History Analysis / RequiredSecondaryPowers

9th Apr '18 5:09:55 PM Zaptech
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Invulnerable characters need to be able to turn their ability "on" or "off" if needed for certain circumstances such as getting surgeries or injections. A good subversion is to set up the power so that just because one has bullet-proof skin, it doesn't mean that their internal organs aren't squishy. For example, at one point [[Series/LukeCage Luke Cage]], who has bullet-proof skin, gets shot point-blank in the head with a shotgun, but while he survives it, the impact causes swelling in his brain, and the only way to ease the swelling is to [[EyeScream insert a needle through his eye socket to drain the fluid]].
9th Apr '18 4:43:53 PM Zaptech
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'''SuperReflexes''' - Generally implies some level of SuperSenses and SuperSpeed. It's no use being able to react to a bullet if you can't even detect it coming, and even then you need to be able to move out of the way in time. All the more so when dealing with especially fast, explosive or close-range munitions. Not to mention that most bullets go faster than sound -- you'd better have it in your field of vision if you even want a chance to react.

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'''SuperReflexes''' - Generally implies some level of SuperSenses and SuperSpeed. It's no use being able to react to a bullet if you can't even detect it coming, and even then you need to be able to move out of the way in time. All the more so when dealing with especially fast, explosive or close-range munitions. Not to mention that most bullets go faster than sound -- you'd better have it in your field of vision if you even want a chance to react.react, or possess some other sense that warns you that the bullet is being fired.
15th Jan '18 10:02:30 AM Fireblood
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'''RubberMan''' - Flexing yourself into cartoonish shapes would be great fun, provided you were strong enough to support yourself enough to stand up (assuming that you're naturally - i.e involuntarily - rubbery; some rubber guys are able to go in and out of the state at will). There's also the issue of organs and blood. Aside from the obvious repercussions of flattening yourself against a wall, the human heart isn't designed to pump blood into an arm that just grew one hundred feet, unless if you can make your heart rubbery (and even then, it still means that your heart works harder). [[MySuitIsAlsoSuper This power would also have to extend to their clothes]], otherwise it'd be very uncomfortable (or publicly embarrassing), also, remember that to be able to reshape your body into any shape, not only requires you to be made of malleable material, but also have [[MasterOfYourDomain more or total control over your body]].

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'''RubberMan''' - Flexing yourself into cartoonish shapes would be great fun, provided you were strong enough to support yourself enough to stand up (assuming that you're naturally - i.e involuntarily - rubbery; some rubber guys are able to go in and out of the state at will). There's also the issue of organs and blood. Aside from the obvious repercussions of flattening yourself against a wall, the human heart isn't designed to pump blood into an arm that just grew one hundred feet, unless if you can make your heart rubbery (and even then, it still means that your heart works harder). [[MySuitIsAlsoSuper This power would also have to extend to their clothes]], otherwise it'd be very uncomfortable (or publicly embarrassing), also, remember that to be able to reshape your body into any shape, not only requires you to be made of malleable material, but also have [[MasterOfYourDomain more or less total control over your body]].
31st Dec '17 10:31:37 AM BreadBull
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[[folder:Size Changing]]
'''[[AttackOfThe50FootWhatever Size Changing]]''' - Being able to shift one's size, or even just being differently-sized by nature, has its benefits. However, in addition to the ShapeshifterBaggage question of 'Where is the extra mass coming from/going to', size shifting involves a lot of its own required secondary powers:

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[[folder:Size Changing]]
'''[[AttackOfThe50FootWhatever Size Changing]]'''
[[folder:Changing Size]]
'''[[{{Sizeshifter}} Sizeshifting]]'''
- Being able to shift one's size, or even just being differently-sized by nature, has its benefits. However, in addition to the ShapeshifterBaggage question of 'Where is the extra mass coming from/going to', size shifting involves a lot of its own required secondary powers:
24th Nov '17 2:50:28 PM FRizer
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'''Superpowers In General''' - Most portrayed uses of super-powers have NoConservationOfEnergy; whether strength, speed, energy blasts, etc., supers tend to use ''far'' more energy than a human metabolism can provide. To use any physical power at anything above a moderate level (think Series/{{Buffy|the Vampire Slayer}}, not [[Comicbook/IncredibleHulk Hulk]]), there needs to be not only access to some source of energy (AnotherDimension being the common HandWave), but also some means of channeling it through the body's fragile systems safely. Otherwise your characters will be limited to only-slightly-greater-abilities-than-the-best-humans superheroics.

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'''Superpowers In General''' - Most portrayed uses of super-powers have NoConservationOfEnergy; whether strength, speed, energy blasts, etc., supers tend to use ''far'' more energy than a human metabolism can provide. To use any physical power at anything above a moderate level (think Series/{{Buffy|the Vampire Slayer}}, not [[Comicbook/IncredibleHulk Hulk]]), there needs to be not only access to some source of energy (AnotherDimension being the common HandWave), HandWave, as is being a BigEater - provided that they really, really consume big, like drinking several times their weight in pure nectar every day), but also super-metabolism (when they're going to use a lot of energy in a short time), super-stamina (it's all no use if you get fatigued easily, quickly) and some means of channeling it through the body's fragile systems safely. Otherwise your characters will be limited to only-slightly-greater-abilities-than-the-best-humans superheroics.
superheroics.



Ice users may encounter the similar problem to water users: Ice won't just appear from nowhere without any water (or any freeze-able substance) around. Some users may be able to freeze the moisture in the air, but, like the winter's snow for example, the air has to be particularly humid. Some may be limited to just breathing cold air out of their mouth.



'''Physical Element Powers''' - that is, DishingOutDirt, MakingASplash, GreenThumb, ExtraOreDinary and many more, even (sometimes) including BlowYouAway. All of them, obviously, require the elements themselves to pre-exist, unless you're able to [[ElementalBaggage create them out of thin air]] or at least you carry them around.

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'''Physical Element Powers''' - that is, DishingOutDirt, MakingASplash, GreenThumb, ExtraOreDinary and many more, even (sometimes) including BlowYouAway. All of them, obviously, require the elements themselves to pre-exist, unless you're able to [[ElementalBaggage create them out of thin air]] or at least you carry them around. At least some water users may be able to take water from the moisture in the air, but unless the air was particularly humid (or, if they're lucky, there are mists around), they would only get small amounts of water from the air.



And they face a problem the other direction, of having too little friction. There's a limit to how much lateral force a foot pushing back against a flat surface can create, determined by the ''coefficient of static friction'' between the sole of the foot and the ground surface. For typical shoe soles on, say, asphalt or concrete, this coefficient is between 0.8 and 1.0, which means a runner can't produce a forward force greater than 0.8-1.0 times his own weight without his foot slipping. The drag force from plowing through air at super-speed can be colossal, and if the forward force is less than this drag the speedster will slow down. The speed at which an object's drag force equals its own weight is a well-known quantity encountered by skydivers all the time: it's called the ''terminal velocity''. The terminal velocity for a randomly-oriented human body is about 120 miles per hour; for a streamlined head-first human body it's closer to 150 miles per hour. If the speedster wants to run any faster than this, he either needs foot soles with coefficients of friction higher than 1.0, or a means of generating "downforce" to press him onto the pavement harder than his own weight.

Feet coming down at superspeed would presumably have super impact, and push them off the ground and at least a few feet in the air. Even once that's explained, someone going at superspeed over the slightest hill, or up stairs, or just random dips in the ground, would lose contact with the ground, they would keep going in the 'same direction' as before, into the air. [[note]]Some Super Speedsters, like Franchise/SonicTheHedgehog, like taking advantage of this trick to reach places they wouldn't be able to get to otherwise, but for some reason, it only works if the sloped ground in question is explicitly shaped like a ramp; otherwise, Sonic apparently has complete control of his inertia and velocity when running.[[/note]] The faster ones would be launched into orbit, especially while doing the 'run around the world' trick. They have to have something that holds them in contact with the ground better than gravity if they don't want to end up hurtling comically though the air every other step like a {{Wuxia}} character.

Speedsters also must possess a very powerful and efficient metabolism, which keeps them from needing to drink several times their weight in pure nectar every day (In recent years, this element has been often used to justify [[HealingFactor faster healing]]). Sometimes, this is partly averted - more than one character like this has been shown to be a BigEater to power their abilities - though not even spending 24/7 in front of an all-you-can-eat ice cream and candy buffet could provide enough calories to power more than a second or two of supersonic running speeds. Which means that every Speedster really is a [=PerpetuumMobile=]. Also, they have to have a very high stamina, as running from New York to Los Angeles all at once should be impossible no matter how fast they do it. They also have to have super friction powers (again with the friction), so that they can actually keep their footing when turning on surfaces that aren't specially constructed for high-speed travel. Cars turn easily at sixty miles per hour on (properly angled) asphalt, but they'd have a much harder time at 600 miles per hour on tile.

And if their speed is too high for a given viscosity, there's no time for collisions to be resolved quietly, so normally soft substances (like [[SoftWater water]] or plastics) are going to behave like hard ones: literal blades of grass, glass puddles, buckshot raindrops, shrapnel snow, fragile clothes, that sort of thing. Speedsters who pick up or put down anything while speeding also have to have some power that cushions the impact. Otherwise, attempting to grab a person when you're running at a hundred miles an hour wouldn't pick them up, it would snap them in half.

If these characters approach the speed of light, they would experience TimeDilation. Furthermore, speedsters never get [[EyeScream specks of dust caught in their eyes...]]

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And they face a problem the other direction, of having too little friction.friction on your footing. Cars turn easily at sixty miles per hour on (properly angled) asphalt, but they'd have a much harder time at 600 miles per hour on tile. There's a limit to how much lateral force a foot pushing back against a flat surface can create, determined by the ''coefficient of static friction'' between the sole of the foot and the ground surface. For typical shoe soles on, say, asphalt or concrete, this coefficient is between 0.8 and 1.0, which means a runner can't produce a forward force greater than 0.8-1.0 times his own weight without his foot slipping. The drag force from plowing through air at super-speed can be colossal, and if the forward force is less than this drag the speedster will slow down. The speed at which an object's drag force equals its own weight is a well-known quantity encountered by skydivers all the time: it's called the ''terminal velocity''. The terminal velocity for a randomly-oriented human body is about 120 miles per hour; for a streamlined head-first human body it's closer to 150 miles per hour. If the speedster wants to run any faster than this, he either needs foot soles with coefficients of friction higher than 1.0, or a means of generating "downforce" to press him onto the pavement harder than his own weight.

weight.

Feet coming down at superspeed would presumably have super impact, and push them off the ground and at least a few feet in the air. Even once that's explained, someone going at superspeed over the slightest hill, or up stairs, or just random dips in the ground, would lose contact with the ground, they would keep going in the 'same direction' as before, into the air.air - think of skateboard ramps. [[note]]Some Super Speedsters, like Franchise/SonicTheHedgehog, like taking advantage of this trick to reach places they wouldn't be able to get to otherwise, but for some reason, it only works if the sloped ground in question is explicitly shaped like a ramp; otherwise, Sonic apparently has complete control of his inertia and velocity when running.[[/note]] The faster ones would be launched into orbit, especially while doing the 'run around the world' trick. They have to have something that holds them in contact with the ground better than gravity if they don't want to end up hurtling comically though the air every other step like a {{Wuxia}} character.

Speedsters also must possess a very powerful and efficient metabolism, which keeps them from needing to drink several times their weight in pure nectar every day (In recent years, this element has been often used to justify [[HealingFactor faster healing]]). Sometimes, this is partly averted - more than one character like this has been shown to be a BigEater to power their abilities - though not even spending 24/7 in front of an all-you-can-eat ice cream and candy buffet could provide enough calories to power more than a second or two of supersonic running speeds. Which means that every Speedster really is a [=PerpetuumMobile=]. Also, they have to have a very high stamina, as running from New York to Los Angeles all at once should be impossible no matter how fast they do it. They also have to have super friction powers (again with the friction), so that they can actually keep their footing when turning on surfaces that aren't specially constructed for high-speed travel. Cars turn easily at sixty miles per hour on (properly angled) asphalt, but they'd have a much harder time at 600 miles per hour on tile.

it.

And if their speed is too high for a given viscosity, there's no time for collisions to be resolved quietly, so normally soft substances (like [[SoftWater water]] or plastics) are going to behave like hard ones: literal blades of grass, glass puddles, buckshot raindrops, shrapnel snow, fragile clothes, that sort of thing. Furthermore, speedsters seem to never get [[EyeScream specks of dust caught in their eyes]]... Being NighInvulnerable, like the case of air friction above, will protect them from these, but again, not all speedsters have it. Speedsters who pick up or put down anything while speeding also have to have some power that cushions the impact. Otherwise, attempting to grab a person when you're running at a hundred miles an hour wouldn't pick them up, it would snap them in half.

If these characters approach the speed of light, they would experience TimeDilation. Furthermore, speedsters never get [[EyeScream specks of dust caught in their eyes...]]\n



Also traveling at very high speed would generate shock waves that even if they won't affect the speedster would affect everyone around.

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Also traveling at very high speed would generate shock waves (i.e either sonic booms, or violent displacement of air) that even if they won't affect the speedster would affect everyone around.



'''SuperStrength''' - Many characters with super-strength also have super anchoring abilities. This keeps them from being shoved into the ground when they lift up something remarkably heavy, like buildings or land masses. An ability to fly such as Superman's - the ability to support and move your own body in empty space as you wish - could do the trick, as you wouldn't need the ground to support you. A common [[SubvertedTrope subversion]] is a hero that lacks this anchoring ability, thereby heavily restricting what they can lift without sending themselves up to their waist in the ground.

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'''SuperStrength''' - Many characters with super-strength also have super anchoring abilities. This keeps them from being shoved into the ground (think of a stake being pushed into the ground if you pound it with a hammer, or if you put a sufficiently heavy weight on it) when they lift up something remarkably heavy, like buildings or land masses. An ability to fly such as Superman's - the ability to support and move your own body in empty space as you wish - could do the trick, as you wouldn't need the ground to support you. A common [[SubvertedTrope subversion]] is a hero that lacks this anchoring ability, thereby heavily restricting what they can lift without sending themselves up to their waist in the ground.
ground.



To use super strength effectively also requires the ability to strengthen objects by touching them (unless the object is made of some advanced material, of course). Otherwise, holding up (for example) an airplane with one hand would simply result in a hand-shaped hole in the still-plummeting airplane.

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To use super strength effectively also requires the ability to strengthen objects by touching them (unless the object is made of some advanced material, of course). Otherwise, holding up (for example) an airplane with one hand would simply result in a hand-shaped hole in the still-plummeting airplane. The so-called "tactile telekinesis" power is often the explanation for this - you touch something on your hand and your mind power (not your muscle) does the heavy lifting job, while also making the heavy burden ignore effects of gravity for as long as it's active.



Over-application of this power should logically lead the user to be significantly older than they should be. This may or may not be addressed, although it really should if several in-story years go by with the character continuing to use it.

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Over-application of this power should logically lead the user to be significantly older than they should be.be (other people stop aging whenever time stops). This may or may not be addressed, although it really should if several in-story years go by with the character continuing to use it.



'''[[TeleportersAndTransporters Teleportation]]''' - Teleportation-users would need to have some way of extending their teleportation to their clothes and items if they do not wish to reach their destination naked. Clothes are one thing but dental fillings, bone pins, pacemakers, etc would be unpleasant to suddenly be without. Ignoring the ludicrousness of trying to extend quantum-scale barrier tunneling to the classical scale (assuming that's how matter teleportation works in your particular [[TheVerse 'Verse]], or that the RealLife rules of quantum physics even apply at all), such motion usually needs large amounts of energy as well. Long-distance teleporters would also need to compensate for the curvature of the Earth and relative motion of different points on the Earth's surface; someone teleporting from Europe to China would otherwise arrive traveling very, very fast while upside-down. Furthermore they need to be really accurate to avoid falling hundreds of feet on arrival or [[TeleFrag appearing inside the Earth itself, or something else]] - and even if they manage to appear in relatively empty space, they need to somehow ensure (1) that the air at the destination does not end up inside their body, causing decompression sickness and a potentially fatal air embolism, and (2) that some matter replaces them at the departure location, to avoid an implosion which would damage things in the area. Best variants so far boil down to cutting an area out of reality and pasting it in at the destination in a speed-synchronized way (of course, the destination area must be instantaneously exchanged with the source). Or a [[OurWormholesAreDifferent Wormhole]], which is basically a spatial shortcut-- the real-world physics term for such a hypothetical form of transport is "topological displacement".

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'''[[TeleportersAndTransporters Teleportation]]''' - Teleportation-users would need to have some way of extending their teleportation to their clothes and items if they do not wish to reach their destination naked. Clothes are one thing but dental fillings, bone pins, pacemakers, etc would be unpleasant to suddenly be without. Ignoring the ludicrousness of trying to extend quantum-scale barrier tunneling to the classical scale (assuming that's how matter teleportation works in your particular [[TheVerse 'Verse]], or that the RealLife rules of quantum physics even apply at all), such motion usually needs large amounts of energy as well. Long-distance teleporters would also need to compensate for the curvature of the Earth and relative motion of different points on the Earth's surface; someone teleporting from Europe to China would otherwise arrive traveling very, very fast while upside-down. Furthermore they need to be really accurate to avoid falling hundreds of feet on arrival or [[TeleFrag appearing inside the Earth itself, or something else]] - and even if they manage to appear in relatively empty space, they need to somehow ensure (1) that the air at the destination does not end up inside their body, causing decompression sickness and a potentially fatal air embolism, and embolism (2) that some matter replaces them at the departure location, to avoid an implosion which would damage things in the area.area, and (3) that the destination becomes momentarily vacuum so that the air won't go boom by the sudden appearance. Best variants so far boil down to cutting an area out of reality and pasting it in at the destination in a speed-synchronized way (of course, the destination area must be instantaneously exchanged with the source). Or a [[OurWormholesAreDifferent Wormhole]], which is basically a spatial shortcut-- the real-world physics term for such a hypothetical form of transport is "topological displacement".



* The iconic "BAMF" effect of Nightcrawler's teleports in ''Comicbook/XMen'' is a subversion of this - it's the sound effect of the air being violently displaced whenever he reappears.



Note that these are only problems if the traveler jumps immediately from the departure time to the arrival time without existing in the time in between. If instead, the traveler could change the way time affects him, (such as speeding up time to go to the future or reversing time to go the past), any forces that would affect the rotation of the planet would affect him as well. However, this also has many of the same problems as [[TimeStandsStill Time Freezing]].
There is also the issue of traveling too long. If you're gone for six years, you can't come home on the day you left and expect that nobody notices that you're six years older.

Time travelers would need to be immune to the effects of diseases from different time periods. An modern man or woman's immune system would not likely be suited to fighting plagues from 2000 years into the past or future. Similarly, a time traveler risks becoming a {{Walking Wasteland}} by bringing germs from his or her own time period to others.

If traveling to the past, a person should also be concerned with eating meals that haven't gone through a modern sanitation process.

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Note that these are only problems if the traveler jumps immediately from the departure time to the arrival time without existing in the time in between. If instead, the traveler could change the way time affects him, (such as speeding up time to go to the future or reversing time to go the past), any forces that would affect the rotation of the planet would affect him as well. However, this also has many of the same problems as [[TimeStandsStill Time Freezing]].
Freezing]]. There is also the issue of traveling too long. If you're gone for six years, you can't come home on the day you left and expect that nobody notices that you're six years older.

Time travelers would need to be immune to the effects of diseases from different time periods. An modern man or woman's immune system would not likely be suited to fighting plagues from 2000 years into the past or future. Similarly, a time traveler risks becoming a {{Walking Wasteland}} by bringing germs from his or her own time period to others.

If
others. Related: if traveling to the past, a person should also be concerned with eating meals that haven't gone through a modern sanitation process.
24th Nov '17 7:03:31 AM FRizer
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'''RubberMan''' - Flexing yourself into cartoonish shapes would be great fun, provided you were strong enough to support yourself enough to stand up. There's also the issue of organs and blood. Aside from the obvious repercussions of flattening yourself against a wall, the human heart isn't designed to pump blood into an arm that just grew one hundred feet. [[MySuitIsAlsoSuper This power would also have to extend to their clothes]], otherwise it'd be very uncomfortable (or publicly embarrassing), also, remember that to be able to reshape your body into any shape, not only requires you to be made of malleable material, but also have more or total control over your body.

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'''RubberMan''' - Flexing yourself into cartoonish shapes would be great fun, provided you were strong enough to support yourself enough to stand up.up (assuming that you're naturally - i.e involuntarily - rubbery; some rubber guys are able to go in and out of the state at will). There's also the issue of organs and blood. Aside from the obvious repercussions of flattening yourself against a wall, the human heart isn't designed to pump blood into an arm that just grew one hundred feet. feet, unless if you can make your heart rubbery (and even then, it still means that your heart works harder). [[MySuitIsAlsoSuper This power would also have to extend to their clothes]], otherwise it'd be very uncomfortable (or publicly embarrassing), also, remember that to be able to reshape your body into any shape, not only requires you to be made of malleable material, but also have [[MasterOfYourDomain more or total control over your body.body]].



Most shape shifters would need an [[PhotographicMemory eidetic memory]] to convincingly imitate every detail of a person they've seen once. Or an encyclopedic knowledge to remember the details of a multitude of objects. This is more commonly averted, as they are just as frequently exposed as fakes because of such a flaw in the disguise, or they are copying someone they are fairly familiar with, or they are even not copying anyone and just using their imagination.

There's also the issues of surviving while transforming and in the transformed state (altering one's body structure even a little is usually fatal in the real world, let alone having your flesh turned into another substance or turning into something with no internal organs) and keeping the ability to shape shift rather than transforming into something cursed with permanent ShapeshifterModeLock... This one could fill a page on its own.

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Most shape shifters Those who can shift into other existing humans would need an [[PhotographicMemory eidetic memory]] to convincingly imitate every detail of a person they've seen once. Or For objects, change that to an encyclopedic knowledge to remember the details of a multitude of objects. This is more commonly averted, as they are just as frequently exposed as fakes because of such a flaw in the disguise, or they are copying someone they are fairly familiar with, or they are even not copying anyone and just using their imagination.

There's also the issues of surviving while transforming and in the transformed state (altering one's body structure even a little is usually fatal in the real world, let alone having your flesh turned into another substance or or, in most cases, turning into something with no internal organs) and keeping the ability to shape shift rather than transforming into something cursed with permanent ShapeshifterModeLock... This one could fill a page on its own.



Also, some shape shifters have the power to vanish their clothes into the ether, and retrieve same when they become human again. (Most common when the work is aimed at [[ThinkOfTheChildren younger audiences]].)

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Also, some shape shifters have the power to vanish their clothes into the ether, and retrieve same when they become human again. (Most common when the work is aimed at [[ThinkOfTheChildren younger audiences]].)) See also TechnicallyNakedShapeshifter; contrast ShapeshiftingExcludesClothing.



There is also the matter of the energy that is distributed over the field. Something that pushes against a force field is exerting pressure, whose energy has to go somewhere. While physical barriers absorb such pressure by spreading its energy across their structure, or by [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(device)#Hooke.27s_law transforming it into potential energy via elastic buffers]], a projected, free-standing force field has no anchoring, and often no elasticity, so it ''must'' be dealing with distributing the force inflicted upon it in ''some'' way. Otherwise, if this energy were simply "[[NoConservationOfEnergy done away with]]," there would be no reason for artificial or magical fields to buckle under assault at all. This often leads to a character suffering a PsychicNosebleed as a way of showing his or her effort against such force, implying that the force field is braced against their ''brain''. Ouch.

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There is also the matter of the energy that is distributed over the field. Something that pushes against a force field is exerting pressure, whose energy has to go somewhere. While physical barriers absorb such pressure by spreading its energy across their structure, or by [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(device)#Hooke.27s_law transforming it into potential energy via elastic buffers]], a projected, free-standing force field has no anchoring, and often no elasticity, so it ''must'' be dealing with distributing the force inflicted upon it in ''some'' way.way, otherwise the field will just get pushed like anything that's thrown in the air - and potentially pushed towards you. Otherwise, if this energy were simply "[[NoConservationOfEnergy done away with]]," there would be no reason for artificial or magical fields to buckle under assault at all. This often leads to a character suffering a PsychicNosebleed as a way of showing his or her effort against such force, implying that the force field is braced against their ''brain''. Ouch.



More importantly, they'd burn up a lot of energy accelerating the healing process that fast, and so would need super-stamina and more efficient internal energy use than normal (or an [[NoConservationOfEnergy alternate energy source]]) or their own power could kill them by draining their body's resources too fast. And to regenerate takes mass, so either they have limits to what they can regrow at one time, or access to some other source of mass, like AnotherDimension-- see ShapeshifterBaggage.

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More importantly, they'd burn up a lot of energy accelerating the healing process that fast, and so would need super-stamina and more efficient internal energy use than normal (or an [[NoConservationOfEnergy alternate energy source]]) or their own power could kill them by draining their body's resources too fast. And to regenerate takes mass, so either they have limits to what they can regrow at one time, or access to some other source of mass, like AnotherDimension-- AnotherDimension -- again, see ShapeshifterBaggage.
ShapeshifterBaggage. Also, there's something called the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayflick_limit Hayflick limit]] which limits how many times a cell be able to divide themselves, so with that in mind, regenerators can only regenerate so much, after which [[PowerDegeneration they won't be able to do it anymore]] - oh, and did we mention that going out of this limit means that your organs can no longer replace their dying cells, thus you basically [[CastFromLifespan threw your cells' (and thus your organs', and thus yours) lifespan away?]] So regenerators must have some way to ignore this limit.




In extreme cases, you may be able to regenerate FromASingleCell. For that, your body ''has'' to know - somehow - how it can remember your old shape as you regenerate back. You're lucky if you end up as a younger version of yourself or even as a baby, but that would be detrimental if you were in the middle of a fight (or disaster) and nobody's helping you. Also, your cells have to be able to work like stem cells, i.e differentiating itself to multiple different kind of cells. Otherwise, you might end up as just a pile of blood or brain matter or... you get the idea. (And again, there's also the problem of foreign microorganisms above.)



Furthermore, an IntangibleMan is still anchored relative to the Earth. Remembering that Earth whizzes around the Sun at a frankly irresponsible speed, anyone who can walk-through-anything should find themselves suspended in space a few seconds after their powers manifest, [[NightmareFuel watching the Earth slowly but surely arcing away from them...]]

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Furthermore, an IntangibleMan (if they're grounded) is still anchored relative to the Earth. Remembering that Earth whizzes around the Sun at a frankly irresponsible speed, anyone who can walk-through-anything should find themselves suspended in space a few seconds after their powers manifest, [[NightmareFuel watching the Earth slowly but surely arcing away from them...]]




Many of the problems above can be answered by having the intangibility be a kind of being MadeOfAir (see NighInvulnerability below), i.e people can't touch air, but things that are airtight will trap air (and thus you) in. This may or may not be an offshoot of Shapeshifting into intangible molecules/other things that somehow can still keep their shape as your body.



'''NighInvulnerable''' - Other than folks who fall under the MadeOfAir version of this trope, these characters also frequently exhibit the ability to anchor themselves. Even if they don't take damage from a heavy blow, it should still send them flying if they can't diffuse that much force. This one is more frequently subverted, with characters who resist damage but get knocked around quite easily, which makes for good NoOneCouldSurviveThat moments. If they have superstrength, [[JustifiedTrope they could conceivably be bracing themselves for the blow]], but those invulnerable characters ''without'' super-strength have no such excuse; this only works up to a point, however, as no amount of strength can defy the laws of motion. Strike someone with enough force, and they ''will'' move. ({{Superman}} and [[FlyingBrick others of his ilk]] get a pass again because they can hold themselves in place with their flying powers.) Also, see the page opener quote for more downsides. Again, may be excused if the invulnerability in question is essentially due to InertialDampening.

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'''NighInvulnerable''' - Other than folks who fall under the MadeOfAir version of this trope, these characters (or even just those with SuperToughness) also frequently exhibit the ability to anchor themselves. Even if they don't take damage from a heavy blow, it should still send them flying if they can't diffuse that much force. This one is more frequently subverted, with characters who resist damage but get knocked around quite easily, which makes for good NoOneCouldSurviveThat moments. If they have superstrength, super strength, [[JustifiedTrope they could conceivably be bracing themselves for the blow]], but those invulnerable characters ''without'' super-strength have no such excuse; this only works up to a point, however, as no amount of strength can defy the laws of motion. Strike someone with enough force, and they ''will'' move. ({{Superman}} and [[FlyingBrick others of his ilk]] get a pass again because they can hold themselves in place with their flying powers.) Also, see the page opener quote for more downsides. Again, may be excused if the invulnerability in question is essentially due to InertialDampening. One famous example is the Blob of ''Comicbook/XMen'' who explicitly has super-anchoring, in addition to his super impact-absorbing. He then encounters another problem: against TheJuggernaut, he gets knocked away ''along with part of the ground he anchored onto''.



'''[[AnIcePerson Cryokinesis]] / [[PlayingWithFire Pyrokinesis]]''' - Manipulators of heat energy are [[NoConservationOfEnergy kicking the laws of thermodynamics in the nads.]] Either they are explicitly creating/destroying energy (that's the Law of Conservation) or - in the case of those channelling the energy around - they're violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics by 'decreasing entropy.' This sort of violation might not be a full-fledged secondary power, but it's worth thinking about for [[MohsScaleOfSciFiHardness Harder]] or [[{{Deconstruction}} Deconstructive]] works. Secondly, being immune to their own powers is quite important to prevent self-inflicted frostbite or burns. If the power is described as the ability to create and destroy heat energy, instead of explicitly heat or cold, it implies the character should be able to pull double-duty as both a cryokinetic and pyrokinetic.

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'''[[AnIcePerson Cryokinesis]] / [[PlayingWithFire Pyrokinesis]]''' - Manipulators of heat energy are [[NoConservationOfEnergy kicking the laws of thermodynamics in the nads.]] Either they are explicitly creating/destroying energy (that's the Law of Conservation) or - in the case of those channelling the energy around - they're violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics by 'decreasing entropy.' This sort of violation might not be a full-fledged secondary power, but it's worth thinking about for [[MohsScaleOfSciFiHardness Harder]] or [[{{Deconstruction}} Deconstructive]] works. Secondly, being immune to their own powers is quite important to prevent self-inflicted frostbite or burns. If the power is described as the ability to create and destroy heat energy, energy (or even simply the transferring of heat energy), instead of explicitly heat or cold, it implies the character should be able to pull double-duty as both a cryokinetic and pyrokinetic.
pyrokinetic.

For fire users, a few of them are often described as manipulating (if not producing/expelling) volatile gases that get ignited upon contact with oxygen. If you can somehow produce volatile gases from your body then your body obviously must've been either modified to be able to do so, or is inhuman to begin with. If you can both expel and manipulate then good for you; some characters can only manipulate existing fire but not producing it (they may have to carry lighters or similar things around), some others can only produce fire without controlling it (and if you aren't immune to fire yourself, then too bad).



* Electricity has a tendency to take not only the path of least resistance, but to a lesser degree all other possible paths as well. Hitting your target without inundating everything around it with current would require a great deal of setup, meticulous planning, prior knowledge of electrodynamics, and the resulting hours of linear algebra to ensure that all other available paths are sufficiently resistive enough not to cause collateral damage. Here's hoping you're ''really'' GoodWithNumbers.
** Of course, just calculating the forces involved in not falling over every time we take a step would need us to be almost as GoodWithNumbers. Realistically, just like Robin Hood doesn't stop to do a couple of pages of calculus every time he looses an arrow, and very few toddlers calculate the forces and energies involved in walking, someone with a lightning gun would learn to aim it by experience.
** Alternatively, ability to ''create'' the path of least resistance and to block all others my be a useful secondary ability.
* It takes a stupefying amount of energy to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_breakdown break down]] air and channel a lightning bolt. Before anything happens, find out how many meters are between you and what you want to hit. Multiply that by 3,000,000. That's how much of a voltage difference you need to generate without leaking electrical pressure into your surroundings. Again, sustaining the bolt means sustaining that voltage difference in spite of massive amounts of charge leaving your end. Good luck.
** Of course, electricity is just the flow of electrons. A character who could psionically control electrons wouldn't have to worry about that; they could just keep a large amount of extra electrons in their body and shoot them at targets like small bullets. Many electrically-powered characters that are shown having to "charge" from sources of electricity probably work this way.
*** But then again, electrons don't really like being all by themselves, even more so if you've got a bunch of them together in a theoretical container. So a character keeping a bunch of "extra electrons" in their body would be constantly trying to keep them all neatly packed together. That's not even mentioning the effects all these negatively charged particles would have on quite a few very important physiological processes.

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* Electricity has a tendency to take not only the path of least resistance, but to a lesser degree all other possible paths as well. Lightning rods, in particular, attracts lightning because the more pointy something is, the more proton juts out at its tip, meaning that electrons that caused the lightning will be highly attracted to the rod; that is to say, to hit your target with lightning, it must be the most likely one (by being the closest to you, or having some significantly sized pointy part) for the moving electron to hit. Hitting your target without inundating everything around it with current would require a great deal of setup, meticulous planning, prior knowledge of electrodynamics, and the resulting hours of linear algebra to ensure that all other available paths are sufficiently resistive enough not to cause collateral damage. Here's hoping you're ''really'' GoodWithNumbers.
** Of course, just calculating the forces involved in not falling over every time we take a step would need us to be almost as
GoodWithNumbers. Realistically, just like Robin Hood doesn't stop to do Or, in a couple of pages of calculus every time he looses an arrow, and very few toddlers calculate cases, you have a weapon that creates "lightning rods" on people. Otherwise, all that electrical charge will be released to (potentially) all directions... unless the forces and energies involved in walking, someone with a lightning gun would learn character (who may otherwise be able to aim it by experience.
control their lightning) intentionally goes for it.
** Alternatively, ability to ''create'' the path of least resistance and to block all others my be a useful secondary ability.
ability. Remember, electricity is just the flow of electrons. A character who could psionically control electrons may be able to manipulate electrons in the air to move towards their designated target, and nothing else.
* It takes a stupefying amount of energy to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_breakdown break down]] air and channel a lightning bolt. Before anything happens, find out how many meters are between you and what you want to hit. Multiply that by 3,000,000. That's how much of a voltage difference you need to generate without leaking electrical pressure into your surroundings. Again, sustaining the bolt means sustaining that voltage difference in spite of massive amounts of charge leaving your end. Good luck.
** Of course, electricity is just
end (i.e the flow voltage at your end steadily drains). This means that you have to have large amounts of electrons. A character who could psionically control energy to generate such massive voltage; see the problem with NoConservationOfEnergy above. Like before, manipulating the electrons wouldn't have to worry about that; they could just keep a large amount of extra electrons in their body and shoot them at targets like small bullets. Many electrically-powered characters that are shown having to "charge" from sources of electricity probably work this way.
*** But then again, electrons
themselves means you don't really like being all by themselves, even more so if you've got a bunch of them together in a theoretical container. So a character keeping a bunch of "extra electrons" in their body would be constantly trying to keep them all neatly packed together. That's not even mentioning the effects all these negatively charged particles would have on quite a few very important physiological processes.need too much energy.



* Lightning - particularly a sustained arc - generates an amount of radiant heat and blinding light that is difficult to grasp, let alone defend against. It's a good idea to be fireproof and immune to blinding; better still, to be able to extend those protections to any bystanders so they won't be baked alive or permanently blinded by your display of awesomeness.
* The massive thunderclap in the end is strong enough to generate a powerful 120-decibel (about the same volume as a jackhammer or a rock concert) shockwave capable of shattering glass and producing hearing damage. It's a good idea to make sure your lightning powers avoid anything like this, or invest in some [[SteelEarDrums ear protection]] for yourself at least.
* And once you get past all that, where is the energy coming from? A sustained bolt takes one Hell of a lot of it.
* It is possible, depending on the context, that the lightning-user channels it remotely -- not through themselves. Many of these problems can be resolved if the electrical circuit is confined entirely to the target's body. But then you lose the [[RuleOfCool cool lightning bolt]], and all you get is a bad guy [[NightmareFuel spasming violently like a deranged marionette until his insides boil out through his skin]].[[note]][[Anime/DarkerThanBlack Not that this can't be awesome, mind.]][[/note]] Although, if Mr. Lightning controls electrons themselves, he should also have the power of disintegration, as electrons have the wondrous duty of bonding atoms together.

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* Lightning - particularly a sustained arc - generates an amount of radiant heat and blinding light that is difficult to grasp, let alone defend against. It's a good idea to be fireproof and immune to blinding; better still, to be able to extend those protections to any bystanders so they won't be baked alive or permanently blinded by your display of awesomeness.
* The
awesomeness. Also, the massive thunderclap in the end is strong enough to generate a powerful 120-decibel (about the same volume as a jackhammer or a rock concert) shockwave capable of shattering glass and producing hearing damage. It's a good idea to make sure your lightning powers avoid anything like this, or invest in some [[SteelEarDrums ear protection]] for yourself at least.
* And once
least. For comparison, the arc of electricity you get past all that, where is see at the energy coming from? A sustained bolt takes one Hell end of a lot of it.
taser isn't as shiny or loud as a real lightning, but it's also not as strong.
* It is possible, depending on the context, that the lightning-user channels it remotely -- not through themselves.themselves (i.e making it more of a general manipulation of electricity). Many of these problems can be resolved if the electrical circuit is confined entirely to the target's body. But then you lose the [[RuleOfCool cool lightning bolt]], and all you get is a bad guy [[NightmareFuel spasming violently like a deranged marionette until his insides boil out through his skin]].[[note]][[Anime/DarkerThanBlack Not that this can't be awesome, mind.]][[/note]] Although, if Mr. Lightning controls electrons themselves, he should also have the power of disintegration, as electrons have the wondrous duty of bonding atoms together.]][[/note]]


Added DiffLines:

[[folder:"Physical" Elements]]
'''Physical Element Powers''' - that is, DishingOutDirt, MakingASplash, GreenThumb, ExtraOreDinary and many more, even (sometimes) including BlowYouAway. All of them, obviously, require the elements themselves to pre-exist, unless you're able to [[ElementalBaggage create them out of thin air]] or at least you carry them around.
[[/folder]]
14th Sep '17 7:45:02 PM SinDustries
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* The makers of ''Jumper'' actually subverted this by doing something similar to a wormhole (the "jumpscar"), which also causes a spherical explosion upon arrival [[spoiler:the lead is jumping into a hospital, and the entire room is flattened, a circular pit with the lead in the center.]] Presumably there is also an implosion upon leaving, as seen in the [[spoiler:bank robbery scene, and the money in the room starts flying after he goes back for seconds.]] there's also the scene in the end where he jumps with an [[spoiler:entire apartment, causing a veritable tornado upon departure]] (should have probably flattened the entire block, considering an implosion of that size would be enough to heat the air to several thousand degrees and explode, violently, tactical nuke style. For comparison, just look at the effect a pistol shrimp has when it [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKPrGxB1Kzc snaps its claw at ~60MPH underwater]]. To quote the Website/{{Cracked}} staff: "That's like getting punched by Mike Tyson in his prime if his outstretched arm was attached to a meteor as it entered the atmosphere.")

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* The makers of ''Jumper'' actually subverted this by doing something similar to a wormhole (the "jumpscar"), which also causes a spherical explosion upon arrival [[spoiler:the arrival. [[spoiler:The lead is jumping into a hospital, and the entire room is flattened, flattened into a circular pit with the lead in the center.]] Presumably there is also an implosion upon leaving, as seen in the [[spoiler:bank robbery scene, and the money in the room starts flying after he goes back for seconds.]] there's There's also the scene in the end where he jumps with an [[spoiler:entire apartment, causing a veritable tornado upon departure]] (should departure]], which should have probably flattened the entire block, considering an implosion of that size would be enough to heat the air to several thousand degrees and explode, explode violently, tactical nuke style.nuke-style. For comparison, just look at the effect a pistol shrimp has when it [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKPrGxB1Kzc snaps its claw at ~60MPH underwater]]. To quote the Website/{{Cracked}} staff: "That's like getting punched by Mike Tyson in his prime if his outstretched arm was attached to a meteor as it entered the atmosphere.")
4th Sep '17 12:38:34 PM SinDustries
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** Alternatively, ability to ''create'' the path of least resistants and to block all others my be a useful secondary ability.

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** Alternatively, ability to ''create'' the path of least resistants resistance and to block all others my be a useful secondary ability.
4th Sep '17 11:43:43 AM SinDustries
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Also, they'd need a way to fight infection and other foreign substances. Having your guts spilled all over the floor would open the door to all sorts of germs and viruses, not to mention dust and such. There's a reason hospitals strive for perfect sterility. Conversely, they get infected like anyone else, but recover instantly due to the healing factor producing antibodies at an accelerated rate. That in turn would need another secondary power to prevent [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine_storm cytokine storms]] destroying the body. {{Wolverine}}'s healing factor was used to develop antibodies to a deadly virus on at least one occasion. Most likely they would also have some kind of super-genome or [[IdealIllnessImmunity very good immune system]], considering that so much rapid healing and DNA replication would increase the possibility for cancer-causing genetic defects massively. This would explain ComicBook/{{Deadpool}}'s Massive scarring, since his skin is both spreading the cancer and healing the damage caused by the cancer. And, cancer aside, certain kinds of attacks could reasonably be assumed to cause genetic damage to the tissues which the regenerating tissue is growing from.

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Also, they'd need a way to fight infection and other foreign substances. Having your guts spilled all over the floor would open the door to all sorts of germs and viruses, not to mention dust and such. There's a reason hospitals strive for perfect sterility. Conversely, they get infected like anyone else, but recover instantly due to the healing factor producing antibodies at an accelerated rate. That in turn would need another secondary power to prevent [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine_storm cytokine storms]] destroying the body. {{Wolverine}}'s healing factor was used to develop antibodies to a deadly virus on at least one occasion. Most likely they would also have some kind of super-genome or [[IdealIllnessImmunity very good immune system]], considering that so much rapid healing and DNA replication would increase the possibility for cancer-causing genetic defects massively. This would explain ComicBook/{{Deadpool}}'s Massive ''massive'' scarring, since his skin is both spreading the cancer and healing the damage caused by the cancer. And, cancer aside, certain kinds of attacks could reasonably be assumed to cause genetic damage to the tissues which the regenerating tissue is growing from.
23rd Mar '17 1:45:40 PM Quanyails
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* The makers of Jumper actually subverted this by doing something similar to a wormhole (the "jumpscar"), which also causes a spherical explosion upon arrival [[spoiler:the lead is jumping into a hospital, and the entire room is flattened, a circular pit with the lead in the center.]] Presumably there is also an implosion upon leaving, as seen in the [[spoiler:bank robbery scene, and the money in the room starts flying after he goes back for seconds.]] there's also the scene in the end where he jumps with an [[spoiler:entire apartment, causing a veritable tornado upon departure]] (should have probably flattened the entire block, considering an implosion of that size would be enough to heat the air to several thousand degrees and explode, violently, tactical nuke style. For comparison, just look at the effect a pistol shrimp has when it [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKPrGxB1Kzc snaps its claw at ~60MPH underwater]]. To quote the Website/{{Cracked}} staff: "That's like getting punched by Mike Tyson in his prime if his outstretched arm was attached to a meteor as it entered the atmosphere.")

to:

* The makers of Jumper ''Jumper'' actually subverted this by doing something similar to a wormhole (the "jumpscar"), which also causes a spherical explosion upon arrival [[spoiler:the lead is jumping into a hospital, and the entire room is flattened, a circular pit with the lead in the center.]] Presumably there is also an implosion upon leaving, as seen in the [[spoiler:bank robbery scene, and the money in the room starts flying after he goes back for seconds.]] there's also the scene in the end where he jumps with an [[spoiler:entire apartment, causing a veritable tornado upon departure]] (should have probably flattened the entire block, considering an implosion of that size would be enough to heat the air to several thousand degrees and explode, violently, tactical nuke style. For comparison, just look at the effect a pistol shrimp has when it [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKPrGxB1Kzc snaps its claw at ~60MPH underwater]]. To quote the Website/{{Cracked}} staff: "That's like getting punched by Mike Tyson in his prime if his outstretched arm was attached to a meteor as it entered the atmosphere.")
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