there was only one condition: Keep the Spring schedule. They [[WhatAnIdiot decided to go to a fall schedule]] and try their luck with an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL]] [[ForegoneConclusion it failed]][[/labenote]] failed]][[/labelnote]] Stories abounded of teams playing in near-empty stadiums and players having their paychecks bounce. Even so, it was rather popular in some markets and looked to be on the way towards success until Creator/DonaldTrump (yeah, ''[[Series/TheApprentice that]]'' Donald Trump) bought a team and slowly started to take over the league. He had the league sue the NFL for an anti-trust violation and planned on moving the USFL to the fall (possibly because he may have planned to have the more successful USFL teams folded into the NFL and acquire his own NFL franchise). The USFL won its anti-trust violation and was awarded...[[UndesirablePrize $3]]. The league folded shortly after that. Four USFL players (Steve Young [[hottip:*: Steve Young, in fact, signed the single most lucrative contract in football for the next twenty years when he signed a 10-year, $40 million deal, which he accepted as a long term annuity beyond the contract length in order to help his new team's finances. The league went out of business, but Young had taken out an insurance policy on his contract, which will let him collect the contract's full value. By the terms of his settlement, he will collect $1 million per year until 2027.]] Jim Kelly, Reggie White and Gary Zimmerman) are in the Hall of Fame. All of them signed with NFL teams. The USFL was also where players like Doug Flutie and the aforementioned Herschel Walker played their first pro seasons.
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