History Main / Mukokuseki

16th Sep '17 2:59:09 PM Dravidian
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'''The second''' is the idea that the artists are appropriating features from the exotic "other" (in this case white people) into their character designs either for their own interests or for marketing purposes. To that point, the pervasiveness in Japanese pop-culture of physical features such as fair hair, blue or green eyes, pinkish skin, and chiseled facial features which are ''not'' found amongst the homogenous population of Japan arguably suggests such features are considered fashionable, desirable, and interesting. This was compounded exponentially over the last 60 years or so by the pervasive Western standards of beauty that infiltrated most cultures, including Japan, via Hollywood and the Euro/American fashion industry. This is overall more common with {{shoujo}} or {{josei}} series, because a lot of the earliest and most classic shoujo, such ''Manga/CandyCandy'' and ''Manga/RoseOfVersailles'', took place in Europe or America.

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'''The second''' is the idea that the artists are appropriating features from the exotic "other" (in this case white people) into their character designs either for their own interests or for marketing purposes. To that point, the pervasiveness in Japanese pop-culture of physical features such as fair hair, hair and blue or green eyes, pinkish skin, and chiseled facial features eyes which are ''not'' found amongst the homogenous population of Japan arguably suggests such features are considered fashionable, desirable, and interesting. This was compounded exponentially over the last 60 years or so by the pervasive Western standards of beauty that infiltrated most cultures, including Japan, via Hollywood and the Euro/American fashion industry. This is overall more common with {{shoujo}} or {{josei}} series, because a lot of the earliest and most classic shoujo, such ''Manga/CandyCandy'' and ''Manga/RoseOfVersailles'', took place in Europe or America.
14th Sep '17 6:42:11 AM Pichu-kun
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* Despite being largely responsible for this style, Creator/OsamuTezuka himself has a few aversions. A few of his recurring characters, most notably Tonan Shipan are more distinctly Asian than most. Tezuka also often used an interesting workaround. When depicting his ostensibly Japanese characters traveling to the Western world, he would often exaggerate his foreigners' appearance; Tezuka's Westerners are usually taller than his Japanese characters, with wide shoulders and long noses. This is especially noticeable in ''Manga/BlackJack''.
** This is mostly averted in ''Manga/{{Adolf}}'', wherein the German characters and the Japanese characters look noticeably different.

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* Despite being largely responsible for this style, Creator/OsamuTezuka himself has a few aversions. A few of his recurring characters, most notably Tonan Shipan are more distinctly Asian than most. Tezuka also often used an interesting workaround. When depicting his ostensibly Japanese characters traveling to the Western world, he would often exaggerate his foreigners' appearance; Tezuka's Westerners are usually taller than his Japanese characters, with wide shoulders and long noses. This is especially noticeable in ''Manga/BlackJack''.
**
''Manga/BlackJack''. This is mostly averted in ''Manga/{{Adolf}}'', wherein the German characters and the Japanese characters look noticeably different.



* Averted in ''Manga/OyasumiPunpun''. Fans do tend to play it somewhat straight though as they give Aiko reddish hair, due to certain official art having her that way, when her canon color is brown.

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* Averted in ''Manga/OyasumiPunpun''.''Manga/GoodnightPunpun'', which has a semi-realistic art style and no AnimeHair or [[YouGottaHaveBlueHair odd hair colours]]. Fans do tend to play it somewhat straight though as they give Aiko reddish hair, due to certain official art having her that way, when her canon color is brown.
15th Aug '17 12:21:00 AM Octorok103
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* ''Webcomic/{{Homestuck}}'' would be a rare Western media example. The "playable" human characters are rendered with completely white skin, while actual white people (like Andrew Hussie's AuthorAvatar and ''Webcomic/DinosaurComics'' authour Ryan North) are rendered with not-quite-flesh-tone skin that's more orange than anything. WordOfGod has specified that the blank white characters [[http://mspandrew.tumblr.com/post/15937434515/predictably are supposed to be a-racial]], so it's left up to the reader to decide what race they are.

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* ''Webcomic/{{Homestuck}}'' would be a rare Western media example. The "playable" human characters are rendered with completely white (as in the color of a sheet of printer paper) skin, while actual white people (like Andrew Hussie's AuthorAvatar and ''Webcomic/DinosaurComics'' authour author Ryan North) are rendered with not-quite-flesh-tone skin that's more orange than anything. WordOfGod has specified that the blank white characters [[http://mspandrew.tumblr.com/post/15937434515/predictably are supposed to be a-racial]], so it's left up to the reader to decide what race they are.



** Another a-racial character actually hallucinates being explicitly white during a MushroomSamba, although the LampshadeHanging of this in which another character is horrified by the change [[OrwellianRetcon was unhappened]] due to some fans [[FanDumb using it as a means to be racist]], [[WordOfGod the author himself]] was not at all cool with that.

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** Another a-racial character actually hallucinates being explicitly white Caucasian during a MushroomSamba, although the LampshadeHanging of this in which another character is horrified by the change [[OrwellianRetcon was unhappened]] due to some fans [[FanDumb using it as a means to be racist]], [[WordOfGod the author himself]] was not at all cool with that.
23rd Jul '17 10:02:11 AM ImperialMajestyXO
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** In ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf'' the characters' facial features are less distinctly Asian than classically Takahashi, with her distinctive rounded style.

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** In ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf'' the characters' facial features are less distinctly Asian than classically Takahashi, with her distinctive [[PuniPlush rounded style.style]].



* Used deliberately in ''Anime/NadiaTheSecretOfBlueWater'' to underscore the AmbiguouslyBrown heroine's mysterious origins. Is she African? Indian? (turns out she's Atlantean.) Nadia's classically stateless anime heroine features stand in sharp contrast to the supporting characters, who are all recognizably European or African.

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* Used deliberately in ''Anime/NadiaTheSecretOfBlueWater'' to underscore the AmbiguouslyBrown heroine's mysterious origins. Is she African? Indian? (turns out she's Atlantean.[[{{Atlantis}} Atlantean]].) Nadia's classically stateless anime heroine features stand in sharp contrast to the supporting characters, who are all recognizably European or African.



** Also worth noting is Izumi also sports a much more Asian in appearance then the rest of the cast as well, and not to mention has a distinctly Asian first name amongst a cast that has predominantly Western names even despite her Western maiden name, "Harnet". Like Mustang her ethnicity has yet to be commented on. Note that since Amestris does sport a variety in race in its population it might not be considered worth commenting on by the rest of the cast.

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** Also worth noting is Izumi also sports a much more Asian in appearance then the rest of the cast as well, and not to mention has a distinctly Asian first name amongst a cast that has predominantly Western names even despite her [[MultiEthnicName Western maiden name, name]], "Harnet". Like Mustang her ethnicity has yet to be commented on. Note that since Amestris does sport a variety in race in its population it might not be considered worth commenting on by the rest of the cast.
23rd Jul '17 9:57:40 AM ImperialMajestyXO
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** In a downright silly case, not only do the main characters have the requisite bizarre hairstyles (including blonde and ''multi-coloured''), but several of them are the modern Japanese {{reincarnation}}s of their near-identical ''Ancient Egyptian'' predecessors.

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** In a downright silly case, not only do the main characters have the requisite bizarre hairstyles (including blonde and ''multi-coloured''), but several of them are the modern Japanese {{reincarnation}}s of their near-identical ''Ancient Egyptian'' ''{{Ancient Egypt}}ian'' predecessors.
23rd Jul '17 9:56:51 AM ImperialMajestyXO
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** In a downright silly case, not only do the main characters have the requisite bizarre hairstyles (including blonde and ''multi-coloured''), but several of them are the modern Japanese reincarnations of their near-identical ''Ancient Egyptian'' predecessors.

to:

** In a downright silly case, not only do the main characters have the requisite bizarre hairstyles (including blonde and ''multi-coloured''), but several of them are the modern Japanese reincarnations {{reincarnation}}s of their near-identical ''Ancient Egyptian'' predecessors.
11th Jul '17 3:22:29 PM WillKeaton
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* Mukokuseki is cited by Creator/MNightShyamalan to justify the RaceLift of characters in ''Film/TheLastAirbender'', with the exception of the Fire Nation[[note]]Their change to Indian was partly due to some of their customs, such as the Agni Kai, having Hindi names[[/note]]. This has been contested by fans of the series due to use of specific ethnic feature (hair, skin, and eye color) even if other facial features are not. Some characters, such as Aang (ostensibly Nepalese, but visually has some wiggle room), are more ambiguous than others, like Katara (who has more distinct features). [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement Which side is correct is outside of the scope of this page]].
* The "Live-Action Adaptation" controversy is discussed in [[http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/answerman/2016-04-27/.101492 this Anime News Network column]].

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* Mukokuseki is cited by Creator/MNightShyamalan to justify the RaceLift of characters in ''Film/TheLastAirbender'', with the exception of the Fire Nation[[note]]Their Nation.[[note]]Their change to Indian was partly due to some of their customs, such as the Agni Kai, having Hindi names[[/note]].names.[[/note]].. This has been contested by fans of the series due to use of specific ethnic feature (hair, skin, and eye color) even if other facial features are not. Some characters, such as Aang (ostensibly Nepalese, but visually has some wiggle room), are more ambiguous than others, like Katara (who has more distinct features). [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement Which side is correct is outside of the scope of this page]].
* The "Live-Action Adaptation" controversy is discussed in [[http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/answerman/2016-04-27/.101492 this Anime News Network column]]. column.]]
11th Jul '17 3:19:26 PM WillKeaton
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In part, this trope has to do with the [[http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/08/30/guest-post-why-do-the-japanese-draw-themselves-as-white/ Default Human Being concept]]. Without obvious ethnic or gendered feature, the audience will assume the character default to their culture's idea of the common human. This can be seen in the west with the featureless stick-figure depicting humanity as a whole and indicating white men specifically at once. Just as American animators will give Asian distinct features to indicate they're different from the European default, Japanese animators will often give European descended characters distinctions to make them different from the Japanese default, even if both defaults are functionally identical.

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In part, this trope has to do with the [[http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/08/30/guest-post-why-do-the-japanese-draw-themselves-as-white/ Default Human Being concept]]. concept.]] Without obvious ethnic or gendered feature, the audience will assume the character default to their culture's idea of the common human. This can be seen in the west with the featureless stick-figure depicting humanity as a whole and indicating white men specifically at once. Just as American animators will give Asian distinct features to indicate they're different from the European default, Japanese animators will often give European descended characters distinctions to make them different from the Japanese default, even if both defaults are functionally identical.
19th Jun '17 11:00:19 AM makusan
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* Mostly averted in ''Manga/DGrayMan''. The only japanese character Yu Kanda looks clearly japanese with narrow eyes and black straight hair. The chinese Lenalee also has black straight hair but she is draw with wide eyes like the european cast.

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* Mostly averted in ''Manga/DGrayMan''. The only japanese Japanese character Yu Kanda looks clearly japanese Japanese with narrow eyes and black straight hair. The chinese Chinese Lenalee also has black straight hair but she is draw with wide eyes like the european European cast.
18th Jun '17 3:19:40 PM ectostar
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* [[http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/08/30/guest-post-why-do-the-japanese-draw-themselves-as-white/ This blog post entitled ]] cites the Default Human Being concept that anime characters don't look white to Japanese people (because the assumption in Japan is "Japanese unless marked otherwise" instead of "White unless marked otherwise" like Westerners are used to).

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* [[http://thesocietypages.[[https://web.archive.org/web/20170222060543/http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/08/30/guest-post-why-do-the-japanese-draw-themselves-as-white/ This blog post entitled ]] entitled]] cites the Default Human Being concept that anime characters don't look white to Japanese people (because the assumption in Japan is "Japanese unless marked otherwise" instead of "White unless marked otherwise" like Westerners are used to).
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