History Literature / TheLeatherstockingTales

2nd Oct '16 6:16:19 PM Thorion
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* AnimatedAdaptation: Three of the "The Last of the Mohicans" by Creator/HannaBarbera, Creator/BurbankFilmsAustralia and MondoTV respectively. The last of these three is the only one with a plot that resembles that of the book.

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* AnimatedAdaptation: Three of the "The Last of the Mohicans" by Creator/HannaBarbera, Creator/BurbankFilmsAustralia and MondoTV respectively. The last of these three is the only one with a plot that resembles that of the book.
30th Jun '16 12:56:21 PM fruitstripegum
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* AnimatedAdaptation: Three of the "The Last of the Mohicans" by Creator/HannaBarbera, BurbankFilmsAustralia and MondoTV respectively. The last of these three is the only one with a plot that resembles that of the book.

to:

* AnimatedAdaptation: Three of the "The Last of the Mohicans" by Creator/HannaBarbera, BurbankFilmsAustralia Creator/BurbankFilmsAustralia and MondoTV respectively. The last of these three is the only one with a plot that resembles that of the book.
13th Jun '16 8:49:33 PM PaulA
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The book series by James Fenimore Cooper.

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The book series by James Fenimore Cooper.
Creator/JamesFenimoreCooper.



They're probably most famous these days for [[TropeCodifier codifying]] the romantic concept of the [[MagicalNativeAmerican Native]] [[{{Eagleland}} American]] [[TheWildWest Frontier]], and for their [[HeroicFantasy heroic]], [[KnightInShiningArmor chivalrous]] [[PurpleProse prose]] being [[Literature/FenimoreCoopersLiteraryOffences relentlessly mocked]] by Creator/MarkTwain. (Incidentally, the Defenses are [[http://external.oneonta.edu/cooper/articles/other/1988other-schachterle.html here]].) Nonetheless, Cooper, starting with ''The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground'' (1821), became the father of the American novel and wrote the first real ''American'' adventure stories. He followed the lead of [[Creator/WalterScott Sir Walter Scott]], adapting it to an American environment and democratizing it: where Scott (like Shakespeare) limited his lower-class characters to comic relief roles, Cooper made commoners like Harvey Birch and Natty Bumppo central characters of the work they appeared in. He also instituted an American archetype, that of the misfit or outsider hero at odds with society. The Leatherstocking Tales (1823-1841) are the ancestors of the {{Western}}, while ''The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea'' (1824) was the first of a series of sea novels based on Cooper's personal experiences in the merchant marine and the U.S. Navy, which established another new literary genre and became direct inspirations for Creator/HermanMelville and Creator/JosephConrad. (He also spent several years living and working in Paris, which may or may not have inspired later American writers). Cooper also wrote some the earliest [[SpyFiction spy novels]] and is credited with some of the first serious portrayals of black and African-descended characters in American literature. During his lifetime Cooper was the first American writer to achieve worldwide renown and commercial success, and also the first one to impress and influence European writers, including not only the makers of the European strain of the Western like Creator/FriedrichGerstacker and Creator/KarlMay, but also Creator/HonoreDeBalzac, Creator/AlexandreDumas, Creator/VictorHugo and Creator/EmileZola. Creator/JohannWolfgangVonGoethe reread ''The Pioneers'' before describing a tiger hunt in his ''Novelle'' (1826). And while Twain tried to tear him down, Cooper still found admirers of his writing in writers as diverse as Creator/HenryDavidThoreau, Creator/GeorgeSand, Joseph Conrad, Creator/DHLawrence and Creator/ArnoSchmidt.

to:

They're probably most famous these days for [[TropeCodifier codifying]] the romantic concept of the [[MagicalNativeAmerican Native]] [[{{Eagleland}} American]] [[TheWildWest Frontier]], and for their [[HeroicFantasy heroic]], [[KnightInShiningArmor chivalrous]] [[PurpleProse prose]] being [[Literature/FenimoreCoopersLiteraryOffences relentlessly mocked]] by Creator/MarkTwain. (Incidentally, the Defenses are [[http://external.oneonta.edu/cooper/articles/other/1988other-schachterle.html here]].) Nonetheless, Cooper, starting with ''The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground'' (1821), Cooper became the father of the American novel and wrote the first real ''American'' adventure stories. He followed the lead of [[Creator/WalterScott Sir Walter Scott]], adapting it to an American environment and democratizing it: where Scott (like Shakespeare) limited his lower-class characters to comic relief roles, Cooper made commoners like Harvey Birch and Natty Bumppo central characters of the work they appeared in. He also instituted an American archetype, that of the misfit or outsider hero at odds with society. The Leatherstocking Tales (1823-1841) are the ancestors of the {{Western}}, while ''The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea'' (1824) was the first of a series of sea novels based on Cooper's personal experiences in the merchant marine and the U.S. Navy, which established another new literary genre and became direct inspirations for Creator/HermanMelville and Creator/JosephConrad. (He also spent several years living and working in Paris, which may or may not have inspired later American writers). Cooper also wrote some the earliest [[SpyFiction spy novels]] and is credited with some of the first serious portrayals of black and African-descended characters in American literature. {{Western}}. During his lifetime Cooper was the first American writer to achieve worldwide renown and commercial success, and also the first one to impress and influence European writers, including not only the makers of the European strain of the Western like Creator/FriedrichGerstacker and Creator/KarlMay, but also Creator/HonoreDeBalzac, Creator/AlexandreDumas, Creator/VictorHugo and Creator/EmileZola. writers. Creator/JohannWolfgangVonGoethe reread ''The Pioneers'' before describing a tiger hunt in his ''Novelle'' (1826). And while Twain tried to tear him down, Cooper still found admirers of his writing in writers as diverse as Creator/HenryDavidThoreau, Creator/GeorgeSand, Joseph Conrad, Creator/DHLawrence and Creator/ArnoSchmidt.
(1826).



* TheCaptivityNarrative: Played with.
** Subverted in the case of Alice and Cora being captured in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. In that novel it is actually played straighter with Magua's back story: He was captured by the Mohawks, adopted into their tribe, but eventually returned to the Hurons where he found that his wife had married someone else in the meantime.
** In ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'' (1829), an inversion occurs with Conanchet, a Narraganset boy captured by Connecticut Puritans, resists all efforts to turn him into one of them and escapes. Later, Ruth Heathcote and Whittal Ring are assimilated into the tribe after being captured in a raid by the Narragansetts. Ruth as Narra-mattah becomes the wife of Conanchet and the mother of his son. She only returns to her white family after the death of her husband. [[spoiler: There is no happy end for her either.]]

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* TheCaptivityNarrative: Played with.
**
Subverted in the case of Alice and Cora being captured in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. In that novel it is actually played straighter with Magua's back story: He was captured by the Mohawks, adopted into their tribe, but eventually returned to the Hurons where he found that his wife had married someone else in the meantime. \n** In ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'' (1829), an inversion occurs with Conanchet, a Narraganset boy captured by Connecticut Puritans, resists all efforts to turn him into one of them and escapes. Later, Ruth Heathcote and Whittal Ring are assimilated into the tribe after being captured in a raid by the Narragansetts. Ruth as Narra-mattah becomes the wife of Conanchet and the mother of his son. She only returns to her white family after the death of her husband. [[spoiler: There is no happy end for her either.]]



* [[CompositeCharacter Composite Tribe:]] Cooper's Mohicans confound the Mahicans of the Hudson Valley with the Mohegans of eastern Connecticut (both speakers of Algonquin languages), but that was something even the experts of the day did, including one of Cooper's prime sources, the Moravian missionary John Heckewelder, who assembled extensive first-hand knowledge of the Delaware (Lenni-Lenape) nations. However [[ScienceMarchesOn three years later]] in his 1829 novel ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', which is set in 17th-century Connecticut, Cooper correctly identifies the Mohegans as a tribe of the Pequods.

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* [[CompositeCharacter Composite Tribe:]] Cooper's Mohicans confound the Mahicans of the Hudson Valley with the Mohegans of eastern Connecticut (both speakers of Algonquin languages), but that was something even the experts of the day did, including one of Cooper's prime sources, the Moravian missionary John Heckewelder, who assembled extensive first-hand knowledge of the Delaware (Lenni-Lenape) nations. However [[ScienceMarchesOn three years later]] in his 1829 novel ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', which is set in 17th-century Connecticut, Cooper correctly identifies the Mohegans as a tribe of the Pequods.



* [[DemocracyIsBad Democracy Is Flawed]]: Many of Cooper's political tracts and some of his novels, most notably the ''Littlepage Manuscripts'' trilogy, bespeak of a growing scepticism towards the American political system, which in many ways overlaps with ''Democracy in America'' by his contemporary Alexis de Tocqueville. Cooper was a bit of a social conservative who found the emergent Jacksonian democracy, where the masses' influence gradually eclipsed that of the landed and propertied classes, off-putting. The fact that American democracy in his day happily coexisted with slavery and that Cooper sympathized with the American Indians, who were definitely getting the short end of the stick under Andrew Jackson and the administrations that followed, cannot have helped. Still Cooper generally did not hesitate to portray the American republic as superior and more progressive than the monarchies of old Europe.
* DressingAsTheEnemy: A half-comical example occurs in ''The Last of the Mohicans'', where it entails dressing up in the Huron medicine man's bear costume. In ''The Spy'', Harvey Birch pretends to work for the British in order to entrap Loyalist conspirators and spies.
* EarlyInstallmentWeirdness: Cooper's unsuccessful first novel ''Precaution'' (1820) is a story of three families in England wanting to marry off their childrens, an uninspired imitation of the genre started by Creator/JaneAusten. He wrote it because he disliked an English novel of this type so much that he said he could write a better one, and his family took him up on it. He then switched to historical novels of the type created by Creator/WalterScott, but in American settings.

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* [[DemocracyIsBad Democracy Is Flawed]]: Many of Cooper's political tracts and some of his novels, most notably the ''Littlepage Manuscripts'' trilogy, bespeak of a growing scepticism towards the American political system, which in many ways overlaps with ''Democracy in America'' by his contemporary Alexis de Tocqueville. Cooper was a bit of a social conservative who found the emergent Jacksonian democracy, where the masses' influence gradually eclipsed that of the landed and propertied classes, off-putting. The fact that American democracy in his day happily coexisted with slavery and that Cooper sympathized with the American Indians, who were definitely getting the short end of the stick under Andrew Jackson and the administrations that followed, cannot have helped. Still Cooper generally did not hesitate to portray the American republic as superior and more progressive than the monarchies of old Europe.
* DressingAsTheEnemy: A half-comical example occurs in ''The Last of the Mohicans'', where it entails dressing up in the Huron medicine man's bear costume. In ''The Spy'', Harvey Birch pretends to work for the British in order to entrap Loyalist conspirators and spies.\n* EarlyInstallmentWeirdness: Cooper's unsuccessful first novel ''Precaution'' (1820) is a story of three families in England wanting to marry off their childrens, an uninspired imitation of the genre started by Creator/JaneAusten. He wrote it because he disliked an English novel of this type so much that he said he could write a better one, and his family took him up on it. He then switched to historical novels of the type created by Creator/WalterScott, but in American settings.



* GuileHero: Harvey Birch, the eponymous hero of ''The Spy''.



* HalfBreedDiscrimination: A few examples.
** Cora Munro, the daughter of a Scotch colonel and a Creole mother, in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. One of the first interracial romance plots in American literature. Her case is a subversion, as such discrimination is mentioned as existing and referenced by her father, but in the course of the novel Cora inspires love and admiration in pretty much anyone who meets her. And at her funeral the Delaware women see her mixed blood as something that makes her superior to her bland sister Alice. Ironically, the only person to actually display a prejudice against mixed blood is Hawkeye, who gratingly often takes pride in his own pure white blood and the pure Mohican blood of his friends Chingachgook and Uncas.
** When Narra-mattah (Ruth Heathcote) shows her baby to her mother in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', the latter is at first not exactly happy about learning that she has a half-Narragansett grandson. However, she does eventually change her tone.

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* HalfBreedDiscrimination: A few examples.
**
Cora Munro, the daughter of a Scotch colonel and a Creole mother, in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. One of the first interracial romance plots in American literature. Her case is a subversion, as such discrimination is mentioned as existing and referenced by her father, but in the course of the novel Cora inspires love and admiration in pretty much anyone who meets her. And at her funeral the Delaware women see her mixed blood as something that makes her superior to her bland sister Alice. Ironically, the only person to actually display a prejudice against mixed blood is Hawkeye, who gratingly often takes pride in his own pure white blood and the pure Mohican blood of his friends Chingachgook and Uncas.
** When Narra-mattah (Ruth Heathcote) shows her baby to her mother in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', the latter is at first not exactly happy about learning that she has a half-Narragansett grandson. However, she does eventually change her tone.
Uncas.



* HistoricalDomainCharacter: George Washington in ''The Spy'', Colonel George Munro (or Monro) and the Marquis de Montcalm in ''The Last of the Mohicans'', John Paul Jones in ''The Pilot'', Conanchet (Canonchet), Metacom ("King Philip") and Uncas (the Mohegan chief) in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', Christopher Columbus in ''Mercedes of Castile''.

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* HistoricalDomainCharacter: George Washington in ''The Spy'', Colonel George Munro (or Monro) and the Marquis de Montcalm in ''The Last of the Mohicans'', John Paul Jones in ''The Pilot'', Conanchet (Canonchet), Metacom ("King Philip") and Uncas (the Mohegan chief) in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', Christopher Columbus in ''Mercedes of Castile''.Mohicans''.



* HonourBeforeReason: In ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'' Conanchet dies affirming the warrior's code of the Narragansetts, refusing either to convert to Christianity or to make peace with the Mohegans in order to save something insignificant as his own life.
* HumansAreBastards: A frequent theme of Cooper's, especially as he became more critical of American society and its land-grabs after his return from Europe. The growing corruption of individuals as "civilization" expands became a the major theme of his ''Littlepage Manuscripts'' trilogy of ''Satanstoe'', ''The Chainbearer'' and ''The Redskins, or: Indian and Injin'' (1845-1846).



* TheMaidenNameDebate: James Cooper added "Fenimore" to his name in order to honour the wish of his mother that her family name be preserved after her death. During the 19th century this was still often treated as a double-barrelled surname, thus both George Sand and Mark Twain wrote articles in which Cooper is mentioned as "Fenimore Cooper" in the title.



* MeaningfulName: As most of the characters in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'' are 17th-century Puritans, the novel [[WackyAmericansHaveWackyNames abounds in biblical names and names like Charity, Content and Submission]]. There are also two preachers, Meek Wolfe and Meek Lamb.



* MoustacheDePlume: Inverted. With his first novel, the anonymously published ''Precaution'', Cooper successfully created the impression that it was written by an Englishwoman (it even went to two printings in Britain). He later published two short stories as "Jane Morgan".
* NamedAfterSomeoneFamous: Reflecting the customs of the times in which the novels are set, some black characters, both slaves and freemen, have names from Roman history and Greek mythology, such as Caesar in ''The Spy'', Agamemnon ("Aggy") in ''The Pioneers'', and Scipio Africanus and Cassandra in ''The Red Rover''. In ''The Last of the Mohicans'', Uncas has the name of a number of historic Mohegan chiefs.

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* MoustacheDePlume: Inverted. With his first novel, the anonymously published ''Precaution'', Cooper successfully created the impression that it was written by an Englishwoman (it even went to two printings in Britain). He later published two short stories as "Jane Morgan".
* NamedAfterSomeoneFamous: Reflecting the customs of the times in which the novels are set, some black characters, both slaves and freemen, have names from Roman history and Greek mythology, such as Caesar in ''The Spy'', Agamemnon ("Aggy") in ''The Pioneers'', and Scipio Africanus and Cassandra in ''The Red Rover''. In ''The Last of the Mohicans'', Uncas has the name of a number of historic Mohegan chiefs.



* OneSteveLimit: Uncas from ''The Last of the Mohicans'' (a Mahican from New York in the 18th century) and Uncas from ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'' (a historic Mohegan chief from Connecticut in the 17th century).



* ProtagonistCenteredMorality: The way different tribes and nations are portrayed to a large extent depends on whether they belong to the protagonists or antagonists of the novel in question. For instance, the Mohican Uncas is a protagonist of ''The Last of the Mohicans'' and portrayed very positively, while his namesake Uncas, the Mohegan chief in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', is a more sinister character. Cooper however does not paint the antagonists entirely without sympathetic qualities. And at one point in ''Last of the Mohicans'' the narration even chides Hawkeye for being unfair in his judgement regarding Hurons due to his prejudice against them when he denounces one for refusing to meekly let himself be killed.

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* ProtagonistCenteredMorality: The way different tribes and nations are portrayed to a large extent depends on whether they belong to the protagonists or antagonists of the novel in question. For instance, the Mohican Uncas is a protagonist of ''The Last of the Mohicans'' and portrayed very positively, while his namesake Uncas, the Mohegan chief in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish'', is a more sinister character. Cooper however does not paint the antagonists entirely without sympathetic qualities. And at one point in ''Last of the Mohicans'' the narration even chides Hawkeye for being unfair in his judgement regarding Hurons due to his prejudice against them when he denounces one for refusing to meekly let himself be killed.



* ScrewTheMoneyIHaveRules: Harvey Birch in ''The Spy'' refuses the money UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington offers to reward him for his patriotic services: "not a dollar of your gold will touch; poor America has need for it all!" This is based on a real-life case related as an anecdote by Cooper's friend John Jay.
* SeaStories: The novels ''The Pilot'', ''The Red Rover'', ''The Water-Witch: or the Skimmer of the Seas'', ''Homeward Bound: or The Chase'', ''Mercedes of Castile: or, The Voyage to Cathay'', ''The Two Admirals'', ''Afloat and Ashore'', ''The Crater, or, Vulcan's Peak: A Tale of the Pacific'', ''Jake Tier: or The Florida Reefs'', and ''The Sea Lions: The Lost Sealers'', as well as the short stories ''No Steamboats'' and ''An Execution at Sea''. ''The Pathfinder'', set on Lake Ontario, is a cross-breed between the frontier novel and the sea novel. Cooper also wrote non-fiction works on the history of the U.S. Navy and biographies of famous American sailors and his former shipmate Ned Myers.



* SpyFiction: ''The Spy'' (1821) and ''The Bravo'' (1831, set in Venice) are two of the earliest examples of the genre.
* SweetPollyOliver: Roderick in ''The Red Rover''.



* TheTheTitle: Most of Cooper's novels have titles conforming to this pattern, starting with ''The Spy'' (1821) and ending with ''The Ways of the Hour'' (1850). Of those that don't, many have a secondary title that does, such as ''Lionel Lincoln: or The Leaguer of Boston'', ''Homeward Bound: or The Chase: A Tale of the Sea'', and ''Wyandotte: or The Hutted Knoll''.
* TogetherInDeath: [[spoiler: Cora and Uncas]] in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. The Delaware women at the funeral even chant about how they will enjoy life together in the Happy Hunting Grounds. [[spoiler: Conanchet and Narra-wattah (Ruth Heathcote)]] in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish''.

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* TheTheTitle: Most of Cooper's novels have titles conforming to this pattern, starting with ''The Spy'' (1821) and ending with ''The Ways of the Hour'' (1850). Of those that don't, many have a secondary Every title that does, such as ''Lionel Lincoln: or The Leaguer of Boston'', ''Homeward Bound: or The Chase: A Tale of in the Sea'', and ''Wyandotte: or The Hutted Knoll''.
series.
* TogetherInDeath: [[spoiler: Cora and Uncas]] in ''The Last of the Mohicans''. The Delaware women at the funeral even chant about how they will enjoy life together in the Happy Hunting Grounds. [[spoiler: Conanchet and Narra-wattah (Ruth Heathcote)]] in ''The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish''.



* UncleanlinessIsNextToUngodliness: Subverted. In the first edition of ''The Spy'', Harvey Birch has the disgusting habit of spitting tobacco juice. Leatherstocking in a defining scene of ''The Pioneers'' is shown wiping his nose with his sleeve.

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* UncleanlinessIsNextToUngodliness: Subverted. In the first edition of ''The Spy'', Harvey Birch has the disgusting habit of spitting tobacco juice.Averted. Leatherstocking in a defining scene of ''The Pioneers'' is shown wiping his nose with his sleeve.



* {{Whodunit}}: Cooper's last novel, ''The Ways of the Hour'', a [[MysteryLiterature courtroom mystery]] which among other things contains criticism of the American judiciary. It appeared in 1850, a few years after Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's seminal Literature/CAugusteDupin stories.



* WoodenShipsAndIronMen: Most of Cooper's sea novels and his non-fiction naval books fall into this category.
13th Jun '16 7:19:50 PM PaulA
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* {{Whodunit}}: Cooper's last novel, ''The Ways of the Hour'', a [[MysteryLiterature courtroom mystery]] which among other things contains criticism of the American judiciary. It appeared in 1850, a few years after Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's seminal C. Auguste Dupin stories.

to:

* {{Whodunit}}: Cooper's last novel, ''The Ways of the Hour'', a [[MysteryLiterature courtroom mystery]] which among other things contains criticism of the American judiciary. It appeared in 1850, a few years after Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's seminal C. Auguste Dupin Literature/CAugusteDupin stories.
29th Apr '16 4:43:42 PM fruitstripegum
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* MistakenForRacist: In ''The Last of the Mohicans'' Colonel Munro flies into a rage when Major Heyward asks for his daughter's hand in marriage and it turns out that the one he wants is not Cora (whose mother was part-black), but her younger younger-half sister Alice (whose mother was white). Heyward has a hard time convincing convincing Munro that he just happens to be attracted to Alice more than to Cora (the novel at that point already has established that he in fact greatly admires Cora for her spirit and inner strength). It did not help that Heyward is English, as the crusty Scotsman Munro sees racism against blacks and people with black ancestry as a very English prejudice.

to:

* MistakenForRacist: In ''The Last of the Mohicans'' Colonel Munro flies into a rage when Major Heyward asks for his daughter's hand in marriage and it turns out that the one he wants is not Cora (whose mother was part-black), but her younger younger-half sister Alice (whose mother was white). Heyward has a hard time convincing convincing Munro that he just happens to be attracted to Alice more than to Cora (the novel at that point already has established that he in fact greatly admires Cora for her spirit and inner strength). It did not help that Heyward is English, as the crusty Scotsman Munro sees racism against blacks and people with black ancestry as a very English prejudice.



* {{Whodunit}}: Cooper's last novel, ''The Ways of the Hour'', a [[MysteryLiterature courtroom mystery]] which among other things contains criticism of the American judiciary. It appeared in 1850, a few years after Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's seminal C. Auguste Dupin stories.



* {{Whodunit}}: Cooper's last novel, ''The Ways of the Hour'', a [[MysteryLiterature courtroom mystery]] which among other things contains criticism of the American judiciary. It appeared in 1850, a few years after Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's seminal C. Auguste Dupin stories.
29th Feb '16 8:23:33 AM HeraldAlberich
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They're probably most famous these days for [[TropeCodifier codifying]] the romantic concept of the [[MagicalNativeAmerican Native]] [[{{Eagleland}} American]] [[TheWildWest Frontier]], and for their [[HeroicFantasy heroic]], [[KnightInShiningArmor chivalrous]] [[PurpleProse prose]] being [[Literature/FenimoreCoopersLiteraryOffences relentlessly mocked]] by MarkTwain. (Incidentally, the Defenses are [[http://external.oneonta.edu/cooper/articles/other/1988other-schachterle.html here]]) Nonetheless, Cooper, starting with ''The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground'' (1821), became the father of the American novel and wrote the first real ''American'' adventure stories. He followed the lead of [[Creator/WalterScott Sir Walter Scott]], adapting it to an American environment and democratizing it: where Scott (like Shakespeare) limited his lower-class characters to comic relief roles, Cooper made commoners like Harvey Birch and Natty Bumppo central characters of the work they appeared in. He also instituted an American archetype, that of the misfit or outsider hero at odds with society. The Leatherstocking Tales (1823-1841) are the ancestors of the {{Western}}, while ''The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea'' (1824) was the first of a series of sea novels based on Cooper's personal experiences in the merchant marine and the U.S. Navy, which established another new literary genre and became direct inspirations for Herman Melville and Joseph Conrad. (He also spent several years living and working in Paris, which may or may not have inspired later American writers). Cooper also wrote some the earliest [[SpyFiction spy novels]] and is credited with some of the first serious portrayals of black and African-descended characters in American literature. During his lifetime Cooper was the first American writer to achieve worldwide renown and commercial success, and also the first one to impress and influence European writers, including not only the makers of the European strain of the Western like Friedrich Gerstäcker and Creator/KarlMay, but also Creator/HonoreDeBalzac, Creator/AlexandreDumas, Creator/VictorHugo and Émile Zola. Creator/JohannWolfgangVonGoethe reread ''The Pioneers'' before describing a tiger hunt in his ''Novelle'' (1826). And while Twain tried to tear him down, Cooper still found admirers of his writing in writers as diverse as Henry David Thoreau, George Sand, Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence and Arno Schmidt.

The Leatherstocking Tales are one of the first literary appearances of the NobleSavage. (Montaigne was the first to apply this trope to the North American Indians, and the trope itself is OlderThanFeudalism -- Classical Greek writers spoke of the Gauls this way.) Anyway, back then it was a [[FairForItsDay very progressive]] portrayal of Native Americans, and he was congratulated for presenting Chingachgook and his son Uncas as ''heroes'' (as opposed to thieving, cunning, drunken, heathen assholes). Of course, now we see it as just another stereotype -- but Cooper ''was'' the [[SeinfeldIsUnfunny first to use this in a novel]]. In many ways, his noble savages exemplify a way European-descended North Americans made sense of the values dissonance between their society and that of the Native Americans, who from their point of view simultaneously and most irritatingly embodied both extremely repulsive (cruelty, vengefulness etc.) and attractive (hospitality, courage etc.) qualities.

The main concern Natives have vis-a-vis Cooper is not so much the romantic portrayal of [[TheStoic Stoic]], [[OurElvesAreBetter slender and superior]] [[ProudWarriorRaceGuy warriors]], nor the prose; Native warriors were renowned as orators throughout the Indian wars and are still quoted today in Military History and Political Science classes.[[note]]due to the consensus nature of tribal government, they were required to be great public speakers to attain positions of influence.[[/note]] But the enduring stereotype is that Indians, while [[NobleSavage noble]], are [[YourDaysAreNumbered doomed to be eclipsed]] by the technologically superior white man and [[EverythingFades fade away]]. Although it was a common belief in Cooper's day, even among Indian rights advocates, this has become a bit of an UndeadHorseTrope (pun intended) and native tribesmen (including the Mohicans themselves) are quick to note that [[NotQuiteDead reports of their death are greatly exaggerated]]. But that may overlook that in the 19th century for many observers the "fading away" primarily referred to the Native American nations' ability (or lack of it) to preserve their traditional societies and way of life. Also, one has to remember that Cooper wrote from a New York perspective and in that state the number of Native Americans really did dwindle dramatically during his lifetime. Here for instance the last existing community of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahican Mahicans ("Mohicans")]] at Stockbridge, NY, was relocated to Wisconsin in the 1820s and 1830s under the U. S. government's policy of Indian removal, where they merged with a Lenape community to form the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockbridge-Munsee_Community Stockbridge-Munsee community]].

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They're probably most famous these days for [[TropeCodifier codifying]] the romantic concept of the [[MagicalNativeAmerican Native]] [[{{Eagleland}} American]] [[TheWildWest Frontier]], and for their [[HeroicFantasy heroic]], [[KnightInShiningArmor chivalrous]] [[PurpleProse prose]] being [[Literature/FenimoreCoopersLiteraryOffences relentlessly mocked]] by MarkTwain.Creator/MarkTwain. (Incidentally, the Defenses are [[http://external.oneonta.edu/cooper/articles/other/1988other-schachterle.html here]]) here]].) Nonetheless, Cooper, starting with ''The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground'' (1821), became the father of the American novel and wrote the first real ''American'' adventure stories. He followed the lead of [[Creator/WalterScott Sir Walter Scott]], adapting it to an American environment and democratizing it: where Scott (like Shakespeare) limited his lower-class characters to comic relief roles, Cooper made commoners like Harvey Birch and Natty Bumppo central characters of the work they appeared in. He also instituted an American archetype, that of the misfit or outsider hero at odds with society. The Leatherstocking Tales (1823-1841) are the ancestors of the {{Western}}, while ''The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea'' (1824) was the first of a series of sea novels based on Cooper's personal experiences in the merchant marine and the U.S. Navy, which established another new literary genre and became direct inspirations for Herman Melville Creator/HermanMelville and Joseph Conrad.Creator/JosephConrad. (He also spent several years living and working in Paris, which may or may not have inspired later American writers). Cooper also wrote some the earliest [[SpyFiction spy novels]] and is credited with some of the first serious portrayals of black and African-descended characters in American literature. During his lifetime Cooper was the first American writer to achieve worldwide renown and commercial success, and also the first one to impress and influence European writers, including not only the makers of the European strain of the Western like Friedrich Gerstäcker Creator/FriedrichGerstacker and Creator/KarlMay, but also Creator/HonoreDeBalzac, Creator/AlexandreDumas, Creator/VictorHugo and Émile Zola.Creator/EmileZola. Creator/JohannWolfgangVonGoethe reread ''The Pioneers'' before describing a tiger hunt in his ''Novelle'' (1826). And while Twain tried to tear him down, Cooper still found admirers of his writing in writers as diverse as Henry David Thoreau, George Sand, Creator/HenryDavidThoreau, Creator/GeorgeSand, Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence Creator/DHLawrence and Arno Schmidt.

Creator/ArnoSchmidt.

The Leatherstocking Tales are one of the first literary appearances of the NobleSavage. (Montaigne was the first to apply this trope to the North American Indians, and the trope itself is OlderThanFeudalism -- Classical OlderThanFeudalism--Classical Greek writers spoke of the Gauls this way.) Anyway, back then it was a [[FairForItsDay very progressive]] portrayal of Native Americans, and he was congratulated for presenting Chingachgook and his son Uncas as ''heroes'' (as opposed to thieving, cunning, drunken, heathen assholes). Of course, now we see it as just another stereotype -- but stereotype--but Cooper ''was'' the [[SeinfeldIsUnfunny first to use this in a novel]]. In many ways, his noble savages exemplify a way European-descended North Americans made sense of the values dissonance between their society and that of the Native Americans, who from their point of view simultaneously and most irritatingly embodied both extremely repulsive (cruelty, vengefulness etc.) and attractive (hospitality, courage etc.) qualities.

The main concern Natives have vis-a-vis Cooper is not so much the romantic portrayal of [[TheStoic Stoic]], [[OurElvesAreBetter slender and superior]] [[ProudWarriorRaceGuy warriors]], nor the prose; Native warriors were renowned as orators throughout the Indian wars and are still quoted today in Military History and Political Science classes.[[note]]due [[note]]Due to the consensus nature of tribal government, they were required to be great public speakers to attain positions of influence.[[/note]] But the enduring stereotype is that Indians, while [[NobleSavage noble]], are [[YourDaysAreNumbered doomed to be eclipsed]] by the technologically superior white man and [[EverythingFades fade away]]. Although it was a common belief in Cooper's day, even among Indian rights advocates, this has become a bit of an UndeadHorseTrope (pun intended) and native tribesmen (including the Mohicans themselves) are quick to note that [[NotQuiteDead reports of their death are greatly exaggerated]]. But that may overlook that in the 19th century for many observers the "fading away" primarily referred to the Native American nations' ability (or lack of it) to preserve their traditional societies and way of life. Also, one has to remember that Cooper wrote from a New York perspective and in that state the number of Native Americans really did dwindle dramatically during his lifetime. Here for instance the last existing community of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahican Mahicans ("Mohicans")]] at Stockbridge, NY, was relocated to Wisconsin in the 1820s and 1830s under the U. S. government's policy of Indian removal, where they merged with a Lenape community to form the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockbridge-Munsee_Community Stockbridge-Munsee community]].







29th Feb '16 8:10:30 AM HeraldAlberich
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[[quoteright:320:[[Literature/LastOfTheMohicans http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/mohicans-comic1_9651.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:320:The further [[{{Marvel}} comics]] of J.F. Cooper]]

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[[quoteright:320:[[Literature/LastOfTheMohicans http://static.%%Image chosen per Image Pickin' thread: http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/posts.php?discussion=1454856787055772700
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[[quoteright:309:http://static.
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[[caption-width-right:320:The further [[{{Marvel}} comics]] of J.F. Cooper]]
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4th Feb '16 7:38:42 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''Film/TheLastOfTheMohicans: A Narrative of 1757''\\

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* ''Film/TheLastOfTheMohicans: ''The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757''\\



** Subverted in the case of Alice and Cora being captured in TheLastOfTheMohicans. In that novel it is actually played straighter with Magua's back story: He was captured by the Mohawks, adopted into their tribe, but eventually returned to the Hurons where he found that his wife had married someone else in the meantime.

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** Subverted in the case of Alice and Cora being captured in TheLastOfTheMohicans.''The Last of the Mohicans''. In that novel it is actually played straighter with Magua's back story: He was captured by the Mohawks, adopted into their tribe, but eventually returned to the Hurons where he found that his wife had married someone else in the meantime.



* FateWorseThanDeath: Subverted in ''TheLastOfTheMohicans''. Although according to Anglo-American standards of the time a white woman living with a "Heathen Savage" is considered this, Cora seriously considers acquiescing to becoming Magua's wife if that is what it takes to rescue her father and sister's lives.

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* FateWorseThanDeath: Subverted in ''TheLastOfTheMohicans''.''The Last of the Mohicans''. Although according to Anglo-American standards of the time a white woman living with a "Heathen Savage" is considered this, Cora seriously considers acquiescing to becoming Magua's wife if that is what it takes to rescue her father and sister's lives.
26th Dec '15 6:21:44 PM nombretomado
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* AmericanDream: While in Paris, Cooper wrote ''Notions of the Americans. Picked up by a Travelling Bachelor'' at the request of the Marquis de Lafayette to defend the United States against British prejudices. Later he came to regard the work as too favorable and after his return to America wrote some non-fiction books and essays critical of various aspects of American society and political system. While in Europe, he had intensely studied European politics (he was particularly interested in the movement in UsefulNotes/{{Poland}}) and his visit of several years included the time of the revolutions of 1830-1832.
16th Sep '15 10:39:26 AM Thorion
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* VageAge: Uncas has got to be seventeen at the oldest or twelve at the youngest in "The Last of the Mohicans" since "The Deerslayer" is set between 1740-1745.

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* VageAge: VagueAge: Uncas has got to be seventeen at the oldest or twelve at the youngest in "The Last of the Mohicans" since "The Deerslayer" is set between 1740-1745.
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