History Main / ClosedCaptioning

30th Dec '15 5:19:53 PM lizaphile
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* {{Twitter}} hashtags, which in on-screen graphics are rendered with the "#" (pound) symbol, are rendered fully as letters in captioning (for instance, "hashtag TV Tropes") since the pound symbol is in use for some delineation and those with hearing issues might not understand as to what a hashtag is since it the word can't be sounded out for them.

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* {{Twitter}} hashtags, which in on-screen graphics are rendered with the "#" (pound) symbol, are rendered fully as letters in captioning (for instance, "hashtag TV Tropes") since the pound symbol is in use for some delineation between characters and those with hearing issues might not understand as to what a hashtag is by the symbol alone since it the word can't be sounded out for them.



A bit of trivia and a good tip: the use of closed captions (and subtitles) isn't limited to people with hearing problems, it is actually quite helpful to parents trying to watch television or a movie with noisy children in the room[[note]]A lot of new parents still live in apartments, after all, and some of them are {{Troper}}s like you.[[/note]]. An often-cited anecdote cites that the Ukrainian-born Creator/MilaKunis may not have become acclimated to the United States and English without her daily viewings of ''Series/ThePriceIsRight'' as a child.

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A bit of trivia and a good tip: the use of closed captions (and subtitles) isn't limited to people with hearing problems, it is actually quite helpful to parents trying to watch television or a movie with noisy children in the room[[note]]A lot of new parents still live in apartments, after all, and some of them are {{Troper}}s like you.[[/note]]. An often-cited anecdote cites that the Ukrainian-born Creator/MilaKunis may not have become acclimated to the United States and English without her daily viewings of ''Series/ThePriceIsRight'' with captions on as a child.
1st Aug '15 11:09:20 PM phoenix
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The American caption system also had a Ceefax-like "text channel" built into the standard which was used to deliver news, sports scores and program schedules. Only Creator/{{ABC}} and {{TBS}} really embraced it, however, and now the text channel remains solely as a never-used [[TheArtifact Artifact]].

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The American caption system also had a Ceefax-like "text channel" built into the standard which was used to deliver news, sports scores and program schedules. Only Creator/{{ABC}} and {{TBS}} Creator/{{TBS}} really embraced it, however, and now the text channel remains solely as a never-used [[TheArtifact Artifact]].
2nd Jul '15 1:43:35 AM lizaphile
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Closed captions, also known as subtitles, were introduced in the 1970s by Creator/TheBBC for the benefit of hearing-impaired TV viewers. In the United States, deaf viewers were served until 1980 by onscreen sign interpreters, at least on South Dakota's Creator/{{CBS}} affiliate, KELO-TV, and its satellite stations. ''[[http://www.mainstreetliving.com/ Main Street Living]]'' still uses sign language interpreters, along with "Mass for Shut-Ins" programs, which retain that form both for familiarity for older viewers (who may find captions distracting or hard to get on newer televisions) and for cost concerns as it is less expensive for a church organization to hire an interpreter to sign a service than hire a transcriber to caption it. The BBC continues to air some repeats with an onscreen sign-language interpreter in the early hours, presumably as a teaching aid for people wishing to learn British Sign Language, and also a magazine show aimed specifically at deaf people called ''SeeHear''. ''See Hear'' is noteworthy for having subtitles for the benefit of viewers ''without'' hearing impairment.

Closed captions are so called because they can be displayed or hidden as the viewer wishes. Captioners try to place captions so as not to cover an important part of the picture, such as the name of an interviewee on a news program, but that isn't always possible. Open captions also exist, but are seldom used. They can be created with a character generator or inserted right into the program itself rather than embedded in the video signal.

The reason for this is simple. Before the FCC mandated that virtually all television sets have closed captioning included, the only way to receive captioning was an expensive (about the same cost as a television set) closed captioning set-top box. So to accommodate deaf people who might not be able to afford a captioning box, a number of programs were open captioned. Once closed captioning could be received by almost every TV set in the United States, open captioning was no longer necessary as almost any TV set now has a closed captioning decoder built-in. About the only place where open captioning is still used is when someone's speech is considered very poor or hard to understand, so their words will be open captioned.

to:

Closed captions, also known as subtitles, were introduced in the 1970s by Creator/TheBBC for the benefit of hearing-impaired TV viewers. In the United States, deaf viewers were served until 1980 by onscreen sign interpreters, at least on South Dakota's Creator/{{CBS}} affiliate, KELO-TV, and its satellite stations. ''[[http://www.mainstreetliving.com/ Main Street Living]]'' still uses sign language interpreters, along with "Mass for Shut-Ins" programs, which retain that form both for familiarity for older viewers (who may find captions distracting or hard to get on newer televisions) and for cost concerns as it is less expensive for a church organization to hire an interpreter to sign a service than hire a transcriber to caption it. The BBC continues to air some repeats with an onscreen sign-language interpreter in the early hours, presumably as a teaching aid for people wishing to learn British Sign Language, and also a magazine show aimed specifically at deaf people called ''SeeHear''. ''See Hear'' is noteworthy for having subtitles for the benefit of viewers ''without'' hearing impairment.

impairment. Interpreters are usually known most to American audiences as appearing to the side of public officials in news conferences signing what is being said by the speaker at the microphone.

Closed captions are so called because they can be displayed or hidden as the viewer wishes. Captioners try to place captions so as not to cover an important part of the picture, such as the name of an interviewee on a news program, but that isn't always possible. Open captions also exist, but are seldom used.used (these aren't to be confused with subtitles used for foreign language media or hard-to-understand reality programming with bad mic work or TheUnintelligible). They can be created with a character generator or inserted right into the program itself rather than embedded in the video signal.

The reason for this is simple. Before the FCC mandated that virtually all television sets have closed captioning included, the only way to receive captioning was an expensive (about the same cost as a television set) closed captioning set-top box. So to accommodate deaf people who might not be able to afford a captioning box, a number of programs were open captioned. Once closed captioning could be received by almost every TV set in the United States, open captioning was no longer necessary as almost any TV set now has a closed captioning decoder built-in. About Open captioning's use has seriously faded to the point only "real-time closed captioning provided by this sponsor" announcements to demonstrate closed captioning technology are the only place where open captioning the form is still used is when someone's speech is considered very poor or hard seen at all to understand, so their words will be open captioned.
most viewers.



Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Creator/Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but {{Creator/Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often are not, and the menus to open the captions up are often buried.

to:

Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Creator/Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but and after a number of years where {{Creator/Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often buried caption options, they now mostly are not, easy to make appear, though a few online players still bury the options deeply and customizing the menus text to open the captions up are often buried.
a viewer's liking is a non-universal process.
15th Mar '15 1:58:01 AM lizaphile
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Captions tend to be in all uppercase because early decoders couldn't display lowercase letters with true descenders (i.e., the tails of lower-case letters like ''g, j, p, q'' and ''y'' which go below the letters). Before TV sets had built-in decoding circuitry, a viewer needing the capability could buy an (expensive) external decoder, similar to the (not too expensive) external decoder used to allow an analog TV to receive digital over-the-air broadcasts. All TV sets made in the United States over 13 inches diagonally since July 1993 have had the decoders built in (though digital portable sets under 13 inches also include caption chips).

Television programs are virtually 100% captioned because the FCC has put a requirement on virtually all television program producers to do so. Basically the only exceptions are producers with revenues of less than U.S.$3 million a year or who make programs in languages not using the Latin alphabet, but even then when you're trying to get your program viewed by as many as possible, captioning is a must, making local cable access channels the ''de facto'' only organizations to not use them. Grammar and spelling errors aren't exactly rampant in closed captioning, but because closed captioning is required and is not usually a part of the production teams vision for a work they are usually done as cheaply and quickly as possible, leading to errors and issues.

to:

Captions tend to be in all uppercase because early decoders couldn't display lowercase letters with true descenders (i.e., the tails of lower-case letters like ''g, j, p, q'' and ''y'' which go below the letters). Before TV sets had built-in decoding circuitry, a viewer needing the capability could buy an (expensive) external decoder, similar to the (not too expensive) external decoder used to allow an analog TV to receive digital over-the-air broadcasts. All TV sets made in the United States over 13 inches diagonally since July 1993 have had the decoders built in; eventually it became standard in (though digital portable nearly all sets under 13 inches also include 13" as the caption chips).

chip became built into a television's operating system, and is now a feature expected in any set.

Television programs are virtually 100% captioned because the FCC has put a requirement on virtually all television program producers to do so. Basically the only exceptions are producers with revenues of less than U.S.$3 million a year or who make programs in languages not using the Latin alphabet, but even then when you're trying to get your program viewed by as many as possible, captioning is a must, making local cable access channels the ''de facto'' only organizations to not use them.them, along with 'international' feeds of channels originating outside the US airing on cable and satellite providers. Grammar and spelling errors aren't exactly rampant in closed captioning, but because closed captioning is required and is not usually a part of the production teams vision for a work they are usually done as cheaply and quickly as possible, leading to errors and issues.
5th Mar '15 11:01:39 AM lizaphile
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to:

* {{Twitter}} hashtags, which in on-screen graphics are rendered with the "#" (pound) symbol, are rendered fully as letters in captioning (for instance, "hashtag TV Tropes") since the pound symbol is in use for some delineation and those with hearing issues might not understand as to what a hashtag is since it the word can't be sounded out for them.
12th Jan '15 12:09:34 PM LeeM
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Unlike U.S. closed captioning, the analogue teletext signal in Britain can ''not'' be recorded on home video unless a (usually pricey) {{Teletext}}-capable VCR is used.

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Unlike U.S. closed captioning, the analogue teletext signal in Britain can could ''not'' be recorded on home video unless a (usually pricey) {{Teletext}}-capable VCR was used. All analogue TV ceased in Britain by the end of 2012. Digital text uses the same subtitling conventions, and can be recorded. What you ''can't'' do is used.
watch a programme with subtitles and record it without, unless you're recording it from a different source.
4th Jan '15 8:00:15 PM nombretomado
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Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Creator/Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but {{Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often are not, and the menus to open the captions up are often buried.

to:

Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Creator/Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but {{Netflix}} {{Creator/Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often are not, and the menus to open the captions up are often buried.
30th Dec '14 8:22:20 PM nombretomado
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Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but {{Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often are not, and the menus to open the captions up are often buried.

to:

Captioning was previously less regulated when it comes to Internet programming sources. However, the United States' new 21st Century Communications Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (which took effect in 2012) requires all online video content sourced directly from a television broadcast to be captioned. {{Hulu}} {{Creator/Hulu}} and iTunes usually have most of their programs captioned, but {{Netflix}} and the video players of many television networks often are not, and the menus to open the captions up are often buried.
19th Dec '14 10:25:27 PM PolarManne
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Transcribers of closed captioning go through the same process of career training as court reporters and type on the same kind of machine modified for television use, called a stenotype machine. This is because court reporters are by training meant to transcribe words as fast as possible without any pause, which is very important for live television broadcasts as a typist trained on a traditional QWERTY keyboard layout is limited by the intentional hamstrings of QWERTY (which was designed in the 1870s to '''slow down''' typists from jamming typewriter keys and has been retained to the current day to much consternation; only the most elite of QWERTY typists can keep up with court reporters). As both the law and people with hearing disabilities will always exist, court reporters are usually guaranteed a good job with great perks (such as the ability to usually be the first in the nation to watch a completed TV episode), though they have heavy financial and job security penalties intentionally written into their contracts to prevent any form of {{spoiler}} leakage. Almost all pre-recorded programming except for long-cancelled archived programming is captioned on-site at the studio or a captioning organization's offices due to the risks of an episode being leaked, while live events such as news and sports can be captioned at home by telecommuting transcribers who watch the program live and caption on the fly.

to:

Transcribers of closed captioning go through the same process of career training as court reporters and type on the same kind of machine modified for television use, use called a stenotype machine. stenotype, a special keyboard designed for typing as fast as possible using key combinations. This is because court reporters are by training meant to transcribe words as fast as possible without any pause, which is very important for live television broadcasts as a typist trained on a traditional QWERTY keyboard layout is limited by the intentional hamstrings of QWERTY (which was designed in the 1870s to '''slow down''' typists from jamming typewriter keys and has been retained to the current day to much consternation; only the most elite of QWERTY typists can keep up with court reporters).broadcasts. As both the law and people with hearing disabilities will always exist, court reporters are usually guaranteed a good job with great perks (such as the ability to usually be the first in the nation to watch a completed TV episode), though they have heavy financial and job security penalties intentionally written into their contracts to prevent any form of {{spoiler}} leakage. Almost all pre-recorded programming except for long-cancelled archived programming is captioned on-site at the studio or a captioning organization's offices due to the risks of an episode being leaked, while live events such as news and sports can be captioned at home by telecommuting transcribers who watch the program live and caption on the fly.
2nd Dec '14 11:47:42 AM nombretomado
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* The American closed caption signal can be recorded off-air onto videocassettes. Likewise, closed captioning can be included on pre-recorded tapes, or on [=DVDs=] as an alternative to regular DVD subtitling. HDMI, however, doesn't pass through captions, so in that case captions have to be set up via the viewer's form of set-top box to be viewable, while BluRay discs must be viewed with studio subtitles rather than captions.

to:

* The American closed caption signal can be recorded off-air onto videocassettes. Likewise, closed captioning can be included on pre-recorded tapes, or on [=DVDs=] as an alternative to regular DVD subtitling. HDMI, however, doesn't pass through captions, so in that case captions have to be set up via the viewer's form of set-top box to be viewable, while BluRay UsefulNotes/BluRay discs must be viewed with studio subtitles rather than captions.
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