History Main / FramingDevice

15th Apr '17 6:10:35 PM nombretomado
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* SoundHorizon's ''Moira'' starts with a Russian billionaire trying to discover the truth behind the Elefseya, an ancient Greek [[TheEpic epic]] that tells the story proper. In a case of StealthPun {{Lampshading}}, the song makes a number of references to [[NestedStory Matyroshka dolls]].

to:

* SoundHorizon's Music/SoundHorizon's ''Moira'' starts with a Russian billionaire trying to discover the truth behind the Elefseya, an ancient Greek [[TheEpic epic]] that tells the story proper. In a case of StealthPun {{Lampshading}}, the song makes a number of references to [[NestedStory Matyroshka dolls]].
15th Apr '17 10:43:00 AM Jgamer
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Added DiffLines:

* The majority of ''VideoGame/{{Persona 5}}'' is told in a HowWeGotHere format, with the Protagonist being interrogated by public prosecutor Sae Nijima about the events that started 6 months ago that led to the Protagonist and his friends becoming infamous [[PhantomThief Phantom Thieves]]. The story occasionally returns to the present day as Sae clarifies the Protagonist's story and leads him into the next part, Confidants are framed as Sae pressing the Protagonist to talk about the accomplices and skills that he had to have, and running out of time to complete the heist is framed as the Protagonist being too addled by the drugs used on him to properly remember events. [[spoiler: When the story catches up to the present day, the device is dropped entirely.]]
3rd Apr '17 10:16:42 PM AthenaBlue
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* ''Literature/APrayerForOwenMeany'': The story is being told in 1987, but most of it is set in the tumultuous years of the mid-20th century, Johnny and Owen's youth. It sometimes dips back into the present day to highlight how much Johnny hasn't grown since Owen's death.
* The short story "Literature/HowKazirWonHisWife" by Raymond Smullyan has a framing story in which a sorcerer on an island where the KnightsAndKnaves puzzle is implied to have occurred tells some travellers a story which he says is from the ''Literature/ThousandAndOneNights''. The sorcerer's story takes up most of Smullyan's story.
* In Creator/MichaelEnde's ''Literature/TheNeverendingStory'', Bastian's story is initially used as a frame for Atreyu's, as Bastian reads a stolen storybook. When Bastian finds that the book he is reading contains descriptions of his own life and actions, the line between framing and framed story becomes blurry.
* ''The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar'' by Creator/RoaldDahl has two layers of framing.
* ''Literature/IRobot'', a collection of short stories by Creator/IsaacAsimov, uses the framing device of an interview with famed roboticist Susan Calvin to connect the various stories.
* ''Literature/OneThousandAndOneNights'' is a collection of Arabic folktales connected by a framing device. Shahryar has decided to marry (and execute) a new woman each day. His newest wife, Scheherazade prolongs her own life by telling her murderous husband fantastical stories, each of which ends with a promise of an even more amazing tale. Some of Scheherazade's stories are framing stories themselves; ''One Thousand and One Nights'' contains triple- and quadruple-nested framing devices. This made it dead easy for the ''Nights'' to be expanded with supplemental material over the course of its many editions.
* Creator/GeoffreyChaucer's ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' has the framing device of a group of pilgrims telling each other stories to pass the time on their journey.
* It's possible that Chaucer was familiar with Creator/{{Boccaccio}}'s ''Literature/{{Decameron}}'', featuring a group of young men and women retreating to a country estate to avoid the plague and passing the time by telling stories as a framing device.
* ''Literature/BlackLegion'' is written as main character's account of eponymous Legion's history, told first to Inquisitorial transcription drone and then to the Inquisitors themselves.



* The book ''Literature/TheManuscriptFoundInSaragossa'' and its later [[TheMovie adaption]], ''Film/TheSaragossaManuscript'' take this trope to extreme lengths, telling stories within stories within stories ''within stories''. The initial Framing Device quickly disappears among the layers of narrative.
* The Literature/PinkCarnation books, featuring the successor to Literature/TheScarletPimpernel, has a framing device in which a modern-day grad student in England is researching the Carnation's exploits, with the help of another spy's descendant.
* Creator/StephenKing used a nursing home and the narrator's old, ''old'' age to frame his re-entries into the serial story of ''Literature/TheGreenMile''
* Also by Creator/StephenKing, book 4 of Franchise/TheDarkTower series, ''Literature/WizardAndGlass'', is a back story told by Roland to his group.
** Similarly, in the next book, ''Literature/WolvesOfTheCalla'', we get a another story within a story. This time, it's Pere Callahan explaining the to [[TrueCompanions ka-tet]] what happened to him in-between ''Literature/SalemsLot'' and now.
* All William King's ''Literature/SpaceWolf'' novels are framed - the first two as his flashbacks because something reminded him, and the third as his recounting to [[NewMeat younger Marines]] an episode as an explanation.
* Creator/MichaelCrichton's ''Literature/EatersOfTheDead'' is framed as an analysis of an ancient manuscript written by an Arab traveling to Scandinavia.
* PeterPaysTribute is split between the story, and the story the main character is writing.
* ''Literature/TheBookOfLostTales''--the original draft of the book that would later be published as ''Literature/TheSilmarillion''--employs a Framing Device in which a Man from England, [=Æ=]lfwine/Eriol, discovers the lost island of the Elves and is told the ancient tales of their folk by a succession of characters.
* {{Lampshaded}} in a later chapter of ''Literature/SophiesWorld''. ThePhilosopher, after coming to the conclusion that they are [[NoFourthWall characters in a book]] written by a UN Major for his daughter's fifteenth birthday, says that the latter two shouldn't get too cocky either, because even they themselves might be just a Framing Device... which they are, of course.

to:

* The book ''Literature/TheManuscriptFoundInSaragossa'' and its later [[TheMovie adaption]], ''Film/TheSaragossaManuscript'' take this trope to extreme lengths, ''Literature/{{Animorphs}}'' had ''The Hork-Bajir Chronicles'' framed as a story the Hork-Bajir were telling stories within stories within stories ''within stories''. The initial Framing Device quickly disappears among Tobias.
** ''The Andalite Chronicles'' is presented as Elfangor's last testament (known by Andalites as a ''hirac delest''), given in
the layers final moments of narrative.
* The Literature/PinkCarnation books, featuring
his life. ''Visser'' has, by far, the successor most in-depth one, switching back and forth between Visser One's memories and her present-day trial. Finally, ''The Ellimist Chronicles'' is narrated to Literature/TheScarletPimpernel, a then-unnamed dying Animorph, indicating that at least one of them will be die.
* ''Literature/TheAutobiographyOfMissJanePittman'', a story about a 110 year old woman who lived from slavery to the civil rights movement,
has a framing device in which a modern-day grad student in England is researching the Carnation's exploits, with the help of another spy's descendant.
* Creator/StephenKing used a nursing home and the narrator's old, ''old'' age to frame his re-entries into the serial
story of ''Literature/TheGreenMile''
* Also by Creator/StephenKing, book 4 of Franchise/TheDarkTower series, ''Literature/WizardAndGlass'',
that a teacher is a back story told by Roland interviewing Jane to tell his group.
** Similarly, in the next book, ''Literature/WolvesOfTheCalla'', we get a another story within a story. This time, it's Pere Callahan explaining the to [[TrueCompanions ka-tet]] what happened to him in-between ''Literature/SalemsLot'' and now.
students about her.
* All William King's ''Literature/SpaceWolf'' novels are framed - the first two as his flashbacks because something reminded him, and the third as his recounting to [[NewMeat younger Marines]] an episode as an explanation.
* Creator/MichaelCrichton's ''Literature/EatersOfTheDead''
''Literature/BlackLegion'' is framed as an analysis of an ancient manuscript written by an Arab traveling to Scandinavia.
* PeterPaysTribute is split between the story, and the story
as the main character is writing.
character's account of the eponymous Legion's history, told first to an Inquisitorial transcription drone and then to the Inquisitors themselves.
* ''Literature/TheBookOfLostTales''--the ''Literature/TheBookOfLostTales'' -- the original draft of the book that would later be published as ''Literature/TheSilmarillion''--employs ''Literature/TheSilmarillion'' -- employs a Framing Device in which a Man from England, [=Æ=]lfwine/Eriol, discovers the lost island of the Elves and is told the ancient tales of their folk by a succession of characters.
* {{Lampshaded}} The French sci-fi writer François Bordes with at least two of his novels (under the pen name Francis Carsac) using this trope: in ''Literature/TerreEnFuite'' (Fleeing Earth), the protagonist is reading the diary left to him by his late friend Paul Dupont, who explains that he is, in fact, a later chapter man named Haurk Akéran from the distant future, who gives a brief overview of ''Literature/SophiesWorld''. ThePhilosopher, the fall of humanity and the rebirth of civilization after coming to several ice ages, as well as his own story and the conclusion part he plays in in the events that they are [[NoFourthWall characters lead to [[spoiler:Earth and Venus being moved to another star system]]; in a book]] written by a UN Major for ''Les Robinsons du Cosmos'' (The Robinsons of the Cosmos), the FramingDevice is an old man telling the story of how he ended up on an alien planet to his daughter's fifteenth birthday, says that grandchildren, as well as the latter two shouldn't get too cocky either, because even they themselves might be just a Framing Device... which they are, formation of course.the human civilization there.



* ''Literature/TheButterflyGarden'' uses the form of a police interrogation; the FBI have rescued the kidnapped women and want Maya to explain what exactly happened at the Garden. The bulk of the story is her flashbacks to her past and time as an object in [[TheCollector the Gardener's collection]], waiting [[YourDaysAreNumbered until he kills her]]. Plot points are brought up by the interrogating agents and they need her to elaborate on details, in particular because they're trying to figure out her involvement. Unfortunately for them she's a BrokenBird who doesn't trust them and is trying to BeAsUnhelpfulAsPossible.
* In Creator/MikhailAkhmanov's ''Call of the Abyss'', people with psychic potential receive strange visions when located in a specific spot above Mars. It turns out that the visions are being sent from a ParallelWorld and appear to show events in the life of people in the past. The stories diverge from historical accounts after the Renaissance, suggesting that this is where this world's history split off from ours. However, the main story experienced by the characters is actually from way back in Ancient Egypt, the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Story_of_Wenamun story of a priest named Un-Amun]][[note]]It is now believed by historians that the story does not, in fact, portray RealLife events but is an early example of historical fiction[[/note]]. The sequel, ''First after God'', continues with the exploration of the signal, aided by the discovery of a psychic alien race, whose representative helps decipher the messages. The vision in this case is that of Captain Peter Shelton, a brave 17th century English sailor seeking to find the lost Incan treasure.
* In ''Literature/TheCandlemassRoad'', the novel is presented as the memoir of Frey Luis Guevara, an elderly priest who witnessed the events.
* Creator/GeoffreyChaucer's ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' has the framing device of a group of pilgrims telling each other stories to pass the time on their journey.
* Mil Millington's ''A Certain Chemistry'' is framed by God telling us how all our emotions, actions and thoughts are governed by our bodies' chemistries, using the main character's story (in which a writer cheats on his girlfriend with a soap star) to illustrate his points.



* Creator/RobinHobb in her ''Literature/{{Farseer}}'' trilogy uses a framing device of the protagonist writing down his memoirs (which is probably the most common framing device of them all). It's played with a bit: [[spoiler:the narrator makes occasional references implying that he's writing as an old man, housebound by the ravages of age. The end of the last book reveals that he's still quite young; his life has been that rough on him]].
* The same framing device is used in Mika Waltari's ''Literature/TheEgyptian''.
* Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'' is doubly framed, with Apollodorus telling his companion a story that Aristodemus had told him, and which he had already told once to Glaucon. Then everyone gets drunk.
* Dan Simmons's ''Hyperion'' (first novel of the ''Literature/HyperionCantos'') is more or less explicitly based on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales'' [[RecycledINSPACE IN SPACE]]!, down to the fact that the storytellers are on a pilgrimage. [[ShoutOut Literary allusions]] and [[GeniusBonus Genius Bonuses]] abound. As it turns out, the stories framed all shed light on the frame story, and the sequel ''The Fall of Hyperion'' picks up from the end of the frame story.

to:

* Creator/RobinHobb In each book of the ''Literature/CronusChronicles'', the story is separated into four parts, each with a clever title (ex. in her ''Literature/{{Farseer}}'' trilogy uses a framing device ''The Shadow Thieves'', the parts are called ''We Start in the Middle, Now the Beginning, The End of the Beginning'', and ''The Beginning of the End'').
* [[Creator/IainBanks Iain M. Banks]]'s "[[Literature/TheCulture Culture]]'' novella ''The State of the Art" is framed by
the protagonist writing down his memoirs (which is probably a letter about the most common framing device of them all). It's played with events to a bit: [[spoiler:the narrator makes occasional references implying that he's writing as an old man, housebound historian interested in their setting ([[InsignificantLittleBluePlanet Earth]]), translated (with snarky footnootes) by the ravages of age. The end of the last book reveals that he's still quite young; his life has been that rough on him]].
her [[RobotBuddy escort drone]].
* The same framing device is used in Mika Waltari's ''Literature/TheEgyptian''.
* Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'' is doubly framed, with Apollodorus telling his companion a story that Aristodemus had told him, and which he had already told once to Glaucon. Then everyone gets drunk.
* Dan Simmons's ''Hyperion'' (first novel of the ''Literature/HyperionCantos'') is more or less explicitly based on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales'' [[RecycledINSPACE IN SPACE]]!, down to the fact that the storytellers are on a pilgrimage. [[ShoutOut Literary allusions]] and [[GeniusBonus Genius Bonuses]] abound. As it turns out, the stories framed all shed light on the frame story, and the sequel
''Literature/TheDalemarkQuartet'': Book three, ''The Fall Spellcoats'', is framed as protagonist Tanaqui weaving the story into the titular spellcoats. [[spoiler:This also results in an unusual form of Hyperion'' picks NoEnding, as the spellcoats become vital to the resolution of the plot, and thus Tanaqui cannot weave the actual ending, although she ''does'' weave what she's been told will happen when the coats are done.]] The book ends with an InUniverse note from a historian who's commenting on the coats, which were dug up from a hillside centuries after the end events of the frame story.book.
* Also by Creator/StephenKing, book 4 of ''Franchise/TheDarkTower'' series, ''Literature/WizardAndGlass'', is a back story told by Roland to his group.
** Similarly, in the next book, ''Literature/WolvesOfTheCalla'', we get a another story within a story. This time, it's Pere Callahan explaining the to [[TrueCompanions ka-tet]] what happened to him in-between ''Literature/SalemsLot'' and now.



* It's possible that Chaucer was familiar with Creator/{{Boccaccio}}'s ''Literature/{{Decameron}}'', featuring a group of young men and women retreating to a country estate to avoid the plague and passing the time by telling stories as a framing device.
* The ''{{Literature/Dinotopia}}'' prequel ''First Flight'' is told as a story that one of the main characters from the main book is studying.
** The first and fourth books are also presented as journals the author had discovered.
* Hiob's account of his voyage to India frames the story of the fall of Pentexore in ''Literature/DirgeForPresterJohn''.
* Some ''Franchise/DoctorWhoExpandedUniverse'' books use this:
** In the first ''Decalog'', a psychometrist gets the stories from the things in the Seventh Doctor's pockets (including a scene where the psychometrist "goes deeper" to explain the first person stream-of-consciousness story).
** In ''Short Trips: Repercussions'', Charley finds herself on a strange airship full of people who were removed from history as a threat to the Web of Time, and learns their stories.
** In ''Short Trips: SevenDeadlySins'', the Eighth Doctor makes seven jaded and sinful people experience one of his past adventures that illustrates the sin they examplify.
** The ''Literature/DoctorWhoNewAdventures'' Literature/SherlockHolmes crossover ''All-Consuming Fire'' has a framing story of the Doctor and his companions reading ''The Adventure of the All-Consuming Fire'' by [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis John Watson]].
* ''Literature/DonQuixote'' is framed by a historian finding stories about the "famed" knight.
* The novel of ''Film/DrStrangelove'' has a prologue written by an alien, who [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis found a record of the story]] under a rock in the deserts of the north-western continent of an uninhabited planet they're currently exploring.



* ''Literature/TheAutobiographyOfMissJanePittman'', a story about a 110 year old woman who lived from slavery to the civil rights movement, has a framing story that a teacher is interviewing Jane to tell his students about her.

to:

* ''Literature/TheAutobiographyOfMissJanePittman'', Creator/MichaelCrichton's ''Literature/EatersOfTheDead'' is framed as an analysis of an ancient manuscript written by an Arab traveling to Scandinavia.
%%* The same framing device is used in Mika Waltari's ''Literature/TheEgyptian''.
* ''Encounter with Tiber'', by Buzz Aldrin (yes, [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Apollo 11]] Buzz Aldrin) and John Barnes, uses the framing device of
a story about a 110 year old woman scientist who lived from slavery writes novels. She's selected to be on the civil rights movement, first manned voyage to another star. Because of the length of the trip, she has time to write four novels (well, two novels and two translations of existing novels), which together explain [[HowWeGotHere how humanity was contacted by an alien race and developed the technology for interstellar travel]].
* ''[[Literature/{{Temps}} EuroTemps]]'' by the Midnight Rose Collective
has a framing story device of powerful sorcerer and DPR offical Loric looking through reports and using magic to turn them into narratives.
* Creator/RobinHobb in her ''Literature/{{Farseer}}'' trilogy uses a framing device of the protagonist writing down his memoirs (which is probably the most common framing device of them all). It's played with a bit: [[spoiler:the narrator makes occasional references implying
that a teacher is interviewing Jane to tell he's writing as an old man, housebound by the ravages of age. The end of the last book reveals that he's still quite young; his students about her.life has been that rough on him]].



* ''Literature/WorldWarZ'' is briefly framed as initially being for a report on the zombie war, but when the author handed it in to his superiors, they said it was too personal. So he made it into a book.
* The Literature/SherlockHolmes novels ''A Study in Scarlet'' and ''The Valley of Fear'' use the stories of Holmes solving a mystery as frames for the perpetrators telling their stories of why they done it.
** Similarly, Holmes's investigation in the short story ''The Crooked Man'' is a Framing Device for a story about a soldier in India, and his involvement in ''The Adventure of the Gloria Scott'' is entirely incidental.
* ''Literature/ShutterIsland'' is presented as Dr. Sheehan's desire to set the record straight at last.
* In the novel version of ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'', the actual author explains that he's condensing the original book, by "S. Morgenstern".

to:

* ''Literature/WorldWarZ'' ''Literature/TheGoBetween'' is briefly narrated by an elderly man reminiscing about a summer fifty years earlier. Only at the very end do we see any live action.
* Creator/StephenKing used a nursing home and the narrator's old, ''old'' age to frame his re-entries into the serial story of ''Literature/TheGreenMile''.
* ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'':
** ''Literature/TheForerunnerSaga'' books all have this: ''Literature/HaloCryptum'' is
framed as initially an archived testimony of the [[{{Precursors}} Forerunner]] Bornstellar Makes Eternal Lasting. ''Literature/HaloPrimordium'' is presented as a recovered Forerunner AI recounting its past to an ONI science team. ''Literature/HaloSilentium'' is framed as a series of Forerunner logs being for a researched by ONI.
** ''Literature/HaloNewBlood'' opens with an "Archivist's Note" stating that the entire story is an in-universe
report given by protagonist Edward Buck.
* ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves'' takes this trope to MindScrew levels. It's about a supernatural house, which is documented by the house's owner, Navidson. The documentary is described in a massive, incomplete essay by Zampano. The essay is edited and commented upon by Johnny Truant, who also relays his own story in the footnotes. Truant's story is commented upon by the book's editors. There's a lot of UnreliableNarrator to be had all around.
* The short story "Literature/HowKazirWonHisWife" by Raymond Smullyan has a framing story in which a sorcerer on an island where the KnightsAndKnaves puzzle is implied to have occurred tells some travellers a story which he says is from the ''Literature/ThousandAndOneNights''. The sorcerer's story takes up most of Smullyan's story.
* Dan Simmons's ''Hyperion'' (first novel of the ''Literature/HyperionCantos'') is more or less explicitly based on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales'' [[RecycledINSPACE IN SPACE]]!, down to the fact that the storytellers are on a pilgrimage. [[ShoutOut Literary allusions]] and [[GeniusBonus Genius Bonuses]] abound. As it turns out, the stories framed all shed light
on the zombie war, but when frame story, and the author handed it in to his superiors, they said it was too personal. So he made it into a book.
* The Literature/SherlockHolmes novels ''A Study in Scarlet'' and
sequel ''The Valley Fall of Fear'' use Hyperion'' picks up from the end of the frame story.
* ''Literature/IRobot'', a collection of short
stories of Holmes solving a mystery as frames for by Creator/IsaacAsimov, uses the perpetrators telling their stories framing device of why they done it.
** Similarly, Holmes's investigation in
an interview with famed roboticist Susan Calvin to connect the short various stories.
* In ''Literature/TheIronDream'', we have a banal ScienceFiction
story ''The Crooked Man'' is by UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler, a USA emigrant, followed by a Framing Device for in-universe essay to explain the point of this story.
* ''Literature/TheLastWish'' is set up as six short stories framed by "The Voice of Reason", where
a story about a soldier priestess treating injuries Geralt sustained in India, and his involvement in ''The Adventure the first of the Gloria Scott'' is entirely incidental.
* ''Literature/ShutterIsland'' is presented as Dr. Sheehan's desire
tales, "The Witcher", asks him to set recount some of his adventures to her.
* The book ''Literature/TheManuscriptFoundInSaragossa'' and its later [[TheMovie adaption]], ''Film/TheSaragossaManuscript'' take this trope to extreme lengths, telling stories within stories within stories ''within stories''. The initial Framing Device quickly disappears among
the record straight at last.
* In the novel version
layers of ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'', the actual author explains that he's condensing the original book, by "S. Morgenstern".narrative.



* In the novel ''Slumdog Millionaire'' the hero of the story, Raj Mohammed Thomas, frames the story as testimony to the police who have arrested him.
* Mil Millington's ''A Certain Chemistry'' is framed by God telling us how all our emotions, actions and thoughts are governed by our bodies' chemistries, using the main character's story (in which a writer cheats on his girlfriend with a soap star) to illustrate his points.
* In ''Literature/TheIronDream'', we have a banal ScienceFiction story by UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler, a USA emigrant, followed by a Framing Device in-universe essay to explain the point of this story.
* [[Creator/IainBanks Iain M. Banks]]'s novella "[[Literature/TheCulture The State of the Art]]" is framed by the protagonist writing a letter about the events to a historian interested in their setting ([[InsignificantLittleBluePlanet Earth]]), translated (with snarky footnootes) by her [[RobotBuddy escort drone]].
* The novel of ''Film/DrStrangelove'' has a prologue written by an alien, who [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis found a record of the story]] under a rock in the deserts of the north-western continent of an uninhabited planet they're currently exploring.
* The ''{{Literature/Dinotopia}}'' prequel ''First Flight'' is told as a story that one of the main characters from the main book is studying.
** The first and fourth books are also presented as journals the author had discovered.
* ''Literature/TheTimeMachine'' by Creator/HGWells is told through a guest at the Time Traveller's party, who for all but the first two chapters and the final chapter is taking dictation from the Time Traveller.
* The "Pendragon" series by D.J. MacHale. This is how most of books in the 10 books series are told. The protagonist Bobby Pendragon writes down his thoughts in a sort of diary as a way of organizing his thoughts and keeping himself sane and sends them to his 2 friends back on present-day Earth who read it along with the audience. Though some of the 5th book and all of the 10th are in his first-person point of view.
* ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves'' takes this trope to MindScrew levels. It's about a supernatural house, which is documented by the house's owner, Navidson. The documentary is described in a massive, incomplete essay by Zampano. The essay is edited and commented upon by Johnny Truant, who also relays his own story in the footnotes. Truant's story is commented upon by the book's editors. There's a lot of UnreliableNarrator to be had all around.
* ''Encounter with Tiber'', by Buzz Aldrin (yes, the [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Apollo 11]] Buzz Aldrin) and John Barnes, uses the framing device of a scientist who writes novels. She's selected to be on the first manned voyage to another star. Because of the length of the trip, she has time to write four novels (well, two novels and two translations of existing novels), which together explain [[HowWeGotHere how humanity was contacted by an alien race and developed the technology for interstellar travel]].
* Several Literature/{{Redwall}} books are framed by an Abbeydweller telling a story to a group of Dibbuns. At the end, a character from the framed story would turn out to be the NarratorAllAlong.

to:

* In the novel ''Slumdog Millionaire'' the hero of the story, Raj Mohammed Thomas, frames the story as testimony to the police who have arrested him.
* Mil Millington's ''A Certain Chemistry'' is framed by God telling us how all our emotions, actions and thoughts are governed by our bodies' chemistries, using the main character's story (in which a writer cheats on his girlfriend with a soap star) to illustrate his points.
* In ''Literature/TheIronDream'', we have a banal ScienceFiction story by UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler, a USA emigrant, followed by a Framing Device in-universe essay to explain the point of this story.
* [[Creator/IainBanks Iain M. Banks]]'s novella "[[Literature/TheCulture The State of the Art]]" is framed by the protagonist writing a letter about the events to a historian interested in their setting ([[InsignificantLittleBluePlanet Earth]]), translated (with snarky footnootes) by her [[RobotBuddy escort drone]].
* The novel of ''Film/DrStrangelove'' has a prologue written by an alien, who [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis found a record of the story]] under a rock in the deserts of the north-western continent of an uninhabited planet they're currently exploring.
* The ''{{Literature/Dinotopia}}'' prequel ''First Flight'' is told as a story that one of the main characters from the main book is studying.
** The first and fourth books are also presented as journals the author had discovered.
* ''Literature/TheTimeMachine'' by Creator/HGWells is told through a guest at the Time Traveller's party, who for all but the first two chapters and the final chapter is taking dictation from the Time Traveller.
* The "Pendragon" series by D.J. MacHale. This is how most of books in the 10 books series are told. The protagonist Bobby Pendragon writes down his thoughts in a sort of diary as a way of organizing his thoughts and keeping himself sane and sends them to his 2 friends back on present-day Earth who read it along with the audience. Though some of the 5th book and all of the 10th are in his first-person point of view.
* ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves'' takes this trope to MindScrew levels. It's about a supernatural house, which is documented by the house's owner, Navidson. The documentary is described in a massive, incomplete essay by Zampano. The essay is edited and commented upon by Johnny Truant, who also relays his own story in the footnotes. Truant's
Creator/MichaelEnde's ''Literature/TheNeverendingStory'', Bastian's story is commented upon by initially used as a frame for Atreyu's, as Bastian reads a stolen storybook. When Bastian finds that the book's editors. There's a lot book he is reading contains descriptions of UnreliableNarrator to be had all around.
* ''Encounter with Tiber'', by Buzz Aldrin (yes,
his own life and actions, the [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Apollo 11]] Buzz Aldrin) and John Barnes, uses the line between framing device of a scientist who writes novels. She's selected to be on the first manned voyage to another star. Because of the length of the trip, she has time to write four novels (well, two novels and two translations of existing novels), which together explain [[HowWeGotHere how humanity was contacted by an alien race and developed the technology for interstellar travel]].
* Several Literature/{{Redwall}} books are framed by an Abbeydweller telling a story to a group of Dibbuns. At the end, a character from the
framed story would turn out to be the NarratorAllAlong.becomes blurry.



* OlderThanDirt: [[Myth/EgyptianMythology The Egyptian]] Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, from the 6th dynasty (c. 2300-2100 BCE) in the Old Kingdom, is framed by the sailor explaining his survival to an official, and the official telling him not to overstep his station by dispensing advice.
* Literature/{{Animorphs}} had ''The Hork-Bajir Chronicles'' framed as a story the Hork-Bajir were telling Tobias.
** ''The Andalite Chronicles'' is presented as Elfangor's last testament (known by Andalites as a ''hirac delest''), given in the final moments of his life. ''Visser'' has, by far, the most in-depth one, switching back and forth between Visser One's memories and her present-day trial. Finally, ''The Ellimist Chronicles'' is narrated to a then-unnamed dying Animorph, indicating that at least one of them will be die.
* The ''Literature/WarriorCats'' guidebooks ''Code of the Clans'' and ''Battles of the Clans'' are framed as the reader being a cat that visits the Clans, with the beginning and ending, and a few chapters inside the book, set up this way. In ''Code'', Leafpool tells them stories about the warrior code, and in ''Battles'', they visit all four Clans and attend a Gathering, not only listening to stories told by cats, but also being visited by deceased warriors in their dreams for stories that the current Clans couldn't possibly know.
* Though the frame of Margaret's story in ''Literature/TheThirteenthTale'' is its own story as she goes through her own discovery and development, the business of writing a biography is mainly to tell the story of Vida's past.

to:

* OlderThanDirt: [[Myth/EgyptianMythology The Egyptian]] Tale ''Literature/OneThousandAndOneNights'' is a collection of Arabic folktales connected by a framing device. Shahryar has decided to marry (and execute) a new woman each day. His newest wife, Scheherazade, prolongs her own life by telling her murderous husband fantastical stories, each of which ends with a promise of an even more amazing tale. Some of Scheherazade's stories are framing stories themselves; ''One Thousand and One Nights'' contains triple- and quadruple-nested framing devices. This made it dead easy for the ''Nights'' to be expanded with supplemental material over the course of its many editions.
* ''Literature/TheOrphansTales'' is about tales told, well, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOntheTin by an orphan]]. Like an updated version
of the Shipwrecked Sailor, from ''Literature/ArabianNights'', the 6th dynasty (c. 2300-2100 BCE) in the Old Kingdom, is four books are framed by the sailor explaining story of the prince who seeks out the outcast orphan by night, and asks to hear her tales, which nest inside one another to sometimes six levels deep.
* The ''Literature/{{Pendragon}}'' series by D.J. MacHale. This is how most of the books in the 10-book series are told. The protagonist Bobby Pendragon writes down
his survival thoughts in a sort of diary as a way of organizing his thoughts and keeping himself sane and sends them to an official, his 2 friends back on present-day Earth who read it along with the audience. Though some of the 5th book and all of the 10th are in his first-person point of view.
* ''Literature/PeterPaysTribute'' is split between the story,
and the official story the main character is writing.
* The Literature/PinkCarnation books, featuring the successor to Literature/TheScarletPimpernel, has a framing device in which a modern-day grad student in England is researching the Carnation's exploits, with the help of another spy's descendant.
* In Creator/GeorgeMacDonald's "[[http://www.online-literature.com/donne/3643/ Port in a Storm]]", the whole story is told by a man to his children, about how he and their mother came to marry.
* ''Literature/APrayerForOwenMeany'': The story is being told in 1987, but most of it is set in the tumultuous years of the mid-20th century, Johnny and Owen's youth. It sometimes dips back into the present day to highlight how much Johnny hasn't grown since Owen's death.
* In the novel version of ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'', the actual author explains that he's condensing the original book, by "S. Morgenstern".
* Several ''Literature/{{Redwall}}'' books are framed by an Abbeydweller
telling him not a story to overstep his station by dispensing advice.
a group of Dibbuns. At the end, a character from the framed story would turn out to be the NarratorAllAlong.
* Literature/{{Animorphs}} had The Literature/SherlockHolmes novels ''A Study in Scarlet'' and ''The Hork-Bajir Chronicles'' framed as a story Valley of Fear'' use the Hork-Bajir were stories of Holmes solving a mystery as frames for the perpetrators telling Tobias.
their stories of why they done it.
** Similarly, Holmes's investigation in the short story ''The Andalite Chronicles'' Crooked Man'' is a Framing Device for a story about a soldier in India, and his involvement in ''The Adventure of the Gloria Scott'' is entirely incidental.
* ''Literature/ShutterIsland''
is presented as Elfangor's last testament (known by Andalites as a ''hirac delest''), given in Dr. Sheehan's desire to set the final moments of his life. ''Visser'' has, by far, record straight at last.
* In
the most in-depth one, switching back and forth between Visser One's memories and her present-day trial. Finally, ''The Ellimist Chronicles'' is narrated to a then-unnamed dying Animorph, indicating that at least one of them will be die.
* The ''Literature/WarriorCats'' guidebooks ''Code
novel ''Slumdog Millionaire'' the hero of the Clans'' and ''Battles of story, Raj Mohammed Thomas, frames the Clans'' story as testimony to the police who have arrested him.
* {{Lampshaded}} in a later chapter of ''Literature/SophiesWorld''. ThePhilosopher, after coming to the conclusion that they are [[NoFourthWall characters in a book]] written by a UN Major for his daughter's fifteenth birthday, says that the latter two shouldn't get too cocky either, because even they themselves might be just a Framing Device... which they are, of course.
* All William King's ''Literature/SpaceWolf'' novels
are framed as - the reader being a cat that visits first two as his flashbacks because something reminded him, and the Clans, with third as his recounting to [[NewMeat younger Marines]] an episode as an explanation.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Starcraft}}'' novel ''Liberty's Crusade'' is a {{novelization}} of
the beginning and ending, and a few chapters inside the book, set up this way. In ''Code'', Leafpool tells them stories about the warrior code, and in ''Battles'', they visit all four Clans and attend a Gathering, not only listening to stories told Terran campaign, framed as an anti-Terran Dominion documentary by cats, but also being visited by deceased warriors in their dreams for stories that the current Clans couldn't possibly know.
* Though the frame of Margaret's story in ''Literature/TheThirteenthTale'' is its own story as she goes through her own discovery and development, the business of writing a biography is mainly to tell the story of Vida's past.
reporter Michael Liberty.



* ''Literature/TheGoBetween'' is narrated by an elderly man reminiscing about a summer fifty years earlier. Only at the very end do we see any live action.
* Hiob's account of his voyage to India frames the story of the fall of Pentexore in ''Literature/DirgeForPresterJohn''.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Starcraft}}'' novel ''Liberty's Crusade'' is a {{novelization}} of the Terran campaign, framed as an anti-Terran Dominion documentary by reporter Michael Liberty.
* In Creator/GeorgeMacDonald's "[[http://www.online-literature.com/donne/3643/ Port In A Storm]]", the whole story is told by a man to his children, about how he and their mother came to marry.
* Creator/PGWodehouse often used this in his stories, particularly the ones about golf, and Mr. Mulliner's tall tales.
* ''Literature/DonQuixote'' is framed by a historian finding stories about the "famed" knight.
* A good third of ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' is Odysseus telling the story of his return from Troy to the Phaeacians.

to:

* ''Literature/TheGoBetween'' Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'' is narrated by an elderly man reminiscing about doubly framed, with Apollodorus telling his companion a summer fifty years earlier. Only at story that Aristodemus had told him, and which he had already told once to Glaucon. Then everyone gets drunk.
* Though
the very end do we see any live action.
* Hiob's account
frame of his voyage Margaret's story in ''Literature/TheThirteenthTale'' is its own story as she goes through her own discovery and development, the business of writing a biography is mainly to India frames tell the story of the fall of Pentexore in ''Literature/DirgeForPresterJohn''.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Starcraft}}'' novel ''Liberty's Crusade'' is a {{novelization}} of the Terran campaign, framed as an anti-Terran Dominion documentary by reporter Michael Liberty.
* In Creator/GeorgeMacDonald's "[[http://www.online-literature.com/donne/3643/ Port In A Storm]]", the whole story is told by a man to his children, about how he and their mother came to marry.
* Creator/PGWodehouse often used this in his stories, particularly the ones about golf, and Mr. Mulliner's tall tales.
* ''Literature/DonQuixote'' is framed by a historian finding stories about the "famed" knight.
* A good third of ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' is Odysseus telling the story of his return from Troy to the Phaeacians.
Vida's past.



* ''Literature/TheTimeMachine'' by Creator/HGWells is told through a guest at the Time Traveller's party, who for all but the first two chapters and the final chapter is taking dictation from the Time Traveller.
* The ''Literature/ProvostsDog'' trilogy in the Literature/TortallUniverse is framed as a young George Cooper reading a cop ancestor's journal at his mother's insistence, to try and dissuade him from being a thief.
* The ''Literature/WarriorCats'' guidebooks ''Code of the Clans'' and ''Battles of the Clans'' are framed as the reader being a cat that visits the Clans, with the beginning and ending, and a few chapters inside the book, set up this way. In ''Code'', Leafpool tells them stories about the warrior code, and in ''Battles'', they visit all four Clans and attend a Gathering, not only listening to stories told by cats, but also being visited by deceased warriors in their dreams for stories that the current Clans couldn't possibly know.



* Some ''Franchise/DoctorWhoExpandedUniverse'' books use this:
** In the first ''Decalog'', a psychometrist gets the stories from the things in the Seventh Doctor's pockets (including a scene where the psychometrist "goes deeper" to explain the first person stream-of-consciousness story).
** In ''Short Trips: Repercussions'', Charley finds herself on a strange airship full of people who were removed from history as a threat to the Web of Time, and learns their stories.
** In ''Short Trips: SevenDeadlySins'', the Eighth Doctor makes seven jaded and sinful people experience one of his past adventures that illustrates the sin they examplify.
** The ''Literature/DoctorWhoNewAdventures'' Literature/SherlockHolmes crossover ''All-Consuming Fire'' has a framing story of the Doctor and his companions reading ''The Adventure of the All-Consuming Fire'' by [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis John Watson]].
* ''[[Literature/{{Temps}} EuroTemps]]'' by the Midnight Rose Collective has a framing device of powerful sorcerer and DPR offical Loric looking through reports and using magic to turn them into narratives.
* In each book of the ''Literature/CronusChronicles'', the story is separated into four parts, each with a clever title (ex. in ''The Shadow Thieves'', the parts are called ''We Start in the Middle, Now the Beginning, The End of the Beginning'', and ''The Beginning of the End'').
* ''Literature/TheOrphansTales'' is about tales told, well, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOntheTin by an orphan]]. Like an updated version of the ''Literature/ArabianNights,'' the four books are framed by the story of the prince who seeks out the outcast orphan by night, and asks to hear her tales, which nest inside one another to sometimes six levels deep.
* In Literature/TheCandlemassRoad, the novel is presented as the memoir of Frey Luis Guevara, an elderly priest who witnessed the events.
* Literature/WinnieThePooh has the frame of bedtime stories told to Christopher Robin. It's dropped for ''The House at Pooh Corner.''
* The ''Literature/ProvostsDog'' trilogy in the Literature/TortallUniverse is framed as a young George Cooper reading a cop ancestor's journal at his mother's insistence, to try and dissuade him from being a thief.
* ''Literature/TheLastWish'' is set up as six short stories framed by "The Voice of Reason", where a priestess treating injuries Geralt sustained in the first of the tales, "The Witcher", asks him to recount some of his adventures to her.
* In Creator/MikhailAkhmanov's ''Call of the Abyss'', people with psychic potential receive strange visions when located in a specific spot above Mars. It turns out that the visions are being sent from a ParallelWorld and appear to show events in the life of people in the past. The stories diverge from historical accounts after the Renaissance, suggesting that this is where this world's history split off from ours. However, the main story experienced by the characters is actually from way back in Ancient Egypt, the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Story_of_Wenamun story of a priest named Un-Amun]][[note]]It is now believed by historians that the story does not, in fact, portray RealLife events but is an early example of historical fiction[[/note]]. The sequel, ''First after God'', continues with the exploration of the signal, aided by the discovery of a psychic alien race, whose representative helps decipher the messages. The vision in this case is that of Captain Peter Shelton, a brave 17th century English sailor seeking to find the lost Incan treasure.
* The French sci-fi writer François Bordes with at least two of his novels (under the pen name Francis Carsac) using this trope: in ''Literature/TerreEnFuite'' (Fleeing Earth), the protagonist is reading the diary left to him by his late friend Paul Dupont, who explains that he is, in fact, a man named Haurk Akéran from the distant future, who gives a brief overview of the fall of humanity and the rebirth of civilization after several ice ages, as well as his own story and the part he plays in in the events that lead to [[spoiler:Earth and Venus being moved to another star system]]; in ''Les Robinsons du Cosmos'' (The Robinsons of the Cosmos), the FramingDevice is an old man telling the story of how he ended up on an alien planet to his grandchildren, as well as the formation of the human civilization there.
* ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'':
** ''Literature/TheForerunnerSaga'' books all have this: ''Literature/HaloCryptum'' is framed as an archived testimony of the [[{{Precursors}} Forerunner]] Bornstellar Makes Eternal Lasting. ''Literature/HaloPrimordium'' is presented as a recovered Forerunner AI recounting its past to an ONI science team. ''Literature/HaloSilentium'' is framed as a series of Forerunner logs being researched by ONI.
** ''Literature/HaloNewBlood'' opens with an "Archivist's Note" stating that the entire story is an in-universe report given by protagonist Edward Buck.
* ''Literature/TheButterflyGarden'' uses the form of a police interrogation; the FBI have rescued the kidnapped women and want Maya to explain what exactly happened at the Garden. The bulk of the story is her flashbacks to her past and time as an object in [[TheCollector the Gardener's collection]], waiting [[YourDaysAreNumbered until he kills her]]. Plot points are brought up by the interrogating agents and they need her to elaborate on details, in particular because they're trying to figure out her involvement. Unfortunately for them she's a BrokenBird who doesn't trust them and is trying to BeAsUnhelpfulAsPossible.

to:

* Some ''Franchise/DoctorWhoExpandedUniverse'' books use this:
** In
''Literature/WinnieThePooh'' has the first ''Decalog'', a psychometrist gets the frame of bedtime stories from the things in the Seventh Doctor's pockets (including a scene where the psychometrist "goes deeper" told to explain the first person stream-of-consciousness story).
** In ''Short Trips: Repercussions'', Charley finds herself on a strange airship full of people who were removed from history as a threat to the Web of Time, and learns their stories.
** In ''Short Trips: SevenDeadlySins'', the Eighth Doctor makes seven jaded and sinful people experience one of his past adventures that illustrates the sin they examplify.
** The ''Literature/DoctorWhoNewAdventures'' Literature/SherlockHolmes crossover ''All-Consuming Fire'' has a framing story of the Doctor and his companions reading
Christopher Robin. It's dropped for ''The Adventure of the All-Consuming Fire'' by [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis John Watson]].
* ''[[Literature/{{Temps}} EuroTemps]]'' by the Midnight Rose Collective has a framing device of powerful sorcerer and DPR offical Loric looking through reports and using magic to turn them into narratives.
* In each book of the ''Literature/CronusChronicles'', the story is separated into four parts, each with a clever title (ex. in ''The Shadow Thieves'', the parts are called ''We Start in the Middle, Now the Beginning, The End of the Beginning'', and ''The Beginning of the End'').
* ''Literature/TheOrphansTales'' is about tales told, well, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOntheTin by an orphan]]. Like an updated version of the ''Literature/ArabianNights,'' the four books are framed by the story of the prince who seeks out the outcast orphan by night, and asks to hear her tales, which nest inside one another to sometimes six levels deep.
House at Pooh Corner''.
* In Literature/TheCandlemassRoad, Creator/PGWodehouse often used this in his stories, particularly the novel is presented as the memoir of Frey Luis Guevara, an elderly priest who witnessed the events.
ones about golf, and Mr. Mulliner's tall tales.
* Literature/WinnieThePooh has the frame of bedtime stories told to Christopher Robin. It's dropped for ''The House at Pooh Corner.''
Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar'' by Creator/RoaldDahl has two layers of framing.
* The ''Literature/ProvostsDog'' trilogy in the Literature/TortallUniverse ''Literature/WorldWarZ'' is briefly framed as a young George Cooper reading a cop ancestor's journal at his mother's insistence, to try and dissuade him from initially being for a thief.
* ''Literature/TheLastWish'' is set up as six short stories framed by "The Voice of Reason", where a priestess treating injuries Geralt sustained in
report on the first of the tales, "The Witcher", asks him to recount some of his adventures to her.
* In Creator/MikhailAkhmanov's ''Call of the Abyss'', people with psychic potential receive strange visions
zombie war, but when located in a specific spot above Mars. It turns out that the visions are being sent from a ParallelWorld and appear to show events author handed it in the life of people in the past. The stories diverge from historical accounts after the Renaissance, suggesting that this is where this world's history split off from ours. However, the main story experienced by the characters is actually from way back in Ancient Egypt, the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Story_of_Wenamun story of a priest named Un-Amun]][[note]]It is now believed by historians that the story does not, in fact, portray RealLife events but is an early example of historical fiction[[/note]]. The sequel, ''First after God'', continues with the exploration of the signal, aided by the discovery of a psychic alien race, whose representative helps decipher the messages. The vision in this case is that of Captain Peter Shelton, a brave 17th century English sailor seeking to find the lost Incan treasure.
* The French sci-fi writer François Bordes with at least two of his novels (under the pen name Francis Carsac) using this trope: in ''Literature/TerreEnFuite'' (Fleeing Earth), the protagonist is reading the diary left to him by his late friend Paul Dupont, who explains that he is, in fact, a man named Haurk Akéran from the distant future, who gives a brief overview of the fall of humanity and the rebirth of civilization after several ice ages, as well as his own story and the part he plays in in the events that lead to [[spoiler:Earth and Venus being moved to another star system]]; in ''Les Robinsons du Cosmos'' (The Robinsons of the Cosmos), the FramingDevice is an old man telling the story of how he ended up on an alien planet
to his grandchildren, as well as the formation of the human civilization there.
* ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'':
** ''Literature/TheForerunnerSaga'' books all have this: ''Literature/HaloCryptum'' is framed as an archived testimony of the [[{{Precursors}} Forerunner]] Bornstellar Makes Eternal Lasting. ''Literature/HaloPrimordium'' is presented as a recovered Forerunner AI recounting its past to an ONI science team. ''Literature/HaloSilentium'' is framed as a series of Forerunner logs being researched by ONI.
** ''Literature/HaloNewBlood'' opens with an "Archivist's Note" stating that the entire story is an in-universe report given by protagonist Edward Buck.
* ''Literature/TheButterflyGarden'' uses the form of a police interrogation; the FBI have rescued the kidnapped women and want Maya to explain what exactly happened at the Garden. The bulk of the story is her flashbacks to her past and time as an object in [[TheCollector the Gardener's collection]], waiting [[YourDaysAreNumbered until he kills her]]. Plot points are brought up by the interrogating agents and
superiors, they need her to elaborate on details, in particular because they're trying to figure out her involvement. Unfortunately for them she's said it was too personal. So he made it into a BrokenBird who doesn't trust them and is trying to BeAsUnhelpfulAsPossible.book.


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[[folder:Mythology]]
* A good third of ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' is Odysseus telling the story of his return from Troy to the Phaeacians.
* OlderThanDirt: [[Myth/EgyptianMythology The Egyptian]] Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, from the 6th dynasty (c. 2300-2100 BCE) in the Old Kingdom, is framed by the sailor explaining his survival to an official, and the official telling him not to overstep his station by dispensing advice.
[[/folder]]
26th Mar '17 1:32:49 PM Dresdendoll622
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Added DiffLines:

* ''Literature/TheButterflyGarden'' uses the form of a police interrogation; the FBI have rescued the kidnapped women and want Maya to explain what exactly happened at the Garden. The bulk of the story is her flashbacks to her past and time as an object in [[TheCollector the Gardener's collection]], waiting [[YourDaysAreNumbered until he kills her]]. Plot points are brought up by the interrogating agents and they need her to elaborate on details, in particular because they're trying to figure out her involvement. Unfortunately for them she's a BrokenBird who doesn't trust them and is trying to BeAsUnhelpfulAsPossible.
21st Mar '17 3:14:37 PM WildeOscar
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Added DiffLines:

* The ''Series/{{CSI}}'' episode "Rashaomama" had, as you might guess from the title, a ''Film/{{Rashomon}}''-style retelling of the murder investigation done from the very different points of view of Nick, Sara, Grissom and Greg.
5th Mar '17 6:42:27 PM LadyNorbert
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* ''[[Fanfic/TwiceUponAnAge All This Sh*t is Twice as Weird]]'' is presented as being adapted from the official Chantry historical record concerning the Second Inquisition of Thedas. The author is a "Chantry scholar" turning the formal records into a story, assisted by her editor, [[WrittenByCastMember Varric Tethras]].

to:

* ''[[Fanfic/TwiceUponAnAge All This Sh*t is Twice as Weird]]'' is presented as being adapted from the official Chantry historical record concerning the Second Inquisition of Thedas. The author is a "Chantry scholar" turning the formal records into a story, assisted by her editor, [[WrittenByCastMember [[DirectLineToTheAuthor Varric Tethras]].
3rd Mar '17 7:16:27 PM LadyNorbert
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* ''FanFic/TheInfiniteLoops'' began when the multiverse computer system suffered a system crash and neccessitated the induction of [[GroundhogDayLoop time loops]] while the admins scrambled to repair things. The actual STORY is really a bunch of people screwing with their own canon in any way they see fit.

to:

* ''FanFic/TheInfiniteLoops'' began when the multiverse computer system suffered a system crash and neccessitated necessitated the induction of [[GroundhogDayLoop time loops]] while the admins scrambled to repair things. The actual STORY is really a bunch of people screwing with their own canon in any way they see fit.



* ''FanFic/RedactionOfTheGoldenWitch'' is presented as a critical analysis of an unpopular [[RecursiveCanon Forgery]] based off the events of ''VisualNovel/UminekoWhenTheyCry''. The author personally believes that the reason this particular Forgery breaks from established storytelling patterns is because it's actually a confession related to ''another'' incident that occured on the island in 1996.

to:

* ''FanFic/RedactionOfTheGoldenWitch'' is presented as a critical analysis of an unpopular [[RecursiveCanon Forgery]] based off the events of ''VisualNovel/UminekoWhenTheyCry''. The author personally believes that the reason this particular Forgery breaks from established storytelling patterns is because it's actually a confession related to ''another'' incident that occured occurred on the island in 1996.



* ''FanFic/DoctorWhoovesTheSeries'' ChristmasEpisode ''A Hearth's Warming Tale'' is framed as Luna telling the story to three little fillies, with [[LeaningOnFourthWall comments]] and discussion from the kids.

to:

* ''FanFic/DoctorWhoovesTheSeries'' ChristmasEpisode ''A Hearth's Warming Tale'' is framed as Luna telling the story to three little fillies, with [[LeaningOnFourthWall [[LeaningOnTheFourthWall comments]] and discussion from the kids.kids.
* ''[[Fanfic/TwiceUponAnAge All This Sh*t is Twice as Weird]]'' is presented as being adapted from the official Chantry historical record concerning the Second Inquisition of Thedas. The author is a "Chantry scholar" turning the formal records into a story, assisted by her editor, [[WrittenByCastMember Varric Tethras]].
25th Feb '17 7:39:27 PM pvilla
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Added DiffLines:

* ''Film/TheFall'': The story told by Roy as it's imagined by Alexandria.


Added DiffLines:

* ''Film/NocturnalAnimals'': The bulk of the film's plot is a fictional tale written by Edward.
17th Feb '17 3:49:33 AM rjd1922
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* The [[CanonDiscontinuity old Satellaview sequel]] of ''VideoGame/ChronoTrigger'' : ''VisualNovel/RadicalDreamers'' starts with Serge's grandson opening the diary of his grandfather, the story ends in a similar way.

to:

* The [[CanonDiscontinuity old Satellaview sequel]] of ''VideoGame/ChronoTrigger'' : ''VideoGame/ChronoTrigger'': ''VisualNovel/RadicalDreamers'' starts with Serge's grandson opening the diary of his grandfather, the story ends in a similar way.



* The epilogue voiceover for VideoGame/MetalGearSolid4GunsOfThePatriots strongly suggests that the Franchise/MetalGear series was created by Otacon to tell Snake's story. [[IShouldWriteABookAboutThis Otacon could be thinking of writing a book]], but video games are the perfect medium for an {{Otaku}} and GadgeteerGenius. Also, Hideo Kojima looks a bit like Otacon if you squint.

to:

* The epilogue voiceover for VideoGame/MetalGearSolid4GunsOfThePatriots ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid4GunsOfThePatriots'' strongly suggests that the Franchise/MetalGear series was created by Otacon to tell Snake's story. [[IShouldWriteABookAboutThis Otacon could be thinking of writing a book]], but video games are the perfect medium for an {{Otaku}} and GadgeteerGenius. Also, Hideo Kojima looks a bit like Otacon if you squint.



* Many ''ProfessorLayton'' games are told as Luke writing a letter to the player.

to:

* Many ''ProfessorLayton'' ''Franchise/ProfessorLayton'' games are told as Luke writing a letter to the player.



* VideoGame/Persona4DancingAllNight has an unseen person (Implied to be the player) who visits the Velvet Room in a dream, where Margaret tells you the game's story.

to:

* VideoGame/Persona4DancingAllNight ''VideoGame/Persona4DancingAllNight'' has an unseen person (Implied to be the player) who visits the Velvet Room in a dream, where Margaret tells you the game's story.



* ''VideoGame/{{Maplestory}}'' has ''three'' of these in the Grand Athenaeum, in which the player takes the place of the character who witnessed these events in the story. The stories are [[spoiler: How the Black Mage came to be]], how Cygnus became Empress, and the story of the Black Witch, a character who nearly laid waste to Ereve.

to:

* ''VideoGame/{{Maplestory}}'' ''VideoGame/MapleStory'' has ''three'' of these in the Grand Athenaeum, in which the player takes the place of the character who witnessed these events in the story. The stories are [[spoiler: How the Black Mage came to be]], how Cygnus became Empress, and the story of the Black Witch, a character who nearly laid waste to Ereve.
4th Feb '17 9:24:28 PM WilliamRadarStorm
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Added DiffLines:

* Every episode of Series/TheStoryteller is set up with the titular storyteller narrating an old folk tale or Greek myth to the audience, while [[TalkingAnimal his dog]] chimes in every once in a while to comment on the story.
This list shows the last 10 events of 217. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=Main.FramingDevice