History Main / ArtisticLicenseNuclearPhysics

21st Feb '17 8:14:16 AM Generalcamo
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*** [[JustifiedTrope Justified]] at first since it is [[NukeEm armed to destroy the complex.]] But this doesn't excuse the fact that it STILL does this when you supposedly disarm it.
16th Feb '17 5:36:14 AM ActualScientist
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* In a surprising aversion (considering the movie involves angels, demons, psychics and the son of {{Satan}}), the director of ''Film/{{Constantine}}'' had seen old videos of dummy towns in nuclear test footage, and so designed Hell to look like "A continuous nuclear explosion that could never have a shockwave."
16th Feb '17 5:34:40 AM ActualScientist
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# Walking hand in hand with ArtisticLicenseBiology, instant, [[CursedWithAwesome horr]][[BlessedWithSuck ible]], in-generation [[ILoveNuclearPower mutations caused by exposure to radiation]]. Actually, living organisms simply do not work that way. For starters, where radiation is supposed to "alter" (e.g. damage) DNA/RNA, it would have to introduce the same very specific change in billions, per body cell count, of ''random'' events hitting that DNA. Then, as a functioning body actually has far more regulating systems active, it should somehow alter all of them ''in precisely the same manner'', so we do not get an old, boring RealLife set of radiation symptoms like body systems fighting in an attempt to fix each other. And not the least, the amount of radiation doing all that should somehow fail at destroying/damaging every other body chemical but DNA (rendering the whole organism inoperable) or simply frying the subject in the process.

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# Walking hand in hand with ArtisticLicenseBiology, instant, [[CursedWithAwesome horr]][[BlessedWithSuck ible]], in-generation [[ILoveNuclearPower mutations caused by exposure to radiation]]. Actually, living Living organisms simply do not work that way. For starters, where radiation is supposed to "alter" (e.g. damage) DNA/RNA, it would have to introduce the same very specific change in billions, per body cell count, of ''random'' events hitting that DNA. Then, as a functioning body actually has far more regulating systems active, it should somehow alter all of them ''in precisely the same manner'', so we do not get an old, boring RealLife set of radiation symptoms like body systems fighting in an attempt to fix each other. And not the least, the amount of radiation doing all that should somehow fail at destroying/damaging every other body chemical but DNA (rendering the whole organism inoperable) or simply frying the subject in the process.
16th Feb '17 5:31:12 AM ActualScientist
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** Though a tokamak-styled fusion reactor can actually explode in a rather spectacular fashion if an unmitigated quench occurs in most of its superconducting magnets due to tremendous amounts of energy stored in them. When you have rapidly heating giant magnets in a pool of liquid helium, expect things to go haywire. Modern particle accelerators deal with quenches quite routinely by detecting them early on and dumping all the stored energy into huge slabs of metal.
16th Feb '17 5:29:53 AM ActualScientist
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*** There are two main types of fusion bombs: the American Teller-Ulam type (also known as the "Sakharov's Third Idea"), and the Soviet Sakharov type, also called "the layer cake". The Teller-Ulam bomb consists of a fission starter charge (often called the primary), a lithium deuteride fusion fuel block (often with the additional neutron source) next to it, clad by the U-238 "pusher" or "tamper" (the whole assembly usually dubbed the secondary), and the shaped heavy metal case. When activated, the primary emits a lot of hard X-rays that are reflected from the case to the secondary, ablating the tamper's exterior and causing it to compress, which in turn starts the fusion. Sakharov-type bomb has the starter completely surrounded by the fuel and the U-238 case, and the starter is optimized to emit mostly neutrons. When activated the neutrons are absorbed by the case, which then starts to fission, and the heat and radiation from the exploding case compresses and activates the fuel. It is called "layer cake" because layers of lithium and uranium could be repeated, increasing the device's output.

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*** There are two main types of fusion bombs: the American Teller-Ulam type (also known as the "Sakharov's Third Idea"), and the Soviet Sakharov type, also called "the layer cake". The Teller-Ulam bomb consists of a fission starter charge (often called the primary), a lithium deuteride fusion fuel block (often with the additional neutron source) next to it, clad by the U-238 "pusher" or "tamper" (the whole assembly usually dubbed the secondary), and the shaped heavy metal case. When activated, the primary emits a lot of hard X-rays that are reflected from the case to the secondary, ablating the tamper's exterior and causing it to compress, which in turn starts the fusion. Sakharov-type bomb has the starter completely surrounded by the fuel and the U-238 case, and the starter is optimized to emit mostly neutrons. When activated the neutrons are absorbed by the case, which then starts to fission, and the heat and radiation from the exploding case compresses and activates the fuel. It is called "layer cake" because layers of lithium and uranium could be repeated, increasing the device's output.
16th Feb '17 5:29:28 AM ActualScientist
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*** And further actually, most fission-fusion weapons use a cladding of uranium-238, which will absorb most of the massive number of 'unused' fusion neutrons and then fission; the bomb is now a 'fission-fusion-fission' bomb. Without that U-238 cladding, the neutrons spray out at high speed, irradiating the near area, and you have what the US called an 'Enhanced Radiation Reduced Blast' weapon -- also known as the "Neutron Bomb".

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*** And further actually, most Most fission-fusion weapons use a cladding of uranium-238, which will absorb most of the massive number of 'unused' fusion neutrons and then fission; the bomb is now a 'fission-fusion-fission' bomb. Without that U-238 cladding, the neutrons spray out at high speed, irradiating the near area, and you have what the US called an 'Enhanced Radiation Reduced Blast' weapon -- also known as the "Neutron Bomb".
16th Feb '17 5:28:16 AM ActualScientist
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*** Actually, the hydrogen bomb or "H-Bomb" is a [[MindScrew fission-ignited fusion reaction]], or a "fission-fusion" bomb. Due to the high initiation temperature required for the fusion reaction to take place, this is known as a "thermo-nuclear" rather than a nuclear device. The term thermonuclear, while often applied to all fission weapons, correctly refers only to the fission-fusion or h-bomb type weapon.

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*** Actually, the The hydrogen bomb or "H-Bomb" is a [[MindScrew fission-ignited fusion reaction]], or a "fission-fusion" bomb. Due to the high initiation temperature required for the fusion reaction to take place, this is known as a "thermo-nuclear" rather than a nuclear device. The term thermonuclear, while often applied to all fission weapons, correctly refers only to the fission-fusion or h-bomb type weapon.
16th Feb '17 5:26:58 AM ActualScientist
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*** One science-fiction short story (primarily about a stasis-field generator) included "wink bombs" -- tiny chunks of uranium (''way'' below the usual critical mass) made to explode by encasing them in a stasis field for a fraction of a second, so that all their neutrons were reflected back into the chunk.
16th Feb '17 5:26:41 AM ActualScientist
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** "Critical mass" is a highly misunderstood term. Whether a sample of fissile material will produce an uncontrolled chain reaction is dependent on (roughly) the ratio of mass to surface area. If the ratio is too low (too much surface area) neutrons escape without causing further fission. If it's above the critical ratio, then of the three neutrons produced by each fission, on average >1 will cause another fission (meaning that the rate of reactions will grow). The oft quoted "critical mass" is the critical mass where ''a sphere'' of the material at a given density will go critical on its own. Thus, you can have a solid subcritical chunk of a fissile material of a larger mass than that value, as long as it has a different geometry (e.g. shaped like a rod instead of a sphere)[[note]]This has been the cause of several accidents where workers have transferred material from one vessel to another of a different shape. An amount that's safe in one vessel might go critical in another. When this happens unintentionally it cuases a "criticality accident", discussed in the previous section.[[/note]]. It's also possible to detonate a bomb with less than the "critical mass" of material -- typically by the use of neutron reflectors.

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** "Critical mass" is a highly misunderstood term. Whether a sample of fissile material will produce an uncontrolled chain reaction is dependent on (roughly) the ratio of mass to surface area. If the ratio is too low (too much surface area) neutrons escape without causing further fission. If it's above the critical ratio, then of the three neutrons produced by each fission, on average >1 will cause another fission (meaning that the rate of reactions will grow). The oft quoted "critical mass" is the critical mass where ''a sphere'' of the material at a given density will go critical on its own. Thus, you can have a solid subcritical chunk of a fissile material of a larger mass than that value, as long as it has a different geometry (e.g. shaped like a rod instead of a sphere)[[note]]This has been the cause of several accidents where workers have transferred material from one vessel to another of a different shape. An amount that's safe in one vessel might go critical in another. When this happens unintentionally it cuases causes a "criticality accident", discussed in the previous section.[[/note]]. It's also possible to detonate a bomb with less than the "critical mass" of material -- typically by the use of neutron reflectors.
1st Feb '17 6:12:29 PM kelly-away-from-home
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* Season 7, Episode 11 of {{Series/TheWestWing}} concerns a potential meltdown. President Bartlet talks about a nuclear plant being "A reaction 20 times as powerful as Hiroshima," a wildly inaccurate figure which is akin to drawing a comparison between a birthday candle and a racecar engine.[[/folder]]

[[folder:Music]]
* Ultravox, "Dancing With Tears In My Eyes". The lyrics are about TheEndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt in general, but the video instead involves a town being destroyed by a nuclear power plant meltdown, apparently instantly vaporizing the residents while leaving other objects intact. "REACTOR CORE OVERHEAT, EXPLOSION IMMINENT", etc.



[[folder:Music]]
* Ultravox, "Dancing With Tears In My Eyes". The lyrics are about TheEndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt in general, but the video instead involves a town being destroyed by a nuclear power plant meltdown, apparently instantly vaporizing the residents while leaving other objects intact. "REACTOR CORE OVERHEAT, EXPLOSION IMMINENT", etc.
[[/folder]]
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