History Main / WilliamMcKinley

22nd Jan '14 3:37:24 PM MarkLungo
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[[quoteright:257:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/mckinley.gif]]

->''"Doesn't our President look marvelous today? So round and prosperous!"''\\
--'''''Theatre/{{Assassins}}'''''

'''William [=McKinley=]''' (1843 - 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving [[TheGayNineties from 1897 until his death in 1901]]. He was the 7th from the Republican Party, followed GroverCleveland's ''second'' term, and was followed by none other than [[TheodoreRoosevelt Teddy Roosevelt]].

He is mainly known nowadays as the President whose assassination at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York resulted in the much-better-known TheodoreRoosevelt coming into office. His assassination receives little attention in public memory compared to that of UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln or JohnFKennedy, despite serving longer than either of them. He is also one of the more famous victims of violence perpetrated in the name of Anarchism; a few short but eventful decades later, the [[RedScare radicals to really be afraid of would be communists]] instead. He famously [[TemptingFate disliked having a security detail]], seeing them as an impediment to interacting with his constituents, and was [[TooDumbToLive specifically warned that the event in which he was shot would be impossible to properly secure]]. [=McKinley=] was unconcerned because he couldn't imagine that anyone would actually want to hurt him.

This debacle led to an informal request from Congress asking the Secret Service--Treasury Department police, until then mostly concerned with fighting [[CounterfeitCash counterfeiting]] but doing other stuff on the side--with providing security for the President and other high-ranking officials. TheodoreRoosevelt quickly made this arrangement permanent.

Much like UsefulNotes/JamesGarfield before him, technology was right there that probably would have saved him, but several decisions surrounding the operation didn't work out for keeping him alive ([[ItWillNeverCatchOn the new "x-ray machine" being exhibited at the very expo where he was shot was too untested for doctors to trust it, and apparently they didn't think to do the surgery under the brand-new electric lighting, nor could they use candles because flammable ether was still the best anesthetic available at the time)]].

Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during [=McKinley=]'s time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by over 10% during his first term. The dollar was placed entirely on the gold standard, tariff rates were increased, and relations with labor unions improved significantly.

The Spanish-American war broke out during his first term in 1898, mostly over the issue of independence for Cuba. The American victory was quick and decisive with both the army and navy [[CurbStompBattle winning nearly every engagement with the Spanish]]. Ironically, [=McKinley=] tried to avoid war for a long time despite public opinion favoring the Cubans, but he accepted war when it was clear that diplomacy was no longer an option. When the dust had settled, control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines (though the residents there rebelled against American authority for a few years) were all relinquished to the U.S. Hawaii was also annexed without a fight to further expand American influence in the Pacific. [=McKinley=] also ordered 2,500 troops to China, as part of an international military force, when the Boxer Rebellion erupted to protect both U.S. citizens from forcible expulsion and ensure Asian trade stayed open to all countries. Known as the Open Door Policy, he supported equal trading rights in China but opposed European attempts to colonize the country.

This combination of strong economy, territorial gain, and success on the international stage meant it was relatively easy for him to win a second term in 1900, which he barely got a chance to enjoy before his untimely assassination. He was the last AmericanCivilWar veteran to be president and was also the first president to be elected during an Olympic year (the year of the first modern games, 1896), to ride in a car, and to campaign by telephone. [=McKinley=] is on the $500 dollar bill, but these have been discontinued since 1969. His two elections saw voter turnout above 70% each time, the last time voter turnout was above the 70% mark.

Some historians consider [=McKinley=] to be a pretty underrated President. Initially considered to be weak-willed and easily influenced by the general public, there is a growing opinion in the historical community that his leadership successfully helped the United States enter the international stage. The country's first non-continental territories were won during his time in office, and he took steps to restrain European countries when they were on the verge of trying to take parts of China as colonies. Additionally, America recovered from a stinging depression and prosperity resumed. He also set the stage for the Republicans dominating the White House for the next few decades, making him easily one of the most effective party-leader Presidents. On the other hand, he is often criticized for not keeping his promise to make Cuba an independent country and for his administration's actions in the Philippines. In the Philippine–American War, over 200,000 Filipinos died (most of them civilians) in an unsuccessful struggle for independence, with 5,000 Americans also dead.

He was a very kind and well-meaning man - after he was shot, he literally begged the people at the exposition not to form a mob and attack his assassin. [=McKinley=] went on national speaking tours in order to stay in touch with voters and held regular press meetings. His wife, Ida, developed epilepsy after both of her daughters died as toddlers. He kept her by his side at all time in case she had a seizure.

The worst natural disaster in American history, the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900_Galveston_hurricane 1900 Galveston hurricane]], happened on his watch. Over 8,000 people in Texas lost their lives to an incredibly destructive hurricane.

----
!!William [=McKinley=] in Fiction

* "The hat [=McKinley=] was shot in" appears in an episode of ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons''.
** Mr. Burns said he survived 5 years of "[=McKinley=]-nomics".
* The school in ''Series/FreaksAndGeeks'' was named after him, as is the school in ''Series/{{Glee}}''.
* The arrest of Leon Czolgosz by a racist Buffalo cop was the original point of departure for the Web original AlternateHistory ''Literature/{{Reds}}'' and remains an important differentiating event in the rewrite. In both versions, [=McKinley=] survives and thus history is radically altered.
* [=McKinley=]'s assassination has its own [[http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/Leon_Czolgosz creepypasta]].
* He was the inspiration for The Wizard in ''Literature/TheWonderfulWizardOfOz''.
----

to:

[[quoteright:257:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/mckinley.gif]]

->''"Doesn't our President look marvelous today? So round and prosperous!"''\\
--'''''Theatre/{{Assassins}}'''''

'''William [=McKinley=]''' (1843 - 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving [[TheGayNineties from 1897 until his death in 1901]]. He was the 7th from the Republican Party, followed GroverCleveland's ''second'' term, and was followed by none other than [[TheodoreRoosevelt Teddy Roosevelt]].

He is mainly known nowadays as the President whose assassination at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York resulted in the much-better-known TheodoreRoosevelt coming into office. His assassination receives little attention in public memory compared to that of UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln or JohnFKennedy, despite serving longer than either of them. He is also one of the more famous victims of violence perpetrated in the name of Anarchism; a few short but eventful decades later, the [[RedScare radicals to really be afraid of would be communists]] instead. He famously [[TemptingFate disliked having a security detail]], seeing them as an impediment to interacting with his constituents, and was [[TooDumbToLive specifically warned that the event in which he was shot would be impossible to properly secure]]. [=McKinley=] was unconcerned because he couldn't imagine that anyone would actually want to hurt him.

This debacle led to an informal request from Congress asking the Secret Service--Treasury Department police, until then mostly concerned with fighting [[CounterfeitCash counterfeiting]] but doing other stuff on the side--with providing security for the President and other high-ranking officials. TheodoreRoosevelt quickly made this arrangement permanent.

Much like UsefulNotes/JamesGarfield before him, technology was right there that probably would have saved him, but several decisions surrounding the operation didn't work out for keeping him alive ([[ItWillNeverCatchOn the new "x-ray machine" being exhibited at the very expo where he was shot was too untested for doctors to trust it, and apparently they didn't think to do the surgery under the brand-new electric lighting, nor could they use candles because flammable ether was still the best anesthetic available at the time)]].

Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during [=McKinley=]'s time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by over 10% during his first term. The dollar was placed entirely on the gold standard, tariff rates were increased, and relations with labor unions improved significantly.

The Spanish-American war broke out during his first term in 1898, mostly over the issue of independence for Cuba. The American victory was quick and decisive with both the army and navy [[CurbStompBattle winning nearly every engagement with the Spanish]]. Ironically, [=McKinley=] tried to avoid war for a long time despite public opinion favoring the Cubans, but he accepted war when it was clear that diplomacy was no longer an option. When the dust had settled, control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines (though the residents there rebelled against American authority for a few years) were all relinquished to the U.S. Hawaii was also annexed without a fight to further expand American influence in the Pacific. [=McKinley=] also ordered 2,500 troops to China, as part of an international military force, when the Boxer Rebellion erupted to protect both U.S. citizens from forcible expulsion and ensure Asian trade stayed open to all countries. Known as the Open Door Policy, he supported equal trading rights in China but opposed European attempts to colonize the country.

This combination of strong economy, territorial gain, and success on the international stage meant it was relatively easy for him to win a second term in 1900, which he barely got a chance to enjoy before his untimely assassination. He was the last AmericanCivilWar veteran to be president and was also the first president to be elected during an Olympic year (the year of the first modern games, 1896), to ride in a car, and to campaign by telephone. [=McKinley=] is on the $500 dollar bill, but these have been discontinued since 1969. His two elections saw voter turnout above 70% each time, the last time voter turnout was above the 70% mark.

Some historians consider [=McKinley=] to be a pretty underrated President. Initially considered to be weak-willed and easily influenced by the general public, there is a growing opinion in the historical community that his leadership successfully helped the United States enter the international stage. The country's first non-continental territories were won during his time in office, and he took steps to restrain European countries when they were on the verge of trying to take parts of China as colonies. Additionally, America recovered from a stinging depression and prosperity resumed. He also set the stage for the Republicans dominating the White House for the next few decades, making him easily one of the most effective party-leader Presidents. On the other hand, he is often criticized for not keeping his promise to make Cuba an independent country and for his administration's actions in the Philippines. In the Philippine–American War, over 200,000 Filipinos died (most of them civilians) in an unsuccessful struggle for independence, with 5,000 Americans also dead.

He was a very kind and well-meaning man - after he was shot, he literally begged the people at the exposition not to form a mob and attack his assassin. [=McKinley=] went on national speaking tours in order to stay in touch with voters and held regular press meetings. His wife, Ida, developed epilepsy after both of her daughters died as toddlers. He kept her by his side at all time in case she had a seizure.

The worst natural disaster in American history, the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900_Galveston_hurricane 1900 Galveston hurricane]], happened on his watch. Over 8,000 people in Texas lost their lives to an incredibly destructive hurricane.

----
!!William [=McKinley=] in Fiction

* "The hat [=McKinley=] was shot in" appears in an episode of ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons''.
** Mr. Burns said he survived 5 years of "[=McKinley=]-nomics".
* The school in ''Series/FreaksAndGeeks'' was named after him, as is the school in ''Series/{{Glee}}''.
* The arrest of Leon Czolgosz by a racist Buffalo cop was the original point of departure for the Web original AlternateHistory ''Literature/{{Reds}}'' and remains an important differentiating event in the rewrite. In both versions, [=McKinley=] survives and thus history is radically altered.
* [=McKinley=]'s assassination has its own [[http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/Leon_Czolgosz creepypasta]].
* He was the inspiration for The Wizard in ''Literature/TheWonderfulWizardOfOz''.
----
[[redirect:UsefulNotes/WilliamMcKinley]]
18th Jan '14 1:29:51 PM MarkLungo
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->'"Doesn't our President look marvelous today? So round and prosperous!"
-->-- Theatre/{{Assassins}}

to:

->'"Doesn't ->''"Doesn't our President look marvelous today? So round and prosperous!"
-->-- Theatre/{{Assassins}}
prosperous!"''\\
--'''''Theatre/{{Assassins}}'''''



He is mainly known nowadays as the President whose assassination at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York resulted in the much-better-known TheodoreRoosevelt coming into office. His assassination receives little attention in public memory compared to that of AbrahamLincoln or JohnFKennedy, despite serving longer than either of them. He is also one of the more famous victims of violence perpetrated in the name of Anarchism; a few short but eventful decades later, the [[RedScare radicals to really be afraid of would be communists]] instead. He famously [[TemptingFate disliked having a security detail]], seeing them as an impediment to interacting with his constituents, and was [[TooDumbToLive specifically warned that the event in which he was shot would be impossible to properly secure]]. [=McKinley=] was unconcerned because he couldn't imagine that anyone would actually want to hurt him.

to:

He is mainly known nowadays as the President whose assassination at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York resulted in the much-better-known TheodoreRoosevelt coming into office. His assassination receives little attention in public memory compared to that of AbrahamLincoln UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln or JohnFKennedy, despite serving longer than either of them. He is also one of the more famous victims of violence perpetrated in the name of Anarchism; a few short but eventful decades later, the [[RedScare radicals to really be afraid of would be communists]] instead. He famously [[TemptingFate disliked having a security detail]], seeing them as an impediment to interacting with his constituents, and was [[TooDumbToLive specifically warned that the event in which he was shot would be impossible to properly secure]]. [=McKinley=] was unconcerned because he couldn't imagine that anyone would actually want to hurt him.



Much like JamesGarfield before him, technology was right there that probably would have saved him, but several decisions surrounding the operation didn't work out for keeping him alive ([[ItWillNeverCatchOn the new "x-ray machine" being exhibited at the very expo where he was shot was too untested for doctors to trust it, and apparently they didn't think to do the surgery under the brand-new electric lighting, nor could they use candles because flammable ether was still the best anesthetic available at the time)]].

to:

Much like JamesGarfield UsefulNotes/JamesGarfield before him, technology was right there that probably would have saved him, but several decisions surrounding the operation didn't work out for keeping him alive ([[ItWillNeverCatchOn the new "x-ray machine" being exhibited at the very expo where he was shot was too untested for doctors to trust it, and apparently they didn't think to do the surgery under the brand-new electric lighting, nor could they use candles because flammable ether was still the best anesthetic available at the time)]].



* "The hat [=McKinley=] was shot in" appears in an episode of TheSimpsons.

to:

* "The hat [=McKinley=] was shot in" appears in an episode of TheSimpsons.''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons''.



* The school in ''FreaksAndGeeks'' was named after him, as is the school in ''{{Glee}}''.
* The arrest of Leon Czolgosz by a racist Buffalo cop was the original point of departure for the Web original AlternateHistory ''Literature/{{Reds}}'' and remains an important differentiating event in the rewrite. In both versions, [[{{William McKinley}} McKinley]] survives and thus history is radically altered.

to:

* The school in ''FreaksAndGeeks'' ''Series/FreaksAndGeeks'' was named after him, as is the school in ''{{Glee}}''.
''Series/{{Glee}}''.
* The arrest of Leon Czolgosz by a racist Buffalo cop was the original point of departure for the Web original AlternateHistory ''Literature/{{Reds}}'' and remains an important differentiating event in the rewrite. In both versions, [[{{William McKinley}} McKinley]] [=McKinley=] survives and thus history is radically altered.



* He was the inspiration for The Wizard in ''TheWonderfulWizardOfOz''.

to:

* He was the inspiration for The Wizard in ''TheWonderfulWizardOfOz''.''Literature/TheWonderfulWizardOfOz''.



<<|ThePresidents|>>
12th Dec '13 2:31:26 AM MysteriousF
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Added DiffLines:

The worst natural disaster in American history, the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900_Galveston_hurricane 1900 Galveston hurricane]], happened on his watch. Over 8,000 people in Texas lost their lives to an incredibly destructive hurricane.
3rd Dec '13 1:54:58 PM MysteriousF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


This combination of strong economy, territorial gain, and success on the international stage meant it was relatively easy for him to win a second term in 1900, which he barely got a chance to enjoy before his untimely assassination. He was the last AmericanCivilWar veteran to be president and was also the first president to be elected during an Olympic year (the year of the first modern games, 1896), to ride in a car, and to campaign by telephone. [=McKinley=] is on the $500 dollar bill, but these have been discontinued since 1969.

to:

This combination of strong economy, territorial gain, and success on the international stage meant it was relatively easy for him to win a second term in 1900, which he barely got a chance to enjoy before his untimely assassination. He was the last AmericanCivilWar veteran to be president and was also the first president to be elected during an Olympic year (the year of the first modern games, 1896), to ride in a car, and to campaign by telephone. [=McKinley=] is on the $500 dollar bill, but these have been discontinued since 1969.
1969. His two elections saw voter turnout above 70% each time, the last time voter turnout was above the 70% mark.
1st Nov '13 9:21:12 AM ThisIsATestTai
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'''William [=McKinley=]''' (1843 - 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1901. He was the 7th from the Republican Party.

to:

'''William [=McKinley=]''' (1843 - 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving [[TheGayNineties from 1897 until his death in 1901. 1901]]. He was the 7th from the Republican Party.
Party, followed GroverCleveland's ''second'' term, and was followed by none other than [[TheodoreRoosevelt Teddy Roosevelt]].
2nd Sep '13 1:22:17 PM MysteriousF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


He was a very kind and well-meaning man - after he was shot, he literally begged the people at the exposition not to form a mob and attack his assassin. [McKinley=] went on national speaking tours in order to stay in touch with voters and held regular press meetings. His wife, Ida, developed epilepsy after both of her daughters died as toddlers. He kept her by his side at all time in case she had a seizure.

to:

He was a very kind and well-meaning man - after he was shot, he literally begged the people at the exposition not to form a mob and attack his assassin. [McKinley=] [=McKinley=] went on national speaking tours in order to stay in touch with voters and held regular press meetings. His wife, Ida, developed epilepsy after both of her daughters died as toddlers. He kept her by his side at all time in case she had a seizure.
2nd Sep '13 1:22:05 PM MysteriousF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


The Spanish-American war broke out during his first term in 1898, mostly over the issue of independence for Cuba. The American victory was quick and decisive with both the army and navy [[CurbStompBattle winning nearly every engagement]]. When the dust had settled, control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Phillipines (though the residents there rebelled against American authority for a few years) were all relinquished to the U.S. Hawaii was also annexed without a fight to further expand American influence in the Pacific. [=McKinley=] also ordered 2,500 troops to China, as part of an international military force, when the Boxer Rebellion erupted to protect both U.S. citizens from forcible expulsion and ensure Asian trade stayed open to all countries. Known as the Open Door Policy, he supported equal trading rights in China but opposed European attempts to colonize the country.

to:

The Spanish-American war broke out during his first term in 1898, mostly over the issue of independence for Cuba. The American victory was quick and decisive with both the army and navy [[CurbStompBattle winning nearly every engagement]]. engagement with the Spanish]]. Ironically, [=McKinley=] tried to avoid war for a long time despite public opinion favoring the Cubans, but he accepted war when it was clear that diplomacy was no longer an option. When the dust had settled, control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Phillipines Philippines (though the residents there rebelled against American authority for a few years) were all relinquished to the U.S. Hawaii was also annexed without a fight to further expand American influence in the Pacific. [=McKinley=] also ordered 2,500 troops to China, as part of an international military force, when the Boxer Rebellion erupted to protect both U.S. citizens from forcible expulsion and ensure Asian trade stayed open to all countries. Known as the Open Door Policy, he supported equal trading rights in China but opposed European attempts to colonize the country.


Added DiffLines:

He was a very kind and well-meaning man - after he was shot, he literally begged the people at the exposition not to form a mob and attack his assassin. [McKinley=] went on national speaking tours in order to stay in touch with voters and held regular press meetings. His wife, Ida, developed epilepsy after both of her daughters died as toddlers. He kept her by his side at all time in case she had a seizure.
2nd Sep '13 1:05:49 PM MysteriousF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


'''William [=McKinley=]''' was the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 to 1901. He was the 7th from the Republican Party.

to:

'''William [=McKinley=]''' (1843 - 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 to until his death in 1901. He was the 7th from the Republican Party.
2nd Sep '13 1:04:16 PM MysteriousF
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Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during McKinley's time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by over 10% during his first term.

to:

Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during McKinley's [=McKinley=]'s time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by over 10% during his first term.
term. The dollar was placed entirely on the gold standard, tariff rates were increased, and relations with labor unions improved significantly.
2nd Sep '13 12:56:58 PM MysteriousF
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during McKinley's time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by about 10% during his first term.

to:

Though currently seen as little more than a footnote in presidential history, [=McKinley=] was phenomenally popular during his time. A former lawyer, political operator and Governor of Ohio, he gained the presidency mostly by running a "front porch campaign", giving his speeches and addressing his supporters from his own house. He ran mostly on a platform of protecting the economy with high tariffs; he had been chairman of the congressional committee which had drafted the "[=McKinley=] Tariff" of 1890, under which the average duty on imported goods rose to almost 50%. He also advocated keeping the gold standard at a time when his Democratic opponent, William Jennings Bryan, was promoting the free coning of silver (and [[SingleIssueWonk little else]]). When that issue failed to excite the nation, [=McKinley=] won the election handily. Inheriting a depression from predecessor GroverCleveland, the economy significantly rebounded during McKinley's time (in part due to the Spanish-American War), with unemployment dropping by about over 10% during his first term.
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