History Main / NoMoreEmperors

15th Feb '13 1:52:34 PM MarkLungo
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http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Yuan_Shikai_2_1745.jpg
[[caption-width:380:Yuan Shikai [[StarWars became president, manipulated a rubberstamp assembly into giving him full powers, and then declared himself emperor]]. It didn't work out.]]

'''1912-1949'''

'''The Presidency of Yuan Shi Kai - 1912 to 1916'''

Yuan Shi Kai, the leader of the Beiyang Army, became the President of China. Yuan was not a very popular leader, due to him agreeing to the Japanese 21 Demands (which asked for concessions in Manchuria and Mongolia) and ''trying to declare himself Emperor''. Actually, that was to be expected - in Chinese history, the people who overthrew the previous dynasty would often start their own. However, people wanted an end to imperialism. Yuan was forced to resign in 1916, and died soon after. His rule undid many of the successes of the 1911 Revolution, including all hope of a democratic government. He also directly lead to the Warlord period.

'''The Warlord Period - 1916 to 1927'''

When Yuan left, the central government broke down entirely. Yuan's military governors then became Warlords, and they carved out their own states from China. Some Warlords were effective rulers, but most... not so much. Warlord rule was characterized by extremely high taxes (some even took taxes years in advance), conscription into their personal armies and a lack of infrastructure. Some Warlords would force their peasants to grow opium to support them. It's important to note, though, that warlord's attitudes varied wildly. One warlord was known to be a devout Christian and took to baptizing his soldiers with a firehose before battles.

In the south, the Guomindang/Kuomintang (GMD or KMT for short) set up their government in Guangzhou, Southern China. Sun Yatsen was elected president in 1917. They accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisors, and Communists were also allowed into the GMD. In 1923, Chiang Kai-shek became the military advisor of the academy in Whampoa. Sun died in 1925.

'''The founding of the CCP'''

On May 4th, 1919, a student movement protesting the Treaty of Versailles was held. German ports in China were given to the Japanese, instead of being returned to China. This decision was made without consultation, and so the Chinese were just a ''little'' upset. The protest then switched its focus to western imperialism. Out of this came the rise of other political parties.

In 1921, a librarian from Beijing University called Mao Zedong, with help from Comintern agents, set up the Chinese Communist Party, the CCP for short. They cooperated with the GMD and in 1926 set up the First Northern Expedition, to oust the warlords and restore the government's power. Chiang Kai-shek led the GMD forces, and from 1926 to 1928 they fought up the country. Warlords were either killed or chose to ally with them in exchange for keeping power.

'''The start of the Civil War'''

In April 1927, Chiang ordered a series of purges on Communists in major cities, starting with Shanghai. The city had freed itself from Warlord rule through a Communist revolution, led by Zhou Enlai. When the GMD took the city, Chiang ordered anyone suspected to be a Communist to be shot on the spot. People who had red clothes were also killed, as one of the emblems of the CCP was a red scarf. These massacres quickly spread to other cities, dissolving the alliance and forcing the CCP back to the countryside. Chiang did this because he feared the CCP was becoming too powerful, and was threatening GMD power.

The CCP set up shop in the countryside and founded a series of communes, one of the biggest being in the mountains of Jiangxi Province. They attempted to make the peasantry their new support base, seeing as they had alienated the migrant-workers who made up the industrial proletariat and lost most of their urban contacts in the purges. Like the Guomindang, they gained a measure of popularity among some peasants by policies of rent-reduction and land re-distribution. However, the CCP's policies of land collectivisation, conscription, and campaigns to suppress religion and 'feudal' culture resulted in riots and even outright rebellion against their rule in many areas. They also had serious trouble shaking off the appearance of standing for something - ''Russian'' Communism - that was wholly alien to China, courtesy of GMD propaganda.

The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based out of Nanjing in the lower Yangzi delta (GMD-friendly and -'friendly' warlords remained in control of almost everything north and upriver of the mid-Yangzi). Their new regime was marked by an unusually high degree of competence and efficiency (by the rather-low standards of the Chinese governments of the time). As an administration, the Guomindang was hampered at every turn by the need to sustain near-constant campaigning against rebels and rebellious 'allies'. This meant that the Guomindang only had the budget to implement their own programs of rural reform (rent-reduction, limited land-redistribution from the corrupt and obscenely wealthy) in areas where the army was present, particularly during the Soviet-suppression campaigns. As far as the peasantry was concerned, the GMD was good news as it meant an end to the constant warfare of the warlord era and a drop in their tax-burden (the GMD only collected taxes from the towns and cities under its direct control, which is to say most of those in the provinces along the mid-to-lower Yangzi). Much of this need for constant campaigning was because Chiang and the GMD had become the most powerful force in the country, the natural inclinations of Chiang's warlord 'allies' being to unite ''against'' him to take him down - which they tried, several times, with little success. Chiang attempted to harness the power of 'blueshirts', paramilitary strongmen hired by the Guomindang in its capacity as a political party, to 'influence' public opinion in conjunction with a new secret police force under the secretive Dai Li.

'''The Long March'''

With the lower Yangzi cleared of warlords and the borders of Guomindang territory secured, Chiang took the opportunity to consolidate his hold over the region by leading a series of campaigns to destroy the Soviets in the region. Several Soviets were destroyed in just this way, but the Jiangxi Soviet continued to hold out thanks to GMD supply problems, bad terrain, a rebellion in Fujian province, and yet another backstab-invasion of Guomindang territory by Chiang's 'allies'. The CCP managed to replace its losses each time as its control of the countryside there enabled them to conscript as many men as they needed, using guerilla tactics to harass the forces Chiang left behind whilst he was occupied with fighting elsewhere. However, on the ''Fourth'' Extermination Campaign (1933) Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen and no other enemies to deal with, was finally able to pour some decent resources into an improvement upon the old strategy of encirclement and gradual advances. This improved strategy involved the use of several rings of blockhouses and field fortifications which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut the Jiangxi Soviet off from outside supply and prevented them launching raids, forcing them to confiscate food from their civilian population and eventually to starve as continuing to do so looked like it would result in rebellion.

1 million peasant and 60 000 military dead later, with Chiang's forces inexorably closing in, the leaders of the Soviet decided to make a desperate move and stage a break-out. They left their wounded and too-weak-to-move soldiers behind and, throwing all their remaining forces behind a desperate attack at a weak point in the blockade, forced their way out and cut a swathe of devastation through the countryside as the force of 100 000 soldiers pillaged and looted their way through the mountains, taking what they needed at gunpoint.

Unimportant and ignominious thought it seemed at the time, the 'Long March' has since been called a pivotal moment in Chinese history. 100000 soldiers broke out of the Jiangxi Soviet, but less than 20 000 soldiers (half of those 20 000 were survivors from the other mid-lower Yangzi Soviets) made it to the Soviet in Yan'an province. They fled a total of 9,000 kilometres, taking a long route through the Himalayan foothills to avoid Chiang, who used chasing them as a pretext for a 'Communist Suppression Campaign' which allowed him to effectively seize control of the mid-upper Yangzi. Mao led the main band of Communist soldiers, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups took different routes, and many were caught and killed to a man, but most ultimately met up at Yanan.

Along the way they spread CCP propaganda at gunpoint, endearing themselves to the locals by carrying out vigilante executions of corrupt local officials and bad landlords (and 'corrupt' officials and 'bad' landlords). The Long March effectively gave the CCP a new leadership, as Mao and most of his lackeys and advisors partook in the March, which gave him and his followers a sort of moral authority which (together with ruthlessness and ambition) his competitors lacked. The Long March acquired something of a mythical status as a result of post-war CCP propaganda, a result of which being that hundreds of people follow the route every year.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936 when Warlord General Zhang Xueliang, son of the 'Old Marshall' Warlord Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria (who had been killed in 1931 by the Japanese as a pretext for the Japanese seizure of Manchuria) and commander of the final Communist Extermination Campaign to destroy the Yan'an Soviet rebelled. Knowing that the campaign had a reasonable chance of success, he betrayed Chiang and slaughtered his guards, holding him hostage and urging him to call off the campaign and form an Alliance with the Communists - to fight Japan. Chiang knew that Zhang was bluffing - if Zhang killed Chiang, China would disintegrate - but he agreed all the same. And, remarkably, he kept his word. Mao was delighted.

'''The Second Sino-Japanese War'''

Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]]. Guomindang China was officially one of the Allies, but the CCP was neglected by pretty much everybody. It's worth noting that the GMD's reputation as a corrupt, peasant-crushing administration was forged in the course of the war; with huge swathes of its territory occupied, the GMD had to turn to decentralising its administration (devolving power to the local and regional levels) as well as taxing and conscripting the peasantry to survive from about 1939 onwards (after two years of total war). The regime was tottering on the edge of total destruction at the end of 1941, but massive loans from the USA helped stave off the regime's immediate implosion for a time. The inevitable result of such a large cash infusion into the country was, however, inflation on a level that make the pre-existing inflation (courtesy of the GMD's desperate printing of money to solve its income problems) several orders of magnitude worse.

'''The end of the Civil War'''

After WW2 was over, the CCP and the GMD turned on each other almost immediately. Chiang was torn between focusing on the anti-CCP campaign and overseeing a process of administrative reform and re-centralisation. Chiang's paranoia was his downfall in this regard, as he trusted too few people as a result of several decades' worth of coup and assassination attempts. Chiang's personal workload was too big for any one man to handle, and both the campaign and the reforms suffered as a result. Though he was the favourite of both Stalin and Roosevelt, and his forces managed to secure the CCP headquarters at Yan'an, his decision to send his best forces to secure Manchuria as the Soviet Union withdrew from the area was a grave mistake.

The result of such a massive deployment of loyal and competent troops away from what should have been the main focus of his campaign - clearing GMD territory of all large Soviets and Communist Guerilla forces before moving to encircle and exterminate the Yan'an Soviet, advancing into Manchuria 'last' - was that the CCP was able to execute a fighting retreat from the Soviet and fade away into the countryside to conduct a Guerilla Warfare campaign against substandard forces belonging to Chiang's warlord buddies. Moreover, the decision 'not' to concentrate on eliminating the small Soviets first played havoc with the GMD's supply lines. Chiang had to divert significant forces to the area around Beijing and the Yellow river, where numerous Soviet communes had arisen during the War against Japan.

The first year or so of the war (1946-47) saw the GMD's forces whittled down through an extensive campaign of guerilla warfare, the next two years seeing small and eventually large-scale conventional attacks by the CCP's forces. Much of the action took place in Mancuria initially, where the CCP managed to encircle and exterminate most of Chiang's best and most loyal forces. This led to one reversal after another, with the Communists eventually launching two major campaigns to make the Beijing/North-China area theirs by the beginning of 1949. By this time the numbers on both sides were roughly equal, but this betrayed a huge inequality that resulted from the CCP's relative efficiency as a military organisation (decent) and the GMD's (godawful on account of factional and inter-force rivalries that have to be read about in detail to be understood, let alone believed).

The beaten Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan - taking a couple of million refugees, the central bank's gold and silver reserves, and much of the country's best government-owned artwork with him. With most of China - save Xinjiang and Tibet, and the island of Hainan which remained under GMD control for another year) under Communist control, the establishment of a People's Republic of China was proclaimed later that year.


-------
!!Works set in this period (excluding the {{Second Sino-Japanese War}}):

* The latter parts of ''TowardsTheRepublic'' deal, as the title of the series implies, with the troubled establishment of the Republic of China.
* The second half of ''MomentInPeking'' takes place between the 1911 revolution and the beginning of the war.
* ''TheSandPebbles'' is about an American gunboat deployed in China at the height of the warlord period.
* ''Raise The Red Lantern'' by ZhangYimou is set in the 1920s.
* ''The Painted Veil'' is about an American couple who go to China for humanitarian field work in the 1920s.
* ''Shanghai Triad'' also by ZhangYimou is set in the 1930s.
* ''Pavilion of Women'' is a novel by Pearl Buck made into a movie in 2001, set in the period just before the beginning of the war.
* ''The Inn of the Sixth Happiness'' is about a British missionary in a remote corner of northern China in the 1930s.
* ''The Bitter Tea of General Yen'' by Frank Capra is about the love story between a warlord and a missionary.
* {{Tintin}}'s adventure ''The Blue Lotus'' depicts the Japanese encroachment on China in the 1930s and the opium trade.
* ''A Pinwheel Without Wind'' (starring ZhouXun) is set in the short lull between the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the resumption of the civil war in the late 1940s.
* So is the 1948 classic film ''Spring in a Small Town'' (小城之春) by Fei Mu, as well as its 2002 remake by Tian Zhuangzhuang.
* ''[[TheMummyTrilogy The Mummy: Tomb Of The Dragon Emperor]]'' is set in China in 1946, after the end of the {{Second Sino-Japanese War}} and before the [[RedChina Communist takeover]].
* ''SuperpowerEmpireChina1912'' is an AlternateHistory work that looks at what might have happened if Yuan Shikai had died in 1912 instead of 1916.

-------
!!Tropes:

* ArmiesAreEvil: Warlord armies were, as a rule, brutal and corrupt.
* BalkanizeMe: During the Warlord Era, the collapse of the central government resulted in the warlords setting up their own petty states.
* ChronicBackstabbingDisorder: Feng Yuxiang, one of the warlords that ruled the northwest China, and the aforementioned Christian General (yes, that's one of his nicknames). He backstabbed too many times, to the point where his men started calling him Betrayal General. On the other hand, pretty much all of the warlord did so during the time.
* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solved local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons onto a hill and shoot the sky. He had the nickname of the "Three Don't Knows," because he allegedly didn't know how many concubines he had, how much money, and how many soldiers he commanded. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and White Russians as his forces.
** Wu Peifu, 'the Philosopher General'.
* EnemyMine: The 'cooperation' between the Communists and the Nationalists was primarily over the threat of the Japanese. Consisted primarily of not shooting each other for the most part.
* ExactWords: "The Chinese Communist Party does not endorse the use of opium within its territory." This did not stop them growing it and selling it to people outside their soviets.
** At one point Zhang Zongchang claimed that he would either gain victory or return home in a coffin, he lost and was pushed back and true to his word he returned home in a coffin, though very much alive and he went on fighting for years after that.
* KlingonPromotion: A common way for warlords to succeed their superior.
* TheOtherChineseArmy
* ThePurge: Jiang Jieshi did it to the Communists when he figured they were becoming dangerous. He was right, actually; they were always planning to betray him, he just betrayed them first. Also, the Nationalists and Communists to themselves. Mao was not top dog by a long shot when he was borne by Sedan chair on the Long March, for instance.
* TheUriahGambit: Used by Jiang all the time to get rid of or weaken troublesome elements within the army and party. Doing too well for yourself? Here, defend this town against the Japanese...
* TheTriadsAndTheTongs: Due to the breakdown of organized government and the general corruption of institutions, criminal organizations were quite powerful throughout the period. The most powerful man in Shanghai, for example, was a triad boss named Du Yuesheng.
* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over. Afterwards...

----
<<|UsefulNotes/{{China}}|>>

to:

http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Yuan_Shikai_2_1745.jpg
[[caption-width:380:Yuan Shikai [[StarWars became president, manipulated a rubberstamp assembly into giving him full powers, and then declared himself emperor]]. It didn't work out.]]

'''1912-1949'''

'''The Presidency of Yuan Shi Kai - 1912 to 1916'''

Yuan Shi Kai, the leader of the Beiyang Army, became the President of China. Yuan was not a very popular leader, due to him agreeing to the Japanese 21 Demands (which asked for concessions in Manchuria and Mongolia) and ''trying to declare himself Emperor''. Actually, that was to be expected - in Chinese history, the people who overthrew the previous dynasty would often start their own. However, people wanted an end to imperialism. Yuan was forced to resign in 1916, and died soon after. His rule undid many of the successes of the 1911 Revolution, including all hope of a democratic government. He also directly lead to the Warlord period.

'''The Warlord Period - 1916 to 1927'''

When Yuan left, the central government broke down entirely. Yuan's military governors then became Warlords, and they carved out their own states from China. Some Warlords were effective rulers, but most... not so much. Warlord rule was characterized by extremely high taxes (some even took taxes years in advance), conscription into their personal armies and a lack of infrastructure. Some Warlords would force their peasants to grow opium to support them. It's important to note, though, that warlord's attitudes varied wildly. One warlord was known to be a devout Christian and took to baptizing his soldiers with a firehose before battles.

In the south, the Guomindang/Kuomintang (GMD or KMT for short) set up their government in Guangzhou, Southern China. Sun Yatsen was elected president in 1917. They accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisors, and Communists were also allowed into the GMD. In 1923, Chiang Kai-shek became the military advisor of the academy in Whampoa. Sun died in 1925.

'''The founding of the CCP'''

On May 4th, 1919, a student movement protesting the Treaty of Versailles was held. German ports in China were given to the Japanese, instead of being returned to China. This decision was made without consultation, and so the Chinese were just a ''little'' upset. The protest then switched its focus to western imperialism. Out of this came the rise of other political parties.

In 1921, a librarian from Beijing University called Mao Zedong, with help from Comintern agents, set up the Chinese Communist Party, the CCP for short. They cooperated with the GMD and in 1926 set up the First Northern Expedition, to oust the warlords and restore the government's power. Chiang Kai-shek led the GMD forces, and from 1926 to 1928 they fought up the country. Warlords were either killed or chose to ally with them in exchange for keeping power.

'''The start of the Civil War'''

In April 1927, Chiang ordered a series of purges on Communists in major cities, starting with Shanghai. The city had freed itself from Warlord rule through a Communist revolution, led by Zhou Enlai. When the GMD took the city, Chiang ordered anyone suspected to be a Communist to be shot on the spot. People who had red clothes were also killed, as one of the emblems of the CCP was a red scarf. These massacres quickly spread to other cities, dissolving the alliance and forcing the CCP back to the countryside. Chiang did this because he feared the CCP was becoming too powerful, and was threatening GMD power.

The CCP set up shop in the countryside and founded a series of communes, one of the biggest being in the mountains of Jiangxi Province. They attempted to make the peasantry their new support base, seeing as they had alienated the migrant-workers who made up the industrial proletariat and lost most of their urban contacts in the purges. Like the Guomindang, they gained a measure of popularity among some peasants by policies of rent-reduction and land re-distribution. However, the CCP's policies of land collectivisation, conscription, and campaigns to suppress religion and 'feudal' culture resulted in riots and even outright rebellion against their rule in many areas. They also had serious trouble shaking off the appearance of standing for something - ''Russian'' Communism - that was wholly alien to China, courtesy of GMD propaganda.

The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based out of Nanjing in the lower Yangzi delta (GMD-friendly and -'friendly' warlords remained in control of almost everything north and upriver of the mid-Yangzi). Their new regime was marked by an unusually high degree of competence and efficiency (by the rather-low standards of the Chinese governments of the time). As an administration, the Guomindang was hampered at every turn by the need to sustain near-constant campaigning against rebels and rebellious 'allies'. This meant that the Guomindang only had the budget to implement their own programs of rural reform (rent-reduction, limited land-redistribution from the corrupt and obscenely wealthy) in areas where the army was present, particularly during the Soviet-suppression campaigns. As far as the peasantry was concerned, the GMD was good news as it meant an end to the constant warfare of the warlord era and a drop in their tax-burden (the GMD only collected taxes from the towns and cities under its direct control, which is to say most of those in the provinces along the mid-to-lower Yangzi). Much of this need for constant campaigning was because Chiang and the GMD had become the most powerful force in the country, the natural inclinations of Chiang's warlord 'allies' being to unite ''against'' him to take him down - which they tried, several times, with little success. Chiang attempted to harness the power of 'blueshirts', paramilitary strongmen hired by the Guomindang in its capacity as a political party, to 'influence' public opinion in conjunction with a new secret police force under the secretive Dai Li.

'''The Long March'''

With the lower Yangzi cleared of warlords and the borders of Guomindang territory secured, Chiang took the opportunity to consolidate his hold over the region by leading a series of campaigns to destroy the Soviets in the region. Several Soviets were destroyed in just this way, but the Jiangxi Soviet continued to hold out thanks to GMD supply problems, bad terrain, a rebellion in Fujian province, and yet another backstab-invasion of Guomindang territory by Chiang's 'allies'. The CCP managed to replace its losses each time as its control of the countryside there enabled them to conscript as many men as they needed, using guerilla tactics to harass the forces Chiang left behind whilst he was occupied with fighting elsewhere. However, on the ''Fourth'' Extermination Campaign (1933) Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen and no other enemies to deal with, was finally able to pour some decent resources into an improvement upon the old strategy of encirclement and gradual advances. This improved strategy involved the use of several rings of blockhouses and field fortifications which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut the Jiangxi Soviet off from outside supply and prevented them launching raids, forcing them to confiscate food from their civilian population and eventually to starve as continuing to do so looked like it would result in rebellion.

1 million peasant and 60 000 military dead later, with Chiang's forces inexorably closing in, the leaders of the Soviet decided to make a desperate move and stage a break-out. They left their wounded and too-weak-to-move soldiers behind and, throwing all their remaining forces behind a desperate attack at a weak point in the blockade, forced their way out and cut a swathe of devastation through the countryside as the force of 100 000 soldiers pillaged and looted their way through the mountains, taking what they needed at gunpoint.

Unimportant and ignominious thought it seemed at the time, the 'Long March' has since been called a pivotal moment in Chinese history. 100000 soldiers broke out of the Jiangxi Soviet, but less than 20 000 soldiers (half of those 20 000 were survivors from the other mid-lower Yangzi Soviets) made it to the Soviet in Yan'an province. They fled a total of 9,000 kilometres, taking a long route through the Himalayan foothills to avoid Chiang, who used chasing them as a pretext for a 'Communist Suppression Campaign' which allowed him to effectively seize control of the mid-upper Yangzi. Mao led the main band of Communist soldiers, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups took different routes, and many were caught and killed to a man, but most ultimately met up at Yanan.

Along the way they spread CCP propaganda at gunpoint, endearing themselves to the locals by carrying out vigilante executions of corrupt local officials and bad landlords (and 'corrupt' officials and 'bad' landlords). The Long March effectively gave the CCP a new leadership, as Mao and most of his lackeys and advisors partook in the March, which gave him and his followers a sort of moral authority which (together with ruthlessness and ambition) his competitors lacked. The Long March acquired something of a mythical status as a result of post-war CCP propaganda, a result of which being that hundreds of people follow the route every year.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936 when Warlord General Zhang Xueliang, son of the 'Old Marshall' Warlord Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria (who had been killed in 1931 by the Japanese as a pretext for the Japanese seizure of Manchuria) and commander of the final Communist Extermination Campaign to destroy the Yan'an Soviet rebelled. Knowing that the campaign had a reasonable chance of success, he betrayed Chiang and slaughtered his guards, holding him hostage and urging him to call off the campaign and form an Alliance with the Communists - to fight Japan. Chiang knew that Zhang was bluffing - if Zhang killed Chiang, China would disintegrate - but he agreed all the same. And, remarkably, he kept his word. Mao was delighted.

'''The Second Sino-Japanese War'''

Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]]. Guomindang China was officially one of the Allies, but the CCP was neglected by pretty much everybody. It's worth noting that the GMD's reputation as a corrupt, peasant-crushing administration was forged in the course of the war; with huge swathes of its territory occupied, the GMD had to turn to decentralising its administration (devolving power to the local and regional levels) as well as taxing and conscripting the peasantry to survive from about 1939 onwards (after two years of total war). The regime was tottering on the edge of total destruction at the end of 1941, but massive loans from the USA helped stave off the regime's immediate implosion for a time. The inevitable result of such a large cash infusion into the country was, however, inflation on a level that make the pre-existing inflation (courtesy of the GMD's desperate printing of money to solve its income problems) several orders of magnitude worse.

'''The end of the Civil War'''

After WW2 was over, the CCP and the GMD turned on each other almost immediately. Chiang was torn between focusing on the anti-CCP campaign and overseeing a process of administrative reform and re-centralisation. Chiang's paranoia was his downfall in this regard, as he trusted too few people as a result of several decades' worth of coup and assassination attempts. Chiang's personal workload was too big for any one man to handle, and both the campaign and the reforms suffered as a result. Though he was the favourite of both Stalin and Roosevelt, and his forces managed to secure the CCP headquarters at Yan'an, his decision to send his best forces to secure Manchuria as the Soviet Union withdrew from the area was a grave mistake.

The result of such a massive deployment of loyal and competent troops away from what should have been the main focus of his campaign - clearing GMD territory of all large Soviets and Communist Guerilla forces before moving to encircle and exterminate the Yan'an Soviet, advancing into Manchuria 'last' - was that the CCP was able to execute a fighting retreat from the Soviet and fade away into the countryside to conduct a Guerilla Warfare campaign against substandard forces belonging to Chiang's warlord buddies. Moreover, the decision 'not' to concentrate on eliminating the small Soviets first played havoc with the GMD's supply lines. Chiang had to divert significant forces to the area around Beijing and the Yellow river, where numerous Soviet communes had arisen during the War against Japan.

The first year or so of the war (1946-47) saw the GMD's forces whittled down through an extensive campaign of guerilla warfare, the next two years seeing small and eventually large-scale conventional attacks by the CCP's forces. Much of the action took place in Mancuria initially, where the CCP managed to encircle and exterminate most of Chiang's best and most loyal forces. This led to one reversal after another, with the Communists eventually launching two major campaigns to make the Beijing/North-China area theirs by the beginning of 1949. By this time the numbers on both sides were roughly equal, but this betrayed a huge inequality that resulted from the CCP's relative efficiency as a military organisation (decent) and the GMD's (godawful on account of factional and inter-force rivalries that have to be read about in detail to be understood, let alone believed).

The beaten Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan - taking a couple of million refugees, the central bank's gold and silver reserves, and much of the country's best government-owned artwork with him. With most of China - save Xinjiang and Tibet, and the island of Hainan which remained under GMD control for another year) under Communist control, the establishment of a People's Republic of China was proclaimed later that year.


-------
!!Works set in this period (excluding the {{Second Sino-Japanese War}}):

* The latter parts of ''TowardsTheRepublic'' deal, as the title of the series implies, with the troubled establishment of the Republic of China.
* The second half of ''MomentInPeking'' takes place between the 1911 revolution and the beginning of the war.
* ''TheSandPebbles'' is about an American gunboat deployed in China at the height of the warlord period.
* ''Raise The Red Lantern'' by ZhangYimou is set in the 1920s.
* ''The Painted Veil'' is about an American couple who go to China for humanitarian field work in the 1920s.
* ''Shanghai Triad'' also by ZhangYimou is set in the 1930s.
* ''Pavilion of Women'' is a novel by Pearl Buck made into a movie in 2001, set in the period just before the beginning of the war.
* ''The Inn of the Sixth Happiness'' is about a British missionary in a remote corner of northern China in the 1930s.
* ''The Bitter Tea of General Yen'' by Frank Capra is about the love story between a warlord and a missionary.
* {{Tintin}}'s adventure ''The Blue Lotus'' depicts the Japanese encroachment on China in the 1930s and the opium trade.
* ''A Pinwheel Without Wind'' (starring ZhouXun) is set in the short lull between the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the resumption of the civil war in the late 1940s.
* So is the 1948 classic film ''Spring in a Small Town'' (小城之春) by Fei Mu, as well as its 2002 remake by Tian Zhuangzhuang.
* ''[[TheMummyTrilogy The Mummy: Tomb Of The Dragon Emperor]]'' is set in China in 1946, after the end of the {{Second Sino-Japanese War}} and before the [[RedChina Communist takeover]].
* ''SuperpowerEmpireChina1912'' is an AlternateHistory work that looks at what might have happened if Yuan Shikai had died in 1912 instead of 1916.

-------
!!Tropes:

* ArmiesAreEvil: Warlord armies were, as a rule, brutal and corrupt.
* BalkanizeMe: During the Warlord Era, the collapse of the central government resulted in the warlords setting up their own petty states.
* ChronicBackstabbingDisorder: Feng Yuxiang, one of the warlords that ruled the northwest China, and the aforementioned Christian General (yes, that's one of his nicknames). He backstabbed too many times, to the point where his men started calling him Betrayal General. On the other hand, pretty much all of the warlord did so during the time.
* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solved local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons onto a hill and shoot the sky. He had the nickname of the "Three Don't Knows," because he allegedly didn't know how many concubines he had, how much money, and how many soldiers he commanded. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and White Russians as his forces.
** Wu Peifu, 'the Philosopher General'.
* EnemyMine: The 'cooperation' between the Communists and the Nationalists was primarily over the threat of the Japanese. Consisted primarily of not shooting each other for the most part.
* ExactWords: "The Chinese Communist Party does not endorse the use of opium within its territory." This did not stop them growing it and selling it to people outside their soviets.
** At one point Zhang Zongchang claimed that he would either gain victory or return home in a coffin, he lost and was pushed back and true to his word he returned home in a coffin, though very much alive and he went on fighting for years after that.
* KlingonPromotion: A common way for warlords to succeed their superior.
* TheOtherChineseArmy
* ThePurge: Jiang Jieshi did it to the Communists when he figured they were becoming dangerous. He was right, actually; they were always planning to betray him, he just betrayed them first. Also, the Nationalists and Communists to themselves. Mao was not top dog by a long shot when he was borne by Sedan chair on the Long March, for instance.
* TheUriahGambit: Used by Jiang all the time to get rid of or weaken troublesome elements within the army and party. Doing too well for yourself? Here, defend this town against the Japanese...
* TheTriadsAndTheTongs: Due to the breakdown of organized government and the general corruption of institutions, criminal organizations were quite powerful throughout the period. The most powerful man in Shanghai, for example, was a triad boss named Du Yuesheng.
* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over. Afterwards...

----
<<|UsefulNotes/{{China}}|>>
[[redirect:UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors]]
15th Feb '13 1:48:47 PM MAI742
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With the lower Yangzi cleared of warlords and the borders of Guomindang territory secured, Chiang took the opportunity to consolidate his hold over the region by leading a series of campaigns to destroy the Soviets in the region. Several Soviets were destroyed in just this way, but the Jiangxi Soviet continued to hold out thanks to GMD supply problems, bad terrain, a rebellion in Fujian province and yet another backstab attempt by one of Chiang's 'allies'. The CCP managed to replace its losses each time as its control of the countryside there enabled them to conscript as many men as they needed, using guerilla tactics to harass the forces Chiang left behind whilst he was occupied with fighting elsewhere. However, on the ''Fourth'' Extermination Campaign (1933) Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen and no other enemies to deal with, was finally able to pour some decent resources into an improvement upon the old strategy of encirclement and gradual advances. This improved strategy involved the use of several rings of blockhouses and field fortifications which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut the Jiangxi Soviet off from outside supply and prevented them launching raids, forcing them to confiscate food from their civilian population and eventually to starve as continuing to do so looked like it would result in rebellion.

to:

With the lower Yangzi cleared of warlords and the borders of Guomindang territory secured, Chiang took the opportunity to consolidate his hold over the region by leading a series of campaigns to destroy the Soviets in the region. Several Soviets were destroyed in just this way, but the Jiangxi Soviet continued to hold out thanks to GMD supply problems, bad terrain, a rebellion in Fujian province province, and yet another backstab attempt backstab-invasion of Guomindang territory by one of Chiang's 'allies'. The CCP managed to replace its losses each time as its control of the countryside there enabled them to conscript as many men as they needed, using guerilla tactics to harass the forces Chiang left behind whilst he was occupied with fighting elsewhere. However, on the ''Fourth'' Extermination Campaign (1933) Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen and no other enemies to deal with, was finally able to pour some decent resources into an improvement upon the old strategy of encirclement and gradual advances. This improved strategy involved the use of several rings of blockhouses and field fortifications which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut the Jiangxi Soviet off from outside supply and prevented them launching raids, forcing them to confiscate food from their civilian population and eventually to starve as continuing to do so looked like it would result in rebellion.
10th Feb '13 9:14:29 PM MAI742
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The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based out of Nanjing in the lower Yangzi delta (Gmd-friendly and -'friendly' warlords remained in control of almost everything north and upriver of the mid-Yangzi). Their new regime was marked by an unusually high degree of competence and efficiency (by the rather-low standards of the Chinese governments of the time). As an administration, the Guomindang was hampered at every turn by the need to sustain near-constant campaigning against rebels and rebellious 'allies'. This meant that the Guomindang only had the budget to implement their own programs of rural reform (rent-reduction, limited land-redistribution from the corrupt and obscenely wealthy) in areas where the army was present, particularly during the Soviet-suppression campaigns. As far as the peasantry was concerned, the GMD was good news as it meant an end to the constant warfare of the warlord era and a drop in their tax-burden (the GMD only collected taxes from the towns and cities under its direct control, which is to say most of those in the provinces along the mid-to-lower Yangzi). Much of this need for constant campaigning was because Chiang and the GMD had become the most powerful force in the country, the natural inclinations of Chiang's warlord 'allies' being to unite ''against'' him to take him down - which they tried, several times, with little success. Chiang attempted to harness the power of 'blueshirts', paramilitary strongmen hired by the Guomindang in its capacity as a political party, to 'influence' public opinion in conjunction with a new secret police force under the secretive Dai Li.

to:

The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based out of Nanjing in the lower Yangzi delta (Gmd-friendly (GMD-friendly and -'friendly' warlords remained in control of almost everything north and upriver of the mid-Yangzi). Their new regime was marked by an unusually high degree of competence and efficiency (by the rather-low standards of the Chinese governments of the time). As an administration, the Guomindang was hampered at every turn by the need to sustain near-constant campaigning against rebels and rebellious 'allies'. This meant that the Guomindang only had the budget to implement their own programs of rural reform (rent-reduction, limited land-redistribution from the corrupt and obscenely wealthy) in areas where the army was present, particularly during the Soviet-suppression campaigns. As far as the peasantry was concerned, the GMD was good news as it meant an end to the constant warfare of the warlord era and a drop in their tax-burden (the GMD only collected taxes from the towns and cities under its direct control, which is to say most of those in the provinces along the mid-to-lower Yangzi). Much of this need for constant campaigning was because Chiang and the GMD had become the most powerful force in the country, the natural inclinations of Chiang's warlord 'allies' being to unite ''against'' him to take him down - which they tried, several times, with little success. Chiang attempted to harness the power of 'blueshirts', paramilitary strongmen hired by the Guomindang in its capacity as a political party, to 'influence' public opinion in conjunction with a new secret police force under the secretive Dai Li.
10th Feb '13 9:11:01 PM MAI742
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The result of such a massive deployment of loyal and competent troops away from what should have been the main focus of his campaign - clearing GMD territory of all large Soviets and Communist Guerilla forces before moving to encircle and exterminate the Yan'an Soviet, advancing into Manchuria 'last' - was that the CCP was able to execute a fighting retreat from the Soviet and fade away into the countryside to conduct a Guerilla Warfare campaign against substandard forces belonging to Chiang's warlord buddies. Moreover, the decision 'not' to concentrate on eliminating the small Soviets first played havoc with the GMD's supply lines. Chiang had to divert significant forces to the area around Beijing and the Yellow river, where there numerous Soviet communes that had arisen during the War against Japan.

to:

The result of such a massive deployment of loyal and competent troops away from what should have been the main focus of his campaign - clearing GMD territory of all large Soviets and Communist Guerilla forces before moving to encircle and exterminate the Yan'an Soviet, advancing into Manchuria 'last' - was that the CCP was able to execute a fighting retreat from the Soviet and fade away into the countryside to conduct a Guerilla Warfare campaign against substandard forces belonging to Chiang's warlord buddies. Moreover, the decision 'not' to concentrate on eliminating the small Soviets first played havoc with the GMD's supply lines. Chiang had to divert significant forces to the area around Beijing and the Yellow river, where there numerous Soviet communes that had arisen during the War against Japan.
10th Feb '13 9:09:41 PM MAI742
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Unimportant and ignominious thought it seemed at the time, the 'Long March' has since been called a pivotal moment in Chinese history. 100000 soldiers broke out of the Jiangxi Soviet, but less than 20 000 soldiers (half of those 20 000 were survivors from the other mid-lower Yangzi Soviets) made it to the Soviet in Yan'an province. They fled a total of 9,000 kilometres, taking a long route through the Himalayan foothills to avoid Chiang, who used chasing their formation as a pretext for a 'Communist Suppression Campaign' which allowed him to effectively seize control of the mid-upper Yangzi. Mao led the main band of Communist soldiers, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups took different routes, and many were caught and killed to a man, but most ultimately met up at Yanan. Along the way they spread CCP propaganda at gunpoint, endearing themselves by carrying out vigilante executions of criminals and bad landlords (and 'bad' landlords). The Long March effectively gave the CCP a new leadership, as Mao and most of his lackeys and advisors partook in the March, which gave him and his followers a sort of moral authority which (together with ruthlessness and ambition) his competitors lacked. The Long March acquired something of a mythical status as a result of post-war CCP propaganda, a result of which being that hundreds of people follow the route every year.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936, when Zhang Xueliang, the commander of the anti-Communist forces in Xi'an rebelled and held Jiang Jieshi as hostage, urging him to cooperate with the Communists to deal with the growing threat that of the Japanese who had taken advantage of the divisions, conquering large parts of China.

to:

Unimportant and ignominious thought it seemed at the time, the 'Long March' has since been called a pivotal moment in Chinese history. 100000 soldiers broke out of the Jiangxi Soviet, but less than 20 000 soldiers (half of those 20 000 were survivors from the other mid-lower Yangzi Soviets) made it to the Soviet in Yan'an province. They fled a total of 9,000 kilometres, taking a long route through the Himalayan foothills to avoid Chiang, who used chasing their formation them as a pretext for a 'Communist Suppression Campaign' which allowed him to effectively seize control of the mid-upper Yangzi. Mao led the main band of Communist soldiers, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups took different routes, and many were caught and killed to a man, but most ultimately met up at Yanan.

Along the way they spread CCP propaganda at gunpoint, endearing themselves to the locals by carrying out vigilante executions of criminals corrupt local officials and bad landlords (and 'corrupt' officials and 'bad' landlords). The Long March effectively gave the CCP a new leadership, as Mao and most of his lackeys and advisors partook in the March, which gave him and his followers a sort of moral authority which (together with ruthlessness and ambition) his competitors lacked. The Long March acquired something of a mythical status as a result of post-war CCP propaganda, a result of which being that hundreds of people follow the route every year.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936, 1936 when Warlord General Zhang Xueliang, son of the 'Old Marshall' Warlord Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria (who had been killed in 1931 by the Japanese as a pretext for the Japanese seizure of Manchuria) and commander of the anti-Communist forces in Xi'an rebelled final Communist Extermination Campaign to destroy the Yan'an Soviet rebelled. Knowing that the campaign had a reasonable chance of success, he betrayed Chiang and held Jiang Jieshi as hostage, slaughtered his guards, holding him hostage and urging him to cooperate call off the campaign and form an Alliance with the Communists - to deal with the growing threat fight Japan. Chiang knew that of Zhang was bluffing - if Zhang killed Chiang, China would disintegrate - but he agreed all the Japanese who had taken advantage of the divisions, conquering large parts of China.same. And, remarkably, he kept his word. Mao was delighted.



Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]], until they were forced to work together. The two sides forged a united front against Japan, and became part of the Allies.

to:

Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]], until they were forced to work together. The two sides war]]. Guomindang China was officially one of the Allies, but the CCP was neglected by pretty much everybody. It's worth noting that the GMD's reputation as a corrupt, peasant-crushing administration was forged a united front against Japan, and became part in the course of the Allies.
war; with huge swathes of its territory occupied, the GMD had to turn to decentralising its administration (devolving power to the local and regional levels) as well as taxing and conscripting the peasantry to survive from about 1939 onwards (after two years of total war). The regime was tottering on the edge of total destruction at the end of 1941, but massive loans from the USA helped stave off the regime's immediate implosion for a time. The inevitable result of such a large cash infusion into the country was, however, inflation on a level that make the pre-existing inflation (courtesy of the GMD's desperate printing of money to solve its income problems) several orders of magnitude worse.



After WW2 was over, the CCP and the GMD turned on each other almost immediately. The GMD troops, backed by America, captured the CCP headquarters but found themselves dangerously overstretched. Because of their massive peasant support, the People's Liberation Army soon numbered as many as four million. The GMD, however, was down to 1.5 million soldiers. The GMD began pulling back from the cities as they lost almost every battle, and the CCP managed to take much of their war equipment. Shanghai was the last city to be abandoned. The beaten Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan, taking China's gold reserves with him. The PLA entered Beijing in January 1949 and the People's Republic of China was proclaimed.


to:

After WW2 was over, the CCP and the GMD turned on each other almost immediately. The GMD troops, backed by America, captured Chiang was torn between focusing on the anti-CCP campaign and overseeing a process of administrative reform and re-centralisation. Chiang's paranoia was his downfall in this regard, as he trusted too few people as a result of several decades' worth of coup and assassination attempts. Chiang's personal workload was too big for any one man to handle, and both the campaign and the reforms suffered as a result. Though he was the favourite of both Stalin and Roosevelt, and his forces managed to secure the CCP headquarters but found themselves dangerously overstretched. Because of their massive peasant support, at Yan'an, his decision to send his best forces to secure Manchuria as the People's Liberation Army soon numbered as many as four million. The GMD, however, was down to 1.5 million soldiers. The GMD began pulling back Soviet Union withdrew from the cities as they lost almost every battle, area was a grave mistake.

The result of such a massive deployment of loyal
and competent troops away from what should have been the main focus of his campaign - clearing GMD territory of all large Soviets and Communist Guerilla forces before moving to encircle and exterminate the Yan'an Soviet, advancing into Manchuria 'last' - was that the CCP was able to execute a fighting retreat from the Soviet and fade away into the countryside to conduct a Guerilla Warfare campaign against substandard forces belonging to Chiang's warlord buddies. Moreover, the decision 'not' to concentrate on eliminating the small Soviets first played havoc with the GMD's supply lines. Chiang had to divert significant forces to the area around Beijing and the Yellow river, where there numerous Soviet communes that had arisen during the War against Japan.

The first year or so of the war (1946-47) saw the GMD's forces whittled down through an extensive campaign of guerilla warfare, the next two years seeing small and eventually large-scale conventional attacks by the CCP's forces. Much of the action took place in Mancuria initially, where
the CCP managed to take much encircle and exterminate most of their war equipment. Shanghai was Chiang's best and most loyal forces. This led to one reversal after another, with the last city Communists eventually launching two major campaigns to make the Beijing/North-China area theirs by the beginning of 1949. By this time the numbers on both sides were roughly equal, but this betrayed a huge inequality that resulted from the CCP's relative efficiency as a military organisation (decent) and the GMD's (godawful on account of factional and inter-force rivalries that have to be abandoned. read about in detail to be understood, let alone believed).

The beaten Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan, Taiwan - taking China's a couple of million refugees, the central bank's gold reserves and silver reserves, and much of the country's best government-owned artwork with him. The PLA entered Beijing in January 1949 With most of China - save Xinjiang and Tibet, and the island of Hainan which remained under GMD control for another year) under Communist control, the establishment of a People's Republic of China was proclaimed.

proclaimed later that year.

10th Feb '13 8:39:12 PM MAI742
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The CCP went to the countryside and set up a peasant republic called the Jiangxi Soviet. This was their base of power, and they gained popularity among the peasants who made up 95% of China's population. They were much more popular with the peasants than the GMD, as they treated the peasants with courtesy and promised they would get rid of the hated landlords. The CCP had already carried out land reform within the Jiangxi Soviet.

The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based in Southern China (there were still some warlords in the north of the country). They were plagued by corruption and demanded high taxes from the peasants, many of whom defected to the CCP. Chiang set himself up as the "dictator" of the country, with a force of Blueshirts acting as the secret police. They were seen as ineefective and overly harsh.

to:

The CCP went to set up shop in the countryside and set up founded a peasant republic called series of communes, one of the biggest being in the mountains of Jiangxi Soviet. This was Province. They attempted to make the peasantry their base of power, new support base, seeing as they had alienated the migrant-workers who made up the industrial proletariat and lost most of their urban contacts in the purges. Like the Guomindang, they gained a measure of popularity among the some peasants who made up 95% by policies of China's population. rent-reduction and land re-distribution. However, the CCP's policies of land collectivisation, conscription, and campaigns to suppress religion and 'feudal' culture resulted in riots and even outright rebellion against their rule in many areas. They were much more popular with also had serious trouble shaking off the peasants than the GMD, as they treated the peasants with appearance of standing for something - ''Russian'' Communism - that was wholly alien to China, courtesy and promised they would get rid of the hated landlords. The CCP had already carried out land reform within the Jiangxi Soviet.

GMD propaganda.

The GMD, on the other hand, set up a government based out of Nanjing in Southern China (there were still some the lower Yangzi delta (Gmd-friendly and -'friendly' warlords remained in the control of almost everything north and upriver of the country). They were plagued mid-Yangzi). Their new regime was marked by corruption and demanded an unusually high degree of competence and efficiency (by the rather-low standards of the Chinese governments of the time). As an administration, the Guomindang was hampered at every turn by the need to sustain near-constant campaigning against rebels and rebellious 'allies'. This meant that the Guomindang only had the budget to implement their own programs of rural reform (rent-reduction, limited land-redistribution from the corrupt and obscenely wealthy) in areas where the army was present, particularly during the Soviet-suppression campaigns. As far as the peasantry was concerned, the GMD was good news as it meant an end to the constant warfare of the warlord era and a drop in their tax-burden (the GMD only collected taxes from the peasants, many towns and cities under its direct control, which is to say most of whom defected to those in the CCP. provinces along the mid-to-lower Yangzi). Much of this need for constant campaigning was because Chiang set himself up as and the "dictator" of GMD had become the most powerful force in the country, the natural inclinations of Chiang's warlord 'allies' being to unite ''against'' him to take him down - which they tried, several times, with little success. Chiang attempted to harness the power of 'blueshirts', paramilitary strongmen hired by the Guomindang in its capacity as a political party, to 'influence' public opinion in conjunction with a force of Blueshirts acting as the new secret police. They were seen as ineefective and overly harsh.
police force under the secretive Dai Li.



From 1930 onward, Chiang led a series of campaigns to try and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet. The CCP managed to survive them as their popularity with the peasants meant that they had a large body of recruits and aid to draw on, and used guerilla tactics to fight back against the GMD incursions. However, on the Fourth Extermination Campaign (1933), Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen, tried a different strategy. This involved the use of blockhouses, forts which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut off the CCP from their support, starving them out, leading to the deaths of some 60,000 soldiers and over 1 million peasants.

Faced with this, the CCP decided to make a desperate move and break out from the siege. They took all of their remaining soldiers and equipment and forced their way through a weak point in the ring of blockhouses, and embarked on the Long March.

The Long March was a pivotal moment in Chinese history. Out of the 100,000 soldiers who headed out of the Jiangxi Soviet, only 20,000 made it to the Yanan Soviet, their destination. They marched a total of 9,000 kilometres, winding around to shake off GMD soldiers on their trail. Mao led the main group, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups went to different places but they all ultimately met up at Yanan. Along the way, they spread CCP propaganda, increasing their support. The Long March secured the CCP's survival and became a sort of rallying point for the CCP, to the point where hundreds of people every year still follow the route.

to:

From 1930 onward, With the lower Yangzi cleared of warlords and the borders of Guomindang territory secured, Chiang led took the opportunity to consolidate his hold over the region by leading a series of campaigns to try and destroy the Soviets in the region. Several Soviets were destroyed in just this way, but the Jiangxi Soviet. Soviet continued to hold out thanks to GMD supply problems, bad terrain, a rebellion in Fujian province and yet another backstab attempt by one of Chiang's 'allies'. The CCP managed to survive replace its losses each time as its control of the countryside there enabled them to conscript as their popularity with the peasants meant that many men as they had a large body of recruits and aid to draw on, and used needed, using guerilla tactics to fight back against harass the GMD incursions. forces Chiang left behind whilst he was occupied with fighting elsewhere. However, on the Fourth ''Fourth'' Extermination Campaign (1933), (1933) Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen, tried a different strategy. Falkenhausen and no other enemies to deal with, was finally able to pour some decent resources into an improvement upon the old strategy of encirclement and gradual advances. This improved strategy involved the use of blockhouses, forts several rings of blockhouses and field fortifications which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically besieged them. This cut the Jiangxi Soviet off the CCP from outside supply and prevented them launching raids, forcing them to confiscate food from their support, starving them out, leading to the deaths of some 60,000 soldiers civilian population and over 1 million peasants.eventually to starve as continuing to do so looked like it would result in rebellion.

Faced 1 million peasant and 60 000 military dead later, with this, Chiang's forces inexorably closing in, the CCP leaders of the Soviet decided to make a desperate move and break out from the siege. stage a break-out. They took left their wounded and too-weak-to-move soldiers behind and, throwing all of their remaining soldiers and equipment and forced their way through forces behind a desperate attack at a weak point in the ring of blockhouses, blockade, forced their way out and embarked on cut a swathe of devastation through the Long March.

The Long March was
countryside as the force of 100 000 soldiers pillaged and looted their way through the mountains, taking what they needed at gunpoint.

Unimportant and ignominious thought it seemed at the time, the 'Long March' has since been called
a pivotal moment in Chinese history. Out of the 100,000 100000 soldiers who headed broke out of the Jiangxi Soviet, only 20,000 but less than 20 000 soldiers (half of those 20 000 were survivors from the other mid-lower Yangzi Soviets) made it to the Yanan Soviet, their destination. Soviet in Yan'an province. They marched fled a total of 9,000 kilometres, winding around taking a long route through the Himalayan foothills to shake off GMD soldiers on avoid Chiang, who used chasing their trail. formation as a pretext for a 'Communist Suppression Campaign' which allowed him to effectively seize control of the mid-upper Yangzi. Mao led the main group, band of Communist soldiers, which finally numbered around 8,000 people. Other groups went to took different places routes, and many were caught and killed to a man, but they all most ultimately met up at Yanan. Along the way, way they spread CCP propaganda, increasing their support. propaganda at gunpoint, endearing themselves by carrying out vigilante executions of criminals and bad landlords (and 'bad' landlords). The Long March secured effectively gave the CCP's survival CCP a new leadership, as Mao and became most of his lackeys and advisors partook in the March, which gave him and his followers a sort of rallying point for the CCP, to the point where moral authority which (together with ruthlessness and ambition) his competitors lacked. The Long March acquired something of a mythical status as a result of post-war CCP propaganda, a result of which being that hundreds of people every year still follow the route.
route every year.
20th May '12 1:22:37 PM Eliphas8
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Added DiffLines:

** At one point Zhang Zongchang claimed that he would either gain victory or return home in a coffin, he lost and was pushed back and true to his word he returned home in a coffin, though very much alive and he went on fighting for years after that.
15th Oct '11 3:03:11 PM Zmflavius
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* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solved local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons onto a hill and shoot the sky. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and White Russians as his forces.

to:

* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solved local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons onto a hill and shoot the sky. He had the nickname of the "Three Don't Knows," because he allegedly didn't know how many concubines he had, how much money, and how many soldiers he commanded. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and White Russians as his forces.
22nd Sep '11 12:51:51 AM Fireblood
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In the south, the Guomindang/Kuomintang (GMD for short) set up their government in Guangzhou, Southern China. Sun Yatsen was elected president in 1917. They accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisors, and Communists were also allowed into the GMD. In 1923, Chiang Kai-shek became the military advisor of the academy in Whampoa. Sun died in 1925.

to:

In the south, the Guomindang/Kuomintang (GMD or KMT for short) set up their government in Guangzhou, Southern China. Sun Yatsen was elected president in 1917. They accepted foreign aid, mostly from the USSR in the form of advisors, and Communists were also allowed into the GMD. In 1923, Chiang Kai-shek became the military advisor of the academy in Whampoa. Sun died in 1925.



From 1930 onward, Chiang led a series of campaigns to try and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet. The CCP managed to survive them as their popularity with the peasants meant that they had a large body of recruits and aid to draw on, and used guerilla tactics to fight back against the GMD incursions. However, on the Fourth Extermination Campaign (1933), Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen, tried a different strategy. This involved the use of blockhouses, forts which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically seiging them. This cut off the CCP from their support and starved them out, leading to the deaths of some 60,000 soldiers and over 1 million peasants.

Faced with this, the CCP decided to make a desperate move and break out of the blockhouse. They took all of their remaining soldiers and equipment and forced their way through a weak point in the ring of blockhouses, and embarked on the Long March.

The Long March was a pivotal moment in Chinese history. Out of the 100,000 soldiers who headed out of the Jiangxi Soviet, only 20,000 made it to the Yanan Soviet, their destination. They marched a total of 9000 kilometres, winding around to shake off GMD soldiers on their trail. Mao led the main group, which finally numbered around 8000 people. Other groups went to different places but they all ultimately met up at Yanan. Along the way, they spread CCP propaganda, increasing their support. The Long March secured the CCP's survival and became a sort of rallying point for the CCP, to the point where hundreds of people every year still follow the route.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936, when Zhang Xueliang, the commander of the anti-communist forces in Xi'an rebelled and held Jiang Jieshi as hostage, urging him to cooperate with the communist to deal with the growing threat that is known as the Japanese Empire.

to:

From 1930 onward, Chiang led a series of campaigns to try and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet. The CCP managed to survive them as their popularity with the peasants meant that they had a large body of recruits and aid to draw on, and used guerilla tactics to fight back against the GMD incursions. However, on the Fourth Extermination Campaign (1933), Chiang, with help from German advisor General von Falkenhausen, tried a different strategy. This involved the use of blockhouses, forts which ringed the Jiangxi Soviet and basically seiging besieged them. This cut off the CCP from their support and starved support, starving them out, leading to the deaths of some 60,000 soldiers and over 1 million peasants.

Faced with this, the CCP decided to make a desperate move and break out of from the blockhouse.siege. They took all of their remaining soldiers and equipment and forced their way through a weak point in the ring of blockhouses, and embarked on the Long March.

The Long March was a pivotal moment in Chinese history. Out of the 100,000 soldiers who headed out of the Jiangxi Soviet, only 20,000 made it to the Yanan Soviet, their destination. They marched a total of 9000 9,000 kilometres, winding around to shake off GMD soldiers on their trail. Mao led the main group, which finally numbered around 8000 8,000 people. Other groups went to different places but they all ultimately met up at Yanan. Along the way, they spread CCP propaganda, increasing their support. The Long March secured the CCP's survival and became a sort of rallying point for the CCP, to the point where hundreds of people every year still follow the route.

The civil war (temporarily) ended in December 1936, when Zhang Xueliang, the commander of the anti-communist anti-Communist forces in Xi'an rebelled and held Jiang Jieshi as hostage, urging him to cooperate with the communist Communists to deal with the growing threat that is known as of the Japanese Empire.who had taken advantage of the divisions, conquering large parts of China.



Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]], until they were forced to work together. The two sides forged an united front against Japan, and became part of the Allies.

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Has [[{{Second Sino-Japanese War}} its own article.]] Also, it overlaps nicely with WorldWarTwo. Interestingly, the CCP and the GMD continued to [[WeAreStrugglingTogether fight during the war]], until they were forced to work together. The two sides forged an a united front against Japan, and became part of the Allies.



* {{Tintin}}'s adventure ''The Blue Lotus'' depicts the Japanese encroachment on China in the 1930s.

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* {{Tintin}}'s adventure ''The Blue Lotus'' depicts the Japanese encroachment on China in the 1930s.1930s and the opium trade.



* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solve local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons on the hill and shoot the sky. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and white russians as his forces.

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* CrazyAwesome: Zhang Zongchang, the warlord that ruled Shandong at the time. During his rule in Shandong, he learnt to write and then proceed to produce gems like "let the cannon bombard YourMom" as his collection of abnormal poems. He also solve solved local drought by slapping the statue of the local rain god, and then ordered his men to pull cannons on the onto a hill and shoot the sky. He is also one of the more successful warlords at the time, using armored trains and white russians White Russians as his forces.



* EnemyMine: The 'cooperation' between the communist and the nationalist is primarily due to the threat of the Japanese. Consisted primarily of not shooting each other for the most part.
* ExactWords: 'The Chinese Communist Party does not endorse the use of opium within its territory.' This did not stop them growing it and selling it to people outside their soviets.
* KlingonPromotion: A common way for warlord to succeed their superior.

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* EnemyMine: The 'cooperation' between the communist Communists and the nationalist is Nationalists was primarily due to over the threat of the Japanese. Consisted primarily of not shooting each other for the most part.
* ExactWords: 'The "The Chinese Communist Party does not endorse the use of opium within its territory.' " This did not stop them growing it and selling it to people outside their soviets.
* KlingonPromotion: A common way for warlord warlords to succeed their superior.



* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over.

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* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over. \n Afterwards...
13th Jul '11 6:20:56 AM MAI742
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* EnemyMine: The cooperation between the communist and the nationalist is primarily due to the threat of the Japanese.

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** Wu Peifu, 'the Philosopher General'.
* EnemyMine: The cooperation 'cooperation' between the communist and the nationalist is primarily due to the threat of the Japanese.Japanese. Consisted primarily of not shooting each other for the most part.
* ExactWords: 'The Chinese Communist Party does not endorse the use of opium within its territory.' This did not stop them growing it and selling it to people outside their soviets.



* ThePurge: Jiang Jieshi did it to the Communists when he figured they were becoming dangerous.

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* ThePurge: Jiang Jieshi did it to the Communists when he figured they were becoming dangerous. He was right, actually; they were always planning to betray him, he just betrayed them first. Also, the Nationalists and Communists to themselves. Mao was not top dog by a long shot when he was borne by Sedan chair on the Long March, for instance.
* TheUriahGambit: Used by Jiang all the time to get rid of or weaken troublesome elements within the army and party. Doing too well for yourself? Here, defend this town against the Japanese...



* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over.

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* WellIntentionedExtremist: Arguably, this is what the Communists were like before taking over.
over.
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