History Main / ClassicalMusic

16th Sep '17 3:44:33 PM nombretomado
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* The '''[[TheRenaissance Renaissance]]''' (1400s--1600s) -- Characterized by densely polyphonic vocal music (and we do mean ''dense'', like this [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3FJxDsa-5k 40-part motet by Thomas Tallis]]) in styles that we might find hard to relate to today, although most find it more approachable than the medieval stuff. Though a lot of the music was composed for churches, secular forms such as the madrigal and the chanson (much of it composed for wealthy patrons) were also widespread, to the point where the differences between secular and religious music became blurred, much to the consternation of clergymen. Major figures include [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UV8Php5wwcI Guillaume Dufay]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUAgAF4Khmg Josquin des Prez]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FR4YSBDqRyg Nicolas Gombert]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6SJlEQi2t40 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Syb39Ky64Yg Giaches De Wert]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_F1OuMeVSw Carlo Gesualdo]], among many, many others. This period is also the first to have an appreciable amount of surviving instrumental music, much of it quite complex, for both [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1RVRatBA94 solo]] and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5iAoNkZ_4nc ensemble]].

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* The '''[[TheRenaissance '''[[UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance Renaissance]]''' (1400s--1600s) -- Characterized by densely polyphonic vocal music (and we do mean ''dense'', like this [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3FJxDsa-5k 40-part motet by Thomas Tallis]]) in styles that we might find hard to relate to today, although most find it more approachable than the medieval stuff. Though a lot of the music was composed for churches, secular forms such as the madrigal and the chanson (much of it composed for wealthy patrons) were also widespread, to the point where the differences between secular and religious music became blurred, much to the consternation of clergymen. Major figures include [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UV8Php5wwcI Guillaume Dufay]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUAgAF4Khmg Josquin des Prez]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FR4YSBDqRyg Nicolas Gombert]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6SJlEQi2t40 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Syb39Ky64Yg Giaches De Wert]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_F1OuMeVSw Carlo Gesualdo]], among many, many others. This period is also the first to have an appreciable amount of surviving instrumental music, much of it quite complex, for both [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1RVRatBA94 solo]] and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5iAoNkZ_4nc ensemble]].
14th Jul '17 5:33:00 PM Eksekk
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The dates which characterise 'classical music' are arguable; while some maintain that it began when norms about concepts such as rhythm and tonality began to be established -- around 1600 --, others extend it much farther back to include medieval art music. Some modern composers also believe that there is no longer any value in considering contemporary art music 'classical'.

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The dates which characterise 'classical music' are arguable; while some maintain that it began when norms about concepts such as rhythm and tonality began to be established -- around 1600 --, 1600, others extend it much farther back to include medieval art music. Some modern composers also believe that there is no longer any value in considering contemporary art music 'classical'.
28th Jun '17 9:47:05 AM Jeduthun
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* '''Medieval''' -- Voices only, or speculative instrumentation added by modern performers that is based on either written accounts or nebulous evidence like illustrations and song texts. Known instruments include pan flutes, recorders, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawm shawms]], bagpipes, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemshorn gemshorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vielle vielles]], lutes, lyres, organ, trumpets, and a variety of simple percussion like drums and tamborines.

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* '''Medieval''' -- Voices only, or speculative instrumentation added by modern performers that is based on either written accounts or nebulous evidence like illustrations and song texts. Known instruments include pan flutes, recorders, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawm shawms]], bagpipes, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemshorn gemshorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vielle vielles]], lutes, lyres, organ, trumpets, and a variety of simple percussion like drums and tamborines. (In other words, there was in fact a lot of instrumental music being created; it's just that very little of it survives in written form.)
28th Jun '17 9:35:23 AM Jeduthun
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Added DiffLines:

* HarpoDoesSomethingFunny: The cadenza, at the high point of most concertos, is often indicated with a simple pause in the score with the expectation that the performer would make up a suitably impressive solo.
16th May '17 9:36:05 AM Jeduthun
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* '''Renaissance''' -- While many medieval instruments like the lute, shawm, and recorder were still used, the Renaissance added many new ones, including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viol viols]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crumhorn crumhorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulcian dulcians]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornett cornetts]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_%28instrument%29 serpents]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sackbut sackbuts]][[note]]Yes, it's pronounced the way you think it is; commence giggling[[/note]], and harpsichord. While composers during this time would generally write down at least a basic outline for their instrumental parts if they wanted any (leaving the rest to the musicians' discretion), they usually never wrote down any specific orchestrations, even for nonvocal pieces.

to:

* '''Renaissance''' -- While many medieval instruments like the lute, shawm, and recorder were still used, the Renaissance added many new ones, including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viol viols]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crumhorn crumhorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulcian dulcians]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornett cornetts]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_%28instrument%29 serpents]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sackbut sackbuts]][[note]]Yes, it's pronounced the way you think it is; [[HehHehYouSaidX commence giggling[[/note]], giggling]][[/note]], and harpsichord. While composers during this time would generally write down at least a basic outline for their instrumental parts if they wanted any (leaving the rest to the musicians' discretion), they usually never wrote down any specific orchestrations, even for nonvocal pieces.



* The '''[[TheMiddleAges Middle Ages]]''' -- c. 900 AD up until the end of the 14th century. Most of what has survived is monophonic vocal music, and much of that religious, the most notable style being [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0Rv5F88WYA Gregorian chant]] . But the most important compositions are the ''polyphonic'' vocal music (where multiple melodic lines are sung at once), which start showing up in writing from about 1000 AD onward; [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhqWgfGK1Xw Pérotin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdol8PviWKw W. de Wycombe]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Qatw5B3vc4 Philippe de Vitry]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsWZfPCK6aY Guillaume de Machaut]] are a few of the big names in this style. We also have several surviving examples of [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMCA9nYnLWo secular]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYIFlAa5Bow songs]] from the latter part of the period, a good amount of it also polyphonic. By modern standards, it can be pretty weird: the common-practice tonality shows up long ''after'' the Medieval period.

to:

* The '''[[TheMiddleAges Middle Ages]]''' -- c. AD 900 AD up until the end of the 14th century. Most of what has survived is monophonic vocal music, and much of that religious, the most notable style being [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0Rv5F88WYA Gregorian chant]] . But the most important compositions are the ''polyphonic'' vocal music (where multiple melodic lines are sung at once), which start showing up in writing from about AD 1000 AD onward; [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhqWgfGK1Xw Pérotin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdol8PviWKw W. de Wycombe]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Qatw5B3vc4 Philippe de Vitry]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsWZfPCK6aY Guillaume de Machaut]] are a few of the big names in this style. We also have several surviving examples of [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMCA9nYnLWo secular]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYIFlAa5Bow songs]] from the latter part of the period, a good amount of it also polyphonic. By modern standards, it can be pretty weird: the common-practice tonality shows up long ''after'' the Medieval period.



* The '''Romantic Era''' (or '''Romantic Period''')[[note]]"Romantic" in the original sense of "fiery and passionate" (literally, "in the manner of the Romans"), not the Victorian sense of "soppy and sentimental"[[/note]] (c. 1810 to c. 1910) -- Composers started pushing the limits of their styles and instruments. Sounds became lusher, textures denser, harmonies became more chromatic, orchestras bigger, and music more dramatic than ever before. The sustaining pedal on the piano (the one that holds notes down without having to keep your fingers on the keys) became popular. Famous composers included Music/FryderykChopin (Fantaisie-Impromptu, "Revolutionary" Étude), Music/FranzLiszt (''Dante Sonata''), Music/JohannesBrahms ("Brahms's Lullaby", ''Ein Deutsches Requiem''), Music/RichardWagner ("Music/RideOfTheValkyries" is from one of his operas. His style set the standards for epic film music through today), Music/PyotrIlyichTchaikovsky (''Theatre/TheNutcracker'' {{ballet}}) amongst others. (Beethoven is often considered to be a Romantic composer; for instance, the Fifth Symphony.) Programme music (telling a story or depicting scenes, as opposed to abstract music) and music reminiscent of particular folk styles became popular. Some people consider Beethoven to be the first Romantic Era composer as he started or inspired many of the trends to come in this period. It's also important to note that the Romantic style never really ''goes away''. Music/SergeiRachmaninoff] and Music/EdwardElgar were essentially romantics, yet wrote most of their music in the 20th century. Creator/AndrewLloydWebber and Creator/JohnWilliams are romantic to their very bones, although they aren't always considered true 'classical Composers' due to their focus on musicals and film music, as well as simpler styles. This is not pretension, like some would say, just a fact of cataloguing.

to:

* The '''Romantic Era''' '''[[{{Romanticism}} Romantic Era]]''' (or '''Romantic Period''')[[note]]"Romantic" in the original sense of "fiery and passionate" (literally, "in the manner of the Romans"), not the Victorian sense of "soppy and sentimental"[[/note]] (c. 1810 to c. 1910) -- Composers started pushing the limits of their styles and instruments. Sounds became lusher, textures denser, harmonies became more chromatic, orchestras bigger, and music more dramatic than ever before. The sustaining pedal on the piano (the one that holds notes down without having to keep your fingers on the keys) became popular. Famous composers included Music/FryderykChopin (Fantaisie-Impromptu, "Revolutionary" Étude), Music/FranzLiszt (''Dante Sonata''), Music/JohannesBrahms ("Brahms's Lullaby", ''Ein Deutsches Requiem''), Music/RichardWagner ("Music/RideOfTheValkyries" is from one of his operas. His style set the standards for epic film music through today), Music/PyotrIlyichTchaikovsky (''Theatre/TheNutcracker'' {{ballet}}) amongst others. (Beethoven is often considered to be a Romantic composer; for instance, the Fifth Symphony.) Programme music (telling a story or depicting scenes, as opposed to abstract music) and music reminiscent of particular folk styles became popular. Some people consider Beethoven to be the first Romantic Era composer as he started or inspired many of the trends to come in this period. It's also important to note that the Romantic style never really ''goes away''. Music/SergeiRachmaninoff] and Music/EdwardElgar were essentially romantics, yet wrote most of their music in the 20th century. Creator/AndrewLloydWebber and Creator/JohnWilliams are romantic to their very bones, although they aren't always considered true 'classical Composers' due to their focus on musicals and film music, as well as simpler styles. This is not pretension, like some would say, just a fact of cataloguing.



* ClassicalMusicIsBoring: '''''[[AvertedTrope Not!]]'''''
* CommonTime

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* ClassicalMusicIsBoring: '''''[[AvertedTrope '''''[[FandomBerserkButton Not!]]'''''
* CommonTimeCommonTime: Codified in the Baroque era; Classical and Romantic composers used almost nothing else.



* PublicDomainSoundtrack: Since a lot of it is well over 100 years old, any copyright on those pieces expired long ago. [[note]]Note that this doesn't necessarily hold true for specific ''recordings'' of the pieces, which are likely more recent, or of newer published editions.[[/note]]

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* PublicDomainSoundtrack: Since a lot of it is well over 100 years old, any copyright on those pieces expired long ago. [[note]]Note that this doesn't necessarily hold true for specific ''recordings'' of the pieces, which are likely more recent, or of newer published editions.editions since the publisher holds the rights to their typesetting and any editorial markings.[[/note]]



* UncommonTime

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* UncommonTimeUncommonTime: Came in vogue in the late romantic era to the present day, but also crops up in medieval and renaissance music, much of which was composed before regular time signatures were codified.
19th Feb '17 12:59:22 PM mlsmithca
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* '''Renaissance''' -- While many medieval instruments like the lute, shawm, and recorder were still used, the Renaissance added many new ones, including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viol viols]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crumhorn crumhorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulcian dulcians]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornett cornetts]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_%28instrument%29 serpents]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sackbut sackbuts]][[note]]Yes, it's pronounced the way you think it does; commence giggling[[/note]], and harpsichord. While composers during this time would generally write down at least a basic outline for their instrumental parts if they wanted any (leaving the rest to the musicians' discretion), they usually never wrote down any specific orchestrations, even for nonvocal pieces.

to:

* '''Renaissance''' -- While many medieval instruments like the lute, shawm, and recorder were still used, the Renaissance added many new ones, including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viol viols]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crumhorn crumhorns]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulcian dulcians]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornett cornetts]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_%28instrument%29 serpents]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sackbut sackbuts]][[note]]Yes, it's pronounced the way you think it does; is; commence giggling[[/note]], and harpsichord. While composers during this time would generally write down at least a basic outline for their instrumental parts if they wanted any (leaving the rest to the musicians' discretion), they usually never wrote down any specific orchestrations, even for nonvocal pieces.



* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' by the aforementioned Bach, the ''[[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1k Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.

to:

* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor by the aforementioned Bach, Bach,[[note]] Or possibly not; many musicologists believe that he didn't compose the ''[[PachelbelsCanon piece at all, or at most arranged it from the work of another composer.[[/note]] the [[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' D]] by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1k Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.



* The '''Romantic Era''' (or '''Romantic Period''')[[note]]"Romantic" in the original sense of "fiery and passionate" (literally, "in the manner of the Romans"), not the Victorian sense of "soppy and sentimental"[[/note]] (c. 1810 to c. 1910) -- Composers started pushing the limits of their styles and instruments. Sounds became lusher, textures denser, harmonies became more chromatic, orchestras bigger, and music more dramatic than ever before. The sustaining pedal on the piano (the one that holds notes down without having to keep your fingers on the keys) became popular. Famous composers included Music/FryderykChopin (''Fantaisie-Impromptu'', ''Revolutionary Étude''), Music/FranzLiszt (''Dante Sonata''), Music/JohannesBrahms ("Brahms's Lullaby", ''Ein Deutsches Requiem''), Music/RichardWagner ("Music/RideOfTheValkyries" is from one of his operas. His style set the standards for epic film music through today), Music/PyotrIlyichTchaikovsky (''Theatre/TheNutcracker'' {{ballet}}) amongst others. (Beethoven is often considered to be a Romantic composer; for instance, the Fifth Symphony.) Programme music (telling a story or depicting scenes, as opposed to abstract music) and music reminiscent of particular folk styles became popular. Some people consider Beethoven to be the first Romantic Era composer as he started or inspired many of the trends to come in this period. It's also important to note that the Romantic style never really ''goes away''. [[Music/SergeiRachmaninoff Sergei Rachmaninoff]] and [[Music/EdwardElgar Edward Elgar]] were essentially romantics, yet wrote most of their music in the 20th century. Creator/AndrewLloydWebber and JohnWilliams are romantic to their very bones, although they aren't always considered true 'classical Composers' due to their focus on Musicals, and Film Music, as well as simpler styles. This is not pretension, like some would say, just a fact of cataloguing.

* The '''Early Twentieth Century''' (ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin) -- Composers pushed the limits of musical understanding and style even more, resulting in things like atonality (music with no key at all) and neoclassicism (imitating, though with obvious differences in rhythm and tonality, earlier styles). Music/ClaudeDebussy and Music/MauriceRavel, the most famous impressionist composers, began to discard the common practice tonality of earlier periods. Serialism (a method of composition based on the continuous transformations of a series of musical elements) began to be used heavily, starting with the twelve tone system of Arnold Schoenberg and his Second Viennese School. Trends were all over the place; some composers became very interested in FolkMusic and Ethnic Music (such as Music/BelaBartok), others channelled the social and political turmoil into their works (Sergei Prokofiev, Music/DmitriShostakovich, and Music/IgorStravinsky), while some combined Classical with popular styles (Music/GeorgeGershwin, whose origins were with {{jazz}}, had heavily classical elements in his work). That last category would eventually give rise to the show tunes of Broadway. Picking a representative example our of all this variety is impossible; the defining characteristic of early 20th century classical music is the absence of defining characteristics. But try out the ballets of Stravinsky (Theatre/TheFirebird, Theatre/TheRiteOfSpring, Petrushka) for just one of several styles.

* The '''Later Twentieth Century''' to the '''Present''' -- during which all the tendencies of the earlier part of the twentieth century were pushed even further. During the 1960s, the mainstream classical music world was heavily influenced by the Darmstadt School, whose members, such as Karlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Boulez, pushed the serialism of Arnold Schoenberg and his pupil Anton Webern to its extreme. Edgard Varese, a major influence on Music/FrankZappa, began to experiment with electronic music while other composers began to use scales different from the traditional twelve tone equal temperament scale. Iannis Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical modelling in music. Meanwhile, minimalist composers such as Steve Reich and Philip Glass experimented with music that used very few basic elements, often repeated with variations. In the 1970s and 1980s, composers such as Alfred Schnittke and Luciano Berio began to write polystylistic pieces that drew on many prior musical traditions in a {{postmodern}} way. The boundaries between popular and classical music began to blur; for example, John Cale, violist of [[Music/VelvetUnderground the Velvet Underground]],[[note]]The only reason that Cale had gone to New York (and thus meet Music/LouReed) in the first place was to study classical viola[[/note]] was associated with the minimalist La Monte Young, and Music/TheBeatles were influenced by Stockhausen. It should be noted that classically trained musicians playing in other styles does not automatically make what they're playing 'classical'. Lately, the classical music world has seen a resurgence in the popularity of music combining a romantic feel with modern techniques, written by such composers as John Corigliano, and Einojuhani Rautavaara. Other notable composers include Music/JohnCage, Morton Feldman, Giacinto Scelsi and TwoStepsFromHell. As in the early twentieth century, there isn't any truly representative music, but the Sinfonia of Luciano Berio might be a good place to start.

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* The '''Romantic Era''' (or '''Romantic Period''')[[note]]"Romantic" in the original sense of "fiery and passionate" (literally, "in the manner of the Romans"), not the Victorian sense of "soppy and sentimental"[[/note]] (c. 1810 to c. 1910) -- Composers started pushing the limits of their styles and instruments. Sounds became lusher, textures denser, harmonies became more chromatic, orchestras bigger, and music more dramatic than ever before. The sustaining pedal on the piano (the one that holds notes down without having to keep your fingers on the keys) became popular. Famous composers included Music/FryderykChopin (''Fantaisie-Impromptu'', ''Revolutionary Étude''), (Fantaisie-Impromptu, "Revolutionary" Étude), Music/FranzLiszt (''Dante Sonata''), Music/JohannesBrahms ("Brahms's Lullaby", ''Ein Deutsches Requiem''), Music/RichardWagner ("Music/RideOfTheValkyries" is from one of his operas. His style set the standards for epic film music through today), Music/PyotrIlyichTchaikovsky (''Theatre/TheNutcracker'' {{ballet}}) amongst others. (Beethoven is often considered to be a Romantic composer; for instance, the Fifth Symphony.) Programme music (telling a story or depicting scenes, as opposed to abstract music) and music reminiscent of particular folk styles became popular. Some people consider Beethoven to be the first Romantic Era composer as he started or inspired many of the trends to come in this period. It's also important to note that the Romantic style never really ''goes away''. [[Music/SergeiRachmaninoff Sergei Rachmaninoff]] Music/SergeiRachmaninoff] and [[Music/EdwardElgar Edward Elgar]] Music/EdwardElgar were essentially romantics, yet wrote most of their music in the 20th century. Creator/AndrewLloydWebber and JohnWilliams Creator/JohnWilliams are romantic to their very bones, although they aren't always considered true 'classical Composers' due to their focus on Musicals, musicals and Film Music, film music, as well as simpler styles. This is not pretension, like some would say, just a fact of cataloguing.

* The '''Early Twentieth Century''' (ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin) -- Composers pushed the limits of musical understanding and style even more, resulting in things like atonality (music with no key at all) and neoclassicism (imitating, though with obvious differences in rhythm and tonality, earlier styles). Music/ClaudeDebussy and Music/MauriceRavel, the most famous impressionist composers, began to discard the common practice tonality of earlier periods. Serialism (a method of composition based on the continuous transformations of a series of musical elements) began to be used heavily, starting with the twelve tone system of Arnold Schoenberg and his Second Viennese School. Trends were all over the place; some composers became very interested in FolkMusic and Ethnic Music (such as Music/BelaBartok), others channelled the social and political turmoil into their works (Sergei Prokofiev, Music/DmitriShostakovich, and Music/IgorStravinsky), while some combined Classical with popular styles (Music/GeorgeGershwin, whose origins were with {{jazz}}, had heavily classical elements in his work). That last category would eventually give rise to the show tunes of Broadway. Picking a representative example our of all this variety is impossible; the defining characteristic of early 20th century classical music is the absence of defining characteristics. But try out the ballets of Stravinsky (Theatre/TheFirebird, Theatre/TheRiteOfSpring, Petrushka) (''Theatre/TheFirebird'', ''Theatre/TheRiteOfSpring'', ''Petrushka'') for just one of several styles.

* The '''Later Twentieth Century''' to the '''Present''' -- during which all the tendencies of the earlier part of the twentieth century were pushed even further. During the 1960s, the mainstream classical music world was heavily influenced by the Darmstadt School, whose members, such as Karlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Boulez, pushed the serialism of Arnold Schoenberg and his pupil Anton Webern to its extreme. Edgard Varese, a major influence on Music/FrankZappa, began to experiment with electronic music while other composers began to use scales different from the traditional twelve tone equal temperament scale. Iannis Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical modelling in music. Meanwhile, minimalist composers such as Steve Reich and Philip Glass experimented with music that used very few basic elements, often repeated with variations. In the 1970s and 1980s, composers such as Alfred Schnittke and Luciano Berio began to write polystylistic pieces that drew on many prior musical traditions in a {{postmodern}} way. The boundaries between popular and classical music began to blur; for example, John Cale, violist of [[Music/VelvetUnderground the Velvet Underground]],[[note]]The only reason that Cale had gone to New York (and thus meet met Music/LouReed) in the first place was to study classical viola[[/note]] was associated with the minimalist La Monte Young, and Music/TheBeatles were influenced by Stockhausen. It should be noted that classically trained musicians playing in other styles does not automatically make what they're playing 'classical'. Lately, the classical music world has seen a resurgence in the popularity of music combining a romantic feel with modern techniques, written by such composers as John Corigliano, and Einojuhani Rautavaara. Other notable composers include Music/JohnCage, Morton Feldman, Giacinto Scelsi and TwoStepsFromHell. As in the early twentieth century, there isn't any truly representative music, but the Sinfonia of Luciano Berio might be a good place to start.



* Music/JohnZorn: Highly eclectical and impossible to pigeonhole artist, mostly active in jazz, though his gigantic catalogue has tried out various genres and styles throughout the years.

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* Music/JohnZorn: Highly eclectical eclectic and impossible to pigeonhole artist, mostly active in jazz, though his gigantic catalogue has tried out various genres and styles throughout the years.
9th Jan '17 8:56:52 AM Scifimaster92
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Added DiffLines:

* Music/TonyBanks
9th Jan '17 8:51:05 AM Scifimaster92
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Added DiffLines:

* Music/{{Vangelis}}
8th Oct '16 9:08:47 PM UmbrellasWereAwesome
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* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' by the aforementioned Bach, the ''[[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1 Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.

to:

* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' by the aforementioned Bach, the ''[[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1 com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1k Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.
8th Oct '16 9:08:06 PM UmbrellasWereAwesome
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* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' by the aforementioned Bach, the ''[[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bt8ku5SXM8w Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.

to:

* The '''[[TheCavalierYears Baroque Era]]''' (c. 1600 to c. 1760) -- Still a lot of church music, but the patron model became more dominant as wealthy nobles and royalty found even more time and opportunity to indulge in fancy music for the heck of it. For a stereotypical Baroque sound, look for anything by Music/JohannSebastianBach. Famous works include the ''Music/ToccataAndFugueInDMinor'' by the aforementioned Bach, the ''[[PachelbelsCanon Canon in D]]'' by [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zM6YogGkc Johann Pachelbel]] (which uses a much copied [[PachelbelsCanonProgression chord progression]]) and the ''Messiah'' oratorio by Music/GeorgeFredericHandel (which includes the famous "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU Hallelujah Chorus]]"). The concerto (a piece where a solo instrument or small group of instruments alternates passages with a larger orchestra) became a major compositional form during this period, as composers like [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCdNs9qFtic Girolamo Frescobaldi]] began to focus much more of their attention to instrumental writing. This was also the period in which the common-practice tonality came into, well, common practice. Other common features in this era include terraced dynamics (the music is either loud or soft, with few crescendos or diminuendos or so forth), and a reduction in polyphonic density (so that the words and the melodic lines come through much clearer), often to the point of actual homophony (simply having a melody on top of a harmonic accompaniment). Additionally, the early Baroque was when [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9105NkJxjGA Claudio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb9nCKAQVyA Monteverdi]], arguably the most important composer (along with [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWVQjZ499yM Heinrich]] [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqhUsFRdIw Schütz]]) in the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque, wrote what is widely considered the first great {{opera}}, ''L'Orfeo''. A few of the many other notable Baroque composers include [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLUIC84nYTk Johann Jakob Froberger]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj33HliB5v0 François Couperin]], [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bt8ku5SXM8w com/watch?v=t_uP0RtyJ1 Jan Dismas Zelenka]], [[Music/AntonioVivaldi Antonio]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwGJt0q-kRA Vivaldi]], [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzRQ8KbMcY Jean-Philippe Rameau]], and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yhd-dpC_7o Domenico Scarlatti]]. Though the harpsichord predates the Baroque, it is stereotypically associated with this era; if you hear a piece of classical music and there's a harpsichord in it, there's a good chance it's a Baroque piece, though the instrument was still in use during the early Classical period, and some modern era composers, like Elliot Carter, have also used it.
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