History Main / LogicalFallacies

20th Feb '17 12:00:05 AM garthvader
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* CorrelationImpliesCausation: Believing that any two variables that appear to work in tandem actually do work in tandem. "When X occurs, Y goes up. Therefore, Y must always go up when X occurs."

to:

* CorrelationImpliesCausation: Believing that any two variables that appear to work in tandem actually do work in tandem.happen together after another represent a cause and effect pairing. "When X occurs, Y goes up. Therefore, X causes Y must always to go up when X occurs.up."


Added DiffLines:

* FalseBalance: Also known as the "balance" fallacy, this is the belief that if two opposing positions exist, they must be treated as equally credible regardless of what the positions in question actually are.
7th Feb '17 8:42:02 PM garthvader
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* RedHerring: In logic, a fallacy of distraction where an irrelevant side-argument is introduced in an attempt to draw the opponent away from their main one. For example, Alice tells Bob it is immoral to cheat on his wife Claire because it is betraying her trust, and Bob replies, "what is morality, though?" intending to redirect a discussion of his affair into a discussion of abstract philosophy.



* SpecialPleading: Demanding an exception be made without justification or for a non-logical reason ("I can park in the handicapped spot because I'm a movie star!")

to:

* SpecialPleading: Demanding an exception be made to a general rule without justification or for a non-logical reason ("I can park in the handicapped spot because I'm a movie star!")
7th Feb '17 5:04:03 PM garthvader
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* IrrelevantThesis: Not refuting the opposing position at all, but acting as though you did. "Well, that's just your opinion."

to:

* IrrelevantThesis: Not refuting the opposing position at all, but acting as though you did. "Well, that's just your opinion."



* ProofByExamples: Generalizing a category to match the properties of given examples. "3, 17, and 97 are prime numbers; all odd numbers are prime."

to:

* ProofByExamples: Generalizing a category to match the properties of a non-exhaustive list of given examples. "3, 17, and 97 are prime numbers; all odd numbers are prime."
7th Feb '17 4:26:45 PM garthvader
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* AppealToPossibility: Claiming that if something could possibly happen, then it will/must happen.

to:

* AppealToPossibility: Claiming that if something could possibly happen, then can't be shown to be completely impossible, it will/must happen.must be true. A type of FalseDichotomy.



* AppealToWorseProblems: Claiming an argument isn't valid because there are bigger problems than it.

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* AppealToWorseProblems: Claiming Discarding an argument isn't valid on the basis that it is unimportant because there are bigger problems than it.of a related thing that is perceived to be more important. A type of RedHerring.



* AssociationFallacy: Claiming "X is a Y. X is also a Z. Therefore, Y is a Z."

to:

* AssociationFallacy: Claiming "X is a Y. X is also a Z. Therefore, Y is a Z." Incorporates Guilt / Honor by Association, where it is asserted that relation to a good or bad thing means the associated thing is also good or bad.



* ExtendedAnalogy: Comparing two issues as direct analogs, regardless of their relation. "You support X, which means you support Y."

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* ExtendedAnalogy: Comparing two issues A comparison between X and Y for purposes of demonstrating a specific point is taken as direct analogs, regardless of their relation. "You support X, which means you support Y."a statement that X and Y are analogous in additional ways.



* FallacyOfComposition: The properties of the parts are applied to the whole. "A is made of B. B is X, so A is X."
* FallacyOfDivision: The properties of the whole are applied to the parts. "A is made of B. A is X, so B is X."

to:

* FallacyOfComposition: The properties of the parts are applied to the whole. "A is made of B. B is has property X, so A is has property X."
* FallacyOfDivision: The properties of the whole are applied to the parts. "A is made of B. A is has property X, so B is has property X."


Added DiffLines:

** TheEnemyOfMyEnemyIsMyFriend: Assuming that two beliefs that share a dislike for a third one must be compatible, because the two are on the same "side."
7th Feb '17 2:06:07 PM garthvader
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* ArkhamsRazor: The most unusual solution is bound to be true.
7th Feb '17 1:05:23 PM garthvader
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** AppealToHypocrisy: Claiming an argument is invalid because the opponent fails to act consistently in accordance with its conclusion(s).

to:

** AppealToHypocrisy: Claiming an argument is invalid because the opponent fails to act consistently in accordance with its conclusion(s).conclusion(s), or arguing that since the opponent previously held the opposite position, their current position is untrue or untenable. Very popular in politics.
7th Feb '17 1:02:51 PM garthvader
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** AppealToForce: Threatening anyone who disagrees with you, and therefore claiming what you say is true. A species of the Appeal to Consequences.

to:

** AppealToForce: Threatening anyone who disagrees with you, and therefore claiming what you say is true. true: "changing your mind by altering your face." A species of the Appeal to Consequences.



* AppealToIgnorance: Claiming that something must be true because nobody has proved it false (or vice-versa).

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* AppealToIgnorance: Claiming that something must be true simply because nobody has proved it false (or vice-versa).



* LetsSeeYouDoBetter: Thinking that because one is not an authority on whatever he/she is criticizing, they're in no position to do so.

to:

* LetsSeeYouDoBetter: Thinking Claiming that because one is not an authority on whatever he/she is criticizing, they're must be able to perform something in no position order to do so.be able to criticise it, regardless of their arguments. A type of ad hominem.



* StyleOverSubstance: Arguing the manner in which information is presented affects the truth of the information: "Bill was very polite in presenting his points and Bob said my wife was a bitch while he was presenting his, so Bill must be right."

to:

* StyleOverSubstance: Arguing the manner in which information is presented affects the truth of the information: "Bill was very polite in presenting his points and Bob said my wife was a bitch while he was presenting his, so Bill must be right."" A type of ad hominem.
7th Feb '17 12:51:10 PM garthvader
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* OccamsRazor: The simplest explanation is most often correct. (Not to be confused with "always correct.")

to:

* OccamsRazor: The simplest explanation that adds the least number of speculative assumptions while explaining all the evidence is most often correct. (Not likely to be confused with "always correct.")the correct one.
7th Feb '17 12:49:43 PM garthvader
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* StyleOverSubstance: When the arguer embellishes the argument with compelling language or rhetoric, and/or visual aesthetics.
* SubjectivistFallacy ("That's just your opinion"): When someone resists the conclusion of an argument not by questioning whether the argumentís premises support its conclusion, but by treating the conclusion as subjective when it is in fact objective.
* SunkCostFallacy ("Throwing good money after bad"): Assuming that because one has already invested time or money into something, it is worth continuing to do that thing even if it produces no gains.

to:

* StyleOverSubstance: When Arguing the arguer embellishes manner in which information is presented affects the argument with compelling language or rhetoric, and/or visual aesthetics.
truth of the information: "Bill was very polite in presenting his points and Bob said my wife was a bitch while he was presenting his, so Bill must be right."
* SubjectivistFallacy ("That's just your opinion"): When someone resists the conclusion Claiming that subjectivity means all conclusions are equally valid, regardless of an argument not by questioning whether the argumentís premises support its conclusion, but by treating the conclusion as subjective when it is in fact objective.
their underlying logic.
* SunkCostFallacy ("Throwing good money after bad"): Assuming that because one has already invested time or money into something, it is worth continuing to do that thing even if though it produces no gains.
7th Feb '17 12:44:16 PM garthvader
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* SuppressedCorrelative: Redefining two mutually exclusive options presented by an opponent so that one encompasses the other.

to:

* SuppressedCorrelative: Redefining two mutually exclusive options presented by an opponent so that one encompasses the other.other: "you say this isn't art, but I define art as ''this'', which means it is." A specific subtype of strawman fallacy, since it is based around rebutting an argument framed in different terms to those originally used and thus a point the opponent never made.
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