History UsefulNotes / Afghanistan

7th Mar '18 1:25:52 AM Smeagol17
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent, and is the only South Asian country that is not part of the Indian subcontinent. Since TheWarOnTerror, the name is on everyone’s lips, known as the land of the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region, with more than 200 years of Western Involvement and interference in the region.

to:

Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent, and is the only South Asian country that is not part of the Indian subcontinent. Since TheWarOnTerror, the name is on everyone’s lips, known as the land of the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region, with more than 200 years of Western Involvement involvement and interference in the region.
22nd Feb '18 2:13:17 PM OlvynChuru
Is there an issue? Send a Message

Added DiffLines:


->Afghanistan has frequently switched flags over its history. Since 1700, Afghanistan has gone through a total of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Afghanistan 25 different flags designs]], plus a period during which it did not have a flag at all.
10th Jan '18 10:10:14 PM JackTheHammer
Is there an issue? Send a Message



to:

* ''Series/TheBrave'': Episode 4 is based off of the 2001 Mazar-e-Sharif prison uprising, though the episode itself is set in 2017.





to:

\n* ''VideoGame/CallOfDutyBlackOpsII''
* ''VideoGame/CommandAndConquerGenerals'' (tutorial mission only)
* ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolidVThePhantomPain''
* ''VideoGame/SyphonFilter 3''
30th Nov '17 1:01:58 PM moviepyr0
Is there an issue? Send a Message



to:

* ''Literature/TheBreadwinner''
19th Nov '17 1:35:44 PM Wariolander
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. Since TheWarOnTerror, the name is on everyone’s lips, known as the land of the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region, with more than 200 years of Western Involvement and interference in the region.

to:

Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.Subcontinent, and is the only South Asian country that is not part of the Indian subcontinent. Since TheWarOnTerror, the name is on everyone’s lips, known as the land of the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region, with more than 200 years of Western Involvement and interference in the region.
5th Nov '17 6:48:08 PM JulianLapostat
Is there an issue? Send a Message


As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again. The most notable dynasty was the Kushans, which ruled an empire from Bactria to the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the most famous ruler being Kanishka the Great. The Kushans represented the peak of Afghanistan's Buddhist era, and played a major part in spreading Buddhism into China and the Far East. It was a nexus of the Silk Road and traded with UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire and Imperial China. The weakness of the later Kushan Kings and the rise of the Guptas and other Indian rulers led to their decline, and eventually the Kushans became vassals to the Sassanid Empire.

to:

As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of [[UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, people]], resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again. The most notable dynasty was the Kushans, which ruled an empire from Bactria to the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the most famous ruler being Kanishka the Great. The Kushans represented the peak of Afghanistan's Buddhist era, and played a major part in spreading Buddhism into China and the Far East. It was a nexus of the Silk Road and traded with UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire and Imperial China. The weakness of the later Kushan Kings and the rise of the Guptas and other Indian rulers led to their decline, and eventually the Kushans became vassals to the Sassanid Empire.
18th Oct '17 8:53:08 PM JulianLapostat
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of the theaters of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region.

Being right where Persia meets the Central Asian Steppes meets the Indian subcontinent, the land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). During antiquity, the country was divided into four principal regions: Bactria (the northern lowlands, the name evolved into the modern province of Balkh), Arachosia (the southeast, mostly comprising the Hindu Kush and the current Pashtun homeland), Drangiana (the southern desert), and Aria[[note]]Aria, by the way, is cognate with Iran and, yes, [[ThoseWackyNazis Aryan]]. Before anyone screams "supremacists", it was the Indo-Iranians who came up with the word first.[[/note]] (the western mountains, surrounding the ancient city of Herat. By the Middle Ages, it's known as Khorasan.), all of which were also collectively known as Ariana (no, not [[Music/ArianaGrande that one]]).

As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again.

After a series of intermittent rule by native and Persian dynasties, the region was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century and was ruled by them as part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and the early years of Abbasid caliphates. Islam was proselyted among and eventually embraced by the indigenous people, though, as with Persia, it didn't stop them from breaking away and [[StartMyOwn starting a ruling dynasty of their own]]. In the 10th century, the Turks set shop and became a major part of the military, resulting in Turko-Persian rule under the Ghaznavids (which took its name from the eastern city of Ghazni), the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians. 13th century saw the [[TheHorde Great Mongol Horde]] beginning their [[TakeOverTheWorld World-Dominating Campaign]], which devastated the region badly, with many cities [[RapePillageAndBurn sacked]] or completely destroyed. Some Mongols settled and intermingled with the locals, resulting in the birth of the Hazaras, which we will discuss later. The Mongols broke up soon after and one of its pieces, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled the area. They eventually gave up distinguishing themselves and adopted Islam, just in time for Timur the Lame to begin the Second World-Dominating Campaign, although this time the region was spared and actually flourished under his rule.

Once Timur's nomadic empire broke down, the spotlight once again turned to the Persians, who had recently broke free from half a millenium of Turkic rule with the declaration of the Safavid Empire at the start of the 16th century, whose territories included Herat. However, their rather overzealous evangelization campaign from Sunni to Shia Islam didn't sit well with their eastern subjects. A Sunni Hotak Empire was declared in the last years of the Safavids which in managed to completely expel the Mughals (a branch of the Timurids) from the Iranian Plateau. They were historically significant as the first Afghan dynasty whose ruling class came from what we could call today the Pashtun ethnic group. After a brief Persian restoration, the also Pashtun Durrani Empire came next, followed by the House of Barakzai, who established the Emirate of Afghanistan.[[note]]A brief footnote: Afghanistan of the past, especially under the Durrani, was far larger than it is now – at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh.[[/note]] As you can see, Afghanistan as it is now only came to being in the early 19th century under the Barakzai as a result of the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's Muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand, both remnants of the Golden Horde which was yet another piece of the Mongol Empire) and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukharan-Kokandi expansion the British made peace with the Afghan Emirs and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.

to:

Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The Since TheWarOnTerror, the name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of lips, known as the theaters land of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region, with more than 200 years of Western Involvement and interference in the region.

Being right where Persia meets It is in many respects comparable to UsefulNotes/{{Sicily}}, the Mediterranean island periodically occupied and conquered by empires new and old, and whose constant conquests have left a region run by tribal FeudingFamilies and a series of grudges among the people against one another, and a culture with a strong emphasis on "honour". Unlike Sicily, which is an island, Afghanistan is landlocked, hilly and mountainous, in the intersection of Iran, the Central Asian Steppes meets Steppes, and the Indian subcontinent, the subcontinent. The land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). During antiquity, the country was divided into four principal regions: Bactria (the northern lowlands, the name evolved into the modern province of Balkh), Arachosia (the southeast, mostly comprising the Hindu Kush and the current Pashtun homeland), Drangiana (the southern desert), and Aria[[note]]Aria, by the way, is cognate with Iran and, yes, [[ThoseWackyNazis Aryan]]. Before anyone screams "supremacists", it was the Indo-Iranians who came up with the word first.[[/note]] (the western mountains, surrounding the ancient city of Herat. By the Middle Ages, it's known as Khorasan.), all of which were also collectively known as Ariana (no, not [[Music/ArianaGrande that one]]).

Ariana. The land and the people didn't identify itself and themselves as Afghanistan and Afghanis respectively, until their triumph in the First Anglo-Afghan War.

As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again. The most notable dynasty was the Kushans, which ruled an empire from Bactria to the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the most famous ruler being Kanishka the Great. The Kushans represented the peak of Afghanistan's Buddhist era, and played a major part in spreading Buddhism into China and the Far East. It was a nexus of the Silk Road and traded with UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire and Imperial China. The weakness of the later Kushan Kings and the rise of the Guptas and other Indian rulers led to their decline, and eventually the Kushans became vassals to the Sassanid Empire.

After a series of intermittent rule by native and Persian dynasties, The Sassanids lasted until the Arab Conquest. The region was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century and was ruled by them as part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and the early years of Abbasid caliphates. Islam was proselyted among and eventually embraced by the indigenous people, though, as with Persia, it didn't stop them from breaking away and [[StartMyOwn starting a ruling dynasty of their own]]. In the 10th century, the Turks set shop and became a major part of the military, resulting in Turko-Persian rule under the Ghaznavids (which took its name from the eastern city of Ghazni), the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians. 13th century saw the [[TheHorde Great Mongol Horde]] beginning their [[TakeOverTheWorld World-Dominating Campaign]], which devastated the region badly, with many cities [[RapePillageAndBurn sacked]] or completely destroyed. Some Mongols settled and intermingled with the locals, resulting in the birth of the Hazaras, which we will discuss later. The Mongols broke up soon after and one of its pieces, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled the area. They eventually gave up distinguishing themselves and adopted Islam, just in time for Timur the Lame to begin the Second World-Dominating Campaign, although this time the region was spared and actually flourished under his rule.

Once Timur's nomadic empire broke down, the spotlight once again turned to the Persians, who had recently broke free from half a millenium of Turkic rule with the declaration of the Safavid Empire at the start of the 16th century, whose territories included Herat. However, their rather overzealous evangelization campaign from Sunni to Shia Islam didn't sit well with their eastern subjects. A Sunni Hotak Empire was declared in the last years of the Safavids which in managed to completely expel the Mughals (a branch of the Timurids) from the Iranian Plateau. They were historically significant as the first Afghan dynasty whose ruling class came from what we could call today the Pashtun ethnic group. After a brief Persian restoration, the also Pashtun Durrani Empire came next, followed by the House of Barakzai, who established the Emirate of Afghanistan.[[note]]A brief footnote: Afghanistan of the past, especially in this era, under the Durrani, Durrani dynasty, was far larger than it is now -- at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh.Leh. Their territories were reduced to its modern borders on account of the rising Sikh Empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the "Lion of Punjab". Ranjit Singh's battles led to the formation of a new Sikh empire that included modern day Lahore and Peshawar.[[note]]Maharaja Ranjit Singh also claimed the famous Koh-I-Noor diamond from Shah Shuja Durrani ([[ArtifactOfDoom who claimed it from the Persian Conqueror Nader Shah, who looted it from Delhi in 1739]]).[[/note]] As you can see, The Durrani Empire eventually splintered on account of FeudingFamilies between the Barakzai and Sadozai tribes. The Sadozais, under Shah Shuja Durrani were deposed and exiled from Afghanistan as it is now only came to being UsefulNotes/{{India}} during UsefulNotes/TheRaj.

The Barakzai established the Emirate of Afghanistan and under Amir Dost Mohammed and his sons, Afghanistan
in the early part of the 19th century under Century was a thriving Central Asian Kingdom, an important trading area in Central Asia and growing rather prosperous. Of course the Barakzai wealth also came with the regular instability of the tribes, a number of whom guarded the key mountain passes and most of whom had to be carefully controlled by a BalanceOfPower. The feudal system was still alive and as such the Amir depended on differing tribes to hold his army, and many of them had grudges against each other. Meanwhile in the Raj, some East India Company planners got it into their heads that the Russians were planning to take Afghanistan and use it as a result staging area for an invasion of India. In actual fact the Russians were interested in controlling their Central Asian minorities, and had plans to subvert the Ottoman Empire and retake Constantinople and had no real interest in taking India. Their interests in Central Asia had mainly to do with favorable access to border trade. Fears and exaggerations about Russian ambition led to the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's Muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand, both remnants of the Golden Horde which was yet another piece of the Mongol Empire) Empire and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukharan-Kokandi expansion the British Empire. The British made peace the opening move in the Great Game by deciding to topple the popular and competent Dost Mohammed with the weak Shah Shuja. This despite warnings by their own agents, Alexander Burnes, that this was a bad idea. This despite the fact that Dost Mohammed kept asking for a favorable agreement and relationship with the English. But in the end, the English decided to go ahead with their "plan".

The result was a disaster. Shah Shuja Durrani's arrival wrecked the BalanceOfPower in the region, and the British Occupation proved incredibly unpopular from the very beginning. Small-scale uprisings ultimately led to the start of a major rebellion that led to the British besieged in local fortresses before they decided to mount an incredibly ill-planned retreat from their position in Afghanistan back to India. It was a famous bloodbath and the worst defeat in British military history until the Fall of Singapore. The British lost the Anglo-Afghan War despite mounting a major punitive expedition that saw the destruction of Kabul and its famous bazaar, an expedition that targeted not only Afghani civilians, women and children, but also the Hindu and Persian trading communities in Kabul who were caught in the middle and which the Army of Retribution (yes they really called it that) under General Pollock, did not distinguish or separate form the rest. At the end of the war, Dost Mohammed was returned to the throne, with English support, rendering the entire expedition pointless on the part of the English, and damaging to
the Afghan Emirs people, who suffered harsh deprivations and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from impoverishment on account of the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.English.
6th Oct '17 4:24:19 PM FireCrawler2002
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat) , is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of the theaters of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region.

to:

Afghanistan ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat) , Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of the theaters of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region.
6th Oct '17 8:36:26 AM AntonF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Being right where Persia meets the Central Asian Steppes meets the Indian subcontinent, the land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). During antiquity, the country was actually divided into four principal regions: Bactria (the northern lowlands, the name evolved into the modern province of Balkh), Arachosia (the southeast, mostly comprising the Hindu Kush and the current Pashtun homeland), Drangiana (the southern desert), and Aria[[note]]Aria, by the way, is cognate with Iran and, yes, [[ThoseWackyNazis Aryan]]. Before anyone screams "supremacists", it was the Indo-Iranians who came up with the word first.[[/note]] (the western mountains, surrounding the ancient city of Herat. By the Middle Ages, it's known as Khorasan.), all of which were also collectively known as Ariana (no, not [[Music/ArianaGrande that one]]).

As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millenium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again.

After a series of intermittent rule by native and Persian dynasties, the region was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century and was ruled by them as part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and the early years of Abbasid caliphates. Islam was proselyted among and eventually embraced by the indigenous people, though, as with Persia, it didn't stop them from breaking away and [[StartMyOwn start a ruling dynasty of their own]]. In the 10th century, the Turks set shop and became a major part of the military, resulting in Turko-Persian rule under the Ghaznavids (which took its name from the eastern city of Ghazni), the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians. 13th century saw the [[TheHorde Great Mongol Horde]] beginning their [[TakeOverTheWorld World-Dominating Campaign]], which devastated the region badly, with many cities [[RapePillageAndBurn sacked]] or completely destroyed. Some Mongols settled and intermingled with the locals, resulting in the birth of the Hazaras, which we will discuss later. The Mongols broke up soon after and one of its pieces, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled the area. They eventually gave up distinguishing themselves and adopted Islam, just in time for Timur the Lame to begin the Second World-Dominating Campaign, although this time the region was spared and actually flourished under his rule.

Once Timur's nomadic empire broke down, the spotlight once again turned to the Persians, who had recently broke free from half a century of Turkic rule with the declaration of the Safavid Empire at the start of the 16th century, whose territories included Herat. However, their rather overzealous evangelization campaign from Sunni to Shia Islam didn't sit well with their eastern subjects. A Sunni Hotak Empire was declared in the last years of the Safavids which in the meantime managed to completely expel the Mughals from the Iranian Plateau. They were historically significant as the first Afghan dynasty whose ruling class came from what we could call today the Pashtun ethic group. After a brief Persian restoration, the also Pashtun Durrani Empire came next, followed by the House of Barakzai, who established the Emirate of Afganistan.[[note]]A brief footnote: Afghanistan of the past, especially under the Durrani, was far larger than it is now – at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh[[/note]]. As you can see, Afghanistan as it is now only came to being in the early 19th century under the Barakzai as a result of the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's Muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukkhara and Khanate of Kokkand) and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukkharan-Kokkandi expansion the British made peace with the Afghan Emirs and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.

to:

Being right where Persia meets the Central Asian Steppes meets the Indian subcontinent, the land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). During antiquity, the country was actually divided into four principal regions: Bactria (the northern lowlands, the name evolved into the modern province of Balkh), Arachosia (the southeast, mostly comprising the Hindu Kush and the current Pashtun homeland), Drangiana (the southern desert), and Aria[[note]]Aria, by the way, is cognate with Iran and, yes, [[ThoseWackyNazis Aryan]]. Before anyone screams "supremacists", it was the Indo-Iranians who came up with the word first.[[/note]] (the western mountains, surrounding the ancient city of Herat. By the Middle Ages, it's known as Khorasan.), all of which were also collectively known as Ariana (no, not [[Music/ArianaGrande that one]]).

As to be expected from a disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millenium millennium BC, it was a bastion of Zoroastrianism (which might originate from here and not Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again.

After a series of intermittent rule by native and Persian dynasties, the region was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century and was ruled by them as part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and the early years of Abbasid caliphates. Islam was proselyted among and eventually embraced by the indigenous people, though, as with Persia, it didn't stop them from breaking away and [[StartMyOwn start starting a ruling dynasty of their own]]. In the 10th century, the Turks set shop and became a major part of the military, resulting in Turko-Persian rule under the Ghaznavids (which took its name from the eastern city of Ghazni), the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians. 13th century saw the [[TheHorde Great Mongol Horde]] beginning their [[TakeOverTheWorld World-Dominating Campaign]], which devastated the region badly, with many cities [[RapePillageAndBurn sacked]] or completely destroyed. Some Mongols settled and intermingled with the locals, resulting in the birth of the Hazaras, which we will discuss later. The Mongols broke up soon after and one of its pieces, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled the area. They eventually gave up distinguishing themselves and adopted Islam, just in time for Timur the Lame to begin the Second World-Dominating Campaign, although this time the region was spared and actually flourished under his rule.

Once Timur's nomadic empire broke down, the spotlight once again turned to the Persians, who had recently broke free from half a century millenium of Turkic rule with the declaration of the Safavid Empire at the start of the 16th century, whose territories included Herat. However, their rather overzealous evangelization campaign from Sunni to Shia Islam didn't sit well with their eastern subjects. A Sunni Hotak Empire was declared in the last years of the Safavids which in the meantime managed to completely expel the Mughals (a branch of the Timurids) from the Iranian Plateau. They were historically significant as the first Afghan dynasty whose ruling class came from what we could call today the Pashtun ethic ethnic group. After a brief Persian restoration, the also Pashtun Durrani Empire came next, followed by the House of Barakzai, who established the Emirate of Afganistan.Afghanistan.[[note]]A brief footnote: Afghanistan of the past, especially under the Durrani, was far larger than it is now – at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh[[/note]]. Leh.[[/note]] As you can see, Afghanistan as it is now only came to being in the early 19th century under the Barakzai as a result of the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's Muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukkhara Bukhara and Khanate of Kokkand) Kokand, both remnants of the Golden Horde which was yet another piece of the Mongol Empire) and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukkharan-Kokkandi Bukharan-Kokandi expansion the British made peace with the Afghan Emirs and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.
6th Oct '17 7:58:14 AM AntonF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Afghanistan ('''Persian:''' افغانستان; '''Pashto:''' Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Persian:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of the theaters of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region.

Being right where Persia meets the Central Asian Steppes meets the Indian subcontinent, the land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). Ethnically and religiously heterogenous for all of recorded history, its initial religions were a mix of steppe faiths, Indian Hindu faiths, Zoroastrianism (UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} may have originated here and not in Persia), Buddhism, and finally Sunni Islam. Famous empires which conquered the region included that of Alexander of Macedon 'the Great', the Seleucids/Persia, the Indian Maurya, the Timurids, the Mongols, and the Mughals.

Originally a bunch of tribal fiefdoms of several ethnicities later united as an Emirate (controlled by the Pashtun ethnic group) in the 18th century, Afghanistan as it is now only came to being in the early 19th century under the House of Barakzai[[note]] (before this it was the core of the [[TheEmpire Durrani Empire]] and was far larger than it is now – at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh)[[/note]] as a result of the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukkhara and Khanate of Kokkand) and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukkharan-Kokkandi expansion the British made peace with the Afghan Emirs and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.

In 1893, Afghanistan's current southern border was set up via an agreement with the British called the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durand_Line Durand Line]], creating problems later. The Line cuts right through the middle of the homeland of the Pashtun, an infamously tribal people who are the largest group in Afghanistan. Regardless of what the various governments did, the Pashtuns never gave much of a flip about the border. They still don't.

to:

Afghanistan ('''Persian:''' افغانستان; ('''Dari''' and '''Pashto:''' افغانستان‏‎ Afġānistān), also known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ('''Persian:''' ('''Dari:''' جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān; '''Pashto:''' '''Pashto:''' د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat), Jomhoriyat) , is a South Asian country acting as the crossroad between Western, Central and East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The name is on everyone’s lips. Everyone knows one of the theaters of TheWarOnTerror, the Taliban and the hijinks of Islamic fundamentalists. However, this is but the tip of the iceberg, the latest chapter of a long history of conflict for a key crossroads region.

Being right where Persia meets the Central Asian Steppes meets the Indian subcontinent, the land has been influenced by all kinds of societies over the millennia. It is most famous in antiquity for being the world's only source of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli (that crumbly blueish stuff used to make ultramarine dye). Ethnically During antiquity, the country was actually divided into four principal regions: Bactria (the northern lowlands, the name evolved into the modern province of Balkh), Arachosia (the southeast, mostly comprising the Hindu Kush and religiously heterogenous for the current Pashtun homeland), Drangiana (the southern desert), and Aria[[note]]Aria, by the way, is cognate with Iran and, yes, [[ThoseWackyNazis Aryan]]. Before anyone screams "supremacists", it was the Indo-Iranians who came up with the word first.[[/note]] (the western mountains, surrounding the ancient city of Herat. By the Middle Ages, it's known as Khorasan.), all of recorded history, its initial religions which were also collectively known as Ariana (no, not [[Music/ArianaGrande that one]]).

As to be expected from
a mix disjointed land separated by mountains, the region is extremely heterogeneous ethnic wise, although Iranian-speaking peoples have a general dominance then and now. In the 2nd and 1st millenium BC, it was a bastion of steppe faiths, Indian Hindu faiths, Zoroastrianism (UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} may have originated (which might originate from here and not in Persia), Buddhism, Persia) as well as one of the earliest centers of Hinduism and finally Sunni Islam. Famous Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent under Gandhara rule. Then it came under influence from Persia, which held it for two centuries until the Macedonians led by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat started their South Asian campaign. Alexander's conquest left the legacy of Greek ruling class who settled and intermingled with the indigenous people, resulting in the development of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian empires which conquered adopting Greek as an official language until the 2nd century AD, when it's replaced by the native languages again.

After a series of intermittent rule by native and Persian dynasties,
the region was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century and was ruled by them as part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and the early years of Abbasid caliphates. Islam was proselyted among and eventually embraced by the indigenous people, though, as with Persia, it didn't stop them from breaking away and [[StartMyOwn start a ruling dynasty of their own]]. In the 10th century, the Turks set shop and became a major part of the military, resulting in Turko-Persian rule under the Ghaznavids (which took its name from the eastern city of Ghazni), the Seljuks, and the Khwarezmians. 13th century saw the [[TheHorde Great Mongol Horde]] beginning their [[TakeOverTheWorld World-Dominating Campaign]], which devastated the region badly, with many cities [[RapePillageAndBurn sacked]] or completely destroyed. Some Mongols settled and intermingled with the locals, resulting in the birth of the Hazaras, which we will discuss later. The Mongols broke up soon after and one of its pieces, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled the area. They eventually gave up distinguishing themselves and adopted Islam, just in time for Timur the Lame to begin the Second World-Dominating Campaign, although this time the region was spared and actually flourished under his rule.

Once Timur's nomadic empire broke down, the spotlight once again turned to the Persians, who had recently broke free from half a century of Turkic rule with the declaration of the Safavid Empire at the start of the 16th century, whose territories
included that of Alexander of Macedon 'the Great', Herat. However, their rather overzealous evangelization campaign from Sunni to Shia Islam didn't sit well with their eastern subjects. A Sunni Hotak Empire was declared in the Seleucids/Persia, last years of the Indian Maurya, Safavids which in the Timurids, meantime managed to completely expel the Mongols, and Mughals from the Mughals.

Originally a bunch of tribal fiefdoms of several ethnicities later united
Iranian Plateau. They were historically significant as an Emirate (controlled by the first Afghan dynasty whose ruling class came from what we could call today the Pashtun ethnic group) in ethic group. After a brief Persian restoration, the 18th century, Afghanistan as it is now only also Pashtun Durrani Empire came to being in the early 19th century under next, followed by the House of Barakzai[[note]] (before this it was Barakzai, who established the core Emirate of Afganistan.[[note]]A brief footnote: Afghanistan of the [[TheEmpire Durrani Empire]] and past, especially under the Durrani, was far larger than it is now – at its height it controlled much of what is now Pakistan as well as all of Kashmir except the Siachen Glacier and the Buddhist outpost of Leh)[[/note]] Leh[[/note]]. As you can see, Afghanistan as it is now only came to being in the early 19th century under the Barakzai as a result of the "Great Game" between the Russian Empire's muslim Muslim protectorates (the Emirate of Bukkhara and Khanate of Kokkand) and the Indian princely states backed by Great Britain. To prevent Bukkharan-Kokkandi expansion the British made peace with the Afghan Emirs and made them a British protectorate, which lasted from the 1870s until 1919, when Emir Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan's total sovereignty.

sovereignty.

In 1893, Afghanistan's current southern border was set up via an agreement with the British called the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durand_Line Durand Line]], creating problems later. The Line cuts right through the middle of the homeland of the Pashtun, an infamously a highly tribal people who are the largest group in Afghanistan. Regardless of what the various governments did, the Pashtuns never gave much of a flip about the border. They still don't.



Karzai's official Afghan federal government has been superficial and ineffectual, as its inability to engage in the production of Heroin for export means that its opponents have access to an immensely valuable source of revenue which it does not. UN (chiefly US) funding, trainers, personnel, and weapons+equipment for the federal government have been effectively checked. Donations have been forthcoming from wealthy parties within Saudi Arabia and other neighbouring states, training and combat power have been provided by mercenaries hired using Heroin and charity funds, and weapons+equipment have been bought from traders in neighbouring states or even from within the country itself. Perhaps the greatest problem facing the federal government has been the ability of its opponents to corrupt local and regional administrations, creating a number of areas which are not definitively under the control of either party and which can seemingly change hands overnight. The remnants of the Taliban have taken advantage of Pashtuns' traditional disdain of the Durand Line to launch attacks from across the border in Pakistan, and groups affiliated with ISIS seem to have infiltrated through the northern border as well.

to:

Karzai's official Afghan federal government has been superficial and ineffectual, as its inability to engage in the production of Heroin for export means that its opponents have access to an immensely valuable source of revenue which it does not. UN (chiefly US) funding, trainers, personnel, and weapons+equipment for the federal government have been effectively checked. Donations have been forthcoming from wealthy parties within Saudi Arabia and other neighbouring states, training and combat power have been provided by mercenaries hired using Heroin and charity funds, and weapons+equipment have been bought from traders in neighbouring states or even from within the country itself. Perhaps the greatest problem facing the federal government has been the ability of its opponents to corrupt local and regional administrations, creating a number of areas which are not definitively under the control of either party and which can seemingly change hands overnight. The remnants of the Taliban have taken advantage of Pashtuns' traditional disdain of the Durand Line to launch attacks from across the border in Pakistan, and groups affiliated with ISIS the Islamic State/IS seem to have infiltrated through the northern border as well.



Ethnically, Afghanistan is an incredible mix, of which the Pashtuns form the plurality with 42%, followed by Tajiks at 27%. They are ''[[BerserkButton not]]'' Arabs (there are Arabs, but they make up less than 4% of the population). Similarly, there are all kinds of languages spoken, the main ones being Dari (a dialect of Persian) and Pashto. The breadth of different ethnicities is similar to that of neighboring Iran, except that that country has an outright ethnic majority (Persians).

to:

Ethnically, Afghanistan is an incredible mix, of which dominated by the Pashtuns form Pashtuns, who settle in the plurality south (roughly in the ancient provinces of Arachosia and Drangiana) and Tajiks, who settle in the north and west (in Bactria and Aria/Khorasan). Tajiks, should we mention, are a subset of Persians who live east of Herat[[note]]Though of course it's actually a bit more complex than that. Tajik is first used by early Turks to refer to Persian-speaking Muslims and is somewhat pejorative, but nowadays many people embrace it enthusiastically.[[/note]] so they speak a Persian dialect influenced by the ancient languages that used to exist in the area with 42%, followed by Tajiks at 27%. They some archaisms due to relative isolation from the centers of power. This dialect is known as Dari, but for all respects it's still mutually intelligible with Persian and was renamed for political reasons.[[note]] most people still refer to it as ''Farsi'', so there you go[[/note]] The third largest ethnic group, Hazaras, as we mentioned above are ''[[BerserkButton not]]'' descendants of Mongols who intermarried with the locals, shifted to speak a Mongolian-influenced Persian, and adopted (Shia) Islam. The last bit works out at their expense since it adds up yet another reason for the mainly Sunni fundamentalists to discriminate against them, as depicted in ''Literature/TheKiteRunner''. Other than them, there are Uzbeks, Aimaqs/nomadic Tajiks, Turkmens, Baloch, Nuristanis, Pamiris, Kyrgyz, and yes, Arabs (there are Arabs, but (but they make up less than 4% 1% of the population). Similarly, there are total and virtually all kinds of languages spoken, the main ones being Dari (a dialect of Persian) and Pashto. The breadth of different ethnicities is similar to that of neighboring Iran, except that that country has an outright ethnic majority (Persians).
speak Persian, so, no, [[BerserkButton don't call Afghans Arabs]], unless they specifically identify so).
This list shows the last 10 events of 88. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.Afghanistan